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研究发现高学历的人更长寿? | 外刊阅读
文章来源:高斋翻硕 发布时间:2019-07-16 16:34 作者:高斋翻硕 点击:

Does Your Education Level Affect Your Health?

Some clever studies have teased out causal effects by taking advantage of natural experiments.

tease out

1. 巧妙获得(信息或答案),英文解释为to try to get information or understand a meaning that is hidden or not clear,例如,It took me a while to tease the truth out of him. 我好不容易才从他嘴里套出真相。

2. 套取,挑出,例如,It will be hard to tease out the really important facts from this mass of detail. 从这一大堆细节选出真正重要的事实很难。

A college degree is linked to higher life expectancy, but does it cause it?

be linked to

1. 与……连接,例如,The hearts of the people of all the nationalities are linked to each other. 我国各族人民心连心。

2. 与……有联系,例如,Liver cancer is linked to the hepatitis B virus. 肝癌与乙肝病毒存在关联。

life expectancy

预期寿命,例如,In developed countries today life expectancy at birth is about 80 years. 在发达国家,刚出生的人预期寿命约为80岁。

Education is associated with better health outcomes, but trying to figure out whether it actually causes better health is tricky.

be associated with

1. 与……有关,例如,

2. Dogs were also associated with healing in the ancient world. 在古代,狗也与治病有关。

3. 参与,例如,I haven't been associated with the project over the last year. 我去年一直没有参与那个项目。

figure out

1. 想出,英文解释为find the solution to (a problem or question),例如,You must figure out some way of getting some bread. 你必须想出某些赚钱的办法。

2. 理解,英文解释为understand the meaning of,例如,I can't figure out what's on her mind. 我猜不透她的心事。

Cause

1. 造成;引起;导致,英文解释为to make sth happen, especially sth bad or unpleasant,例如,This is liable to cause misunderstanding. 这容易引起误会。

2. 使发生,例如,Are you causing trouble again? 你又在惹麻烦吗?

Tricky

1. 难办的;难对付的;英文解释为difficult to do or deal with,例如,It's a very tricky problem. 那是个非常棘手的问题。

2. 狡猾的;诡计多端的,英文解释为clever but likely to trick you,例如,She's rather a tricky customer to do business with. 她是个很难打交道的滑头家伙。

People with at least some college education have mortality rates (deaths per 1,000 individuals per year) less than half of those without any college education, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

mortality rates

死亡率(人类死亡率通常以每年每一千人为单位来表示)例如,The United States ranks 20th in its infant mortality rate. 美国的婴儿死亡率全球排名第20。

与“死亡率”对应的还有一个名词叫做“出生率”birth rate,指的是某地区每年每1 000人中的出生数目。

tease out

据(…所说);按(…所报道);依照;按照;根据,例如,Not everything can be done according to the old ways. 不能什么事都按老规矩办。

the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention美国疾病预防与控制中心

In addition, people who are more educated exhibit less anxiety and depression, have fewer functional limitations, and are less likely to have a serious health condition like diabetes, cardiovascular disease or asthma.

be likely to

可能,例如,It's not likely to rain today. 今天不会下雨。He's not likely to come tonight. 他今晚不见得会来。

diabetes美 [ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz] 糖尿病,例如,People with high blood pressure are especially vulnerable to diabetes. 有高血压的人尤其易患糖尿病。

cardiovascular disease 美 [ˌkɑːrdioʊˈvæskjələr dɪˈziːz]  心血管疾病

asthma  美 [ˈæzmə]  气喘;哮喘,例如,She suffers from bronchial asthma. 她患有支气管哮喘。

But causality runs both ways. People in poor health from a young age may be unable to pursue education as much as those with better health. On the other hand, a person who tends to focus on long-term outcomes may be motivated to develop healthier habits like regular exercise — even if blocked from a pursuit of higher education.

Motivate

1. 成为…的动机;是…的原因,推动…甘愿苦干;例如,He is motivated entirely by self-interest. 他做事完全出于私利。

2. 激励;激发,英文解释为to make sb want to do sth, especially sth that involves hard work and effort例如,She's very good at motivating her students. 她非常擅长激励她的学生。

3. (就所说的话)给出理由;说明…的原因,英文解释为to give reasons for sth that you have stated,例如,Please motivate your answer to question 请解释你对第5题所作的回答。

develop healthier habits 养成健康的习惯,develop可以,指养成(习惯);获得(名声);形成(信仰) ,例如,She later developed a taste for expensive nightclubs. 她后来逐渐变得喜欢去消费高昂的夜总会。

regular exercise 定期锻炼,例如,Take regular exercise 定期进行锻炼。

Block

1. 堵住(某人的路等);挡住(某人的视线等)英文解释为to stop sb from going somewhere or seeing sth by standing in front of them or in their way,例如,An ugly new building blocked the view from the window. 一座难看的大楼把窗外的景物遮住了。

2. 妨碍;阻碍英文解释为to prevent sth from happening, developing or making progress,例如,One option is to block these countries from its own markets. 一个方法是限制这些国家进入美国市场。

3. 拦截,挡住(球、打击等)英文解释为to stop a ball, blow, etc. from reaching somewhere by moving in front of it,例如,His shot was blocked by the goalie.他起脚射门,球被守门员拦住了。

4. 堵塞;阻塞,英文解释为to stop sth from moving or flowing through a pipe, a passage, a road, etc. by putting sth in it or across it,例如,After today's heavy snow, many roads are still blocked. 今天下过大雪,很多道路仍然堵塞。

A higher level of education is also associated with higher income and greater wealth, which are also correlated with better health.Greater education and wealth can also confer greater social status or rank, which has also been linked to health.

be correlated with 相互关联影响; 相互依赖; 有紧密联系,例如,The ending of a composition should be correlated with its beginning. 文章要前后照应。

Confer

1. 美 [kənˈfɜːr]  商讨;商议;协商,英文解释为to discuss sth with sb, in order to exchange opinions or get advice,例如,I'll confer with him on the subject. 我将和他商议这件事。

2. 授予,英文解释为 to give sb an award, a university degree or a particular honour or right,例如,An honorary degree was conferred on him by Oxford University in 2001. 牛津大学于 2001 年授予他荣誉学位。

social status社会地位,例如,All should be treated equally regardless of social status. 人不分贵贱。 

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