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文章来源:UN 发布时间:2019-12-26 18:07 作者:UN 点击:



Chapter I



1. I am deeply honoured and humbled to be at the helm of the United Nations at this critical time. In this annual report on the work of the Organization, which reflects on the first few months of my term and the last few months of my predecessor’s term, my aim is to offer a candid view of the world today and a realistic vision of how we can better deliver on the promise of the United Nations.


The world we live in presents a mixed picture of progress, challenges and opportunities


2. The United Nations was established to prevent war and human suffering by binding us together through a common rule-based international order. Today that order is laden with contradictory trends, and a clear assessment must be made if we are going to address these challenges effectively.


3. Hundreds of millions of people have been lifted out of poverty. More children, both boys and girls, are achieving greater levels of education and more women are entering the political world than ever before. This progress represents concentrated efforts by United Nations Member States to work towards these and other development goals. Yet after years of decline, the number of conflicts is on the rise and they are lasting longer, fuelled by the spread of terrorism and violent extremism, transnational criminal networks and deep regional divisions. The threat of famine in several countries, resulting from violence compounded by drought, lurks just around the corner. These contradictory trends are exacerbated by international power dynamics that are in flux. As we move towards a multipolar world order composed of multiple and shifting centres of power, there is an added feeling of unpredictability.

已有数亿人摆脱了贫困。接受更高程度教育的男女儿童以及步入政坛的妇女比以往任何时候都多。这一进步是联合国会员国为实现这些和其他发展目标加紧努力的结果。然而,由于恐怖主义、暴力极端主义、跨国犯罪网络和严重区域分裂的蔓延,一度连年减少的冲突开始增多,持续时间也更长。在一些国家,暴力所致并因干旱而加剧的饥荒威胁迫在眉睫。不断变化的国际力量格局加剧了这些矛盾趋势。我们正走向由多个不断变换的力量中心构成的多极世界秩序,不可预测之感由此加深。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

4. Now more than ever, multilateral action is needed to find effective solutions to this mix of challenges.


5. While progress on development indicators is moving ahead, the risks to global stability may be accelerating, affecting these hard-earned achievements. Climate change is creating deserts where once there was farmland; it is also generating extreme weather that threatens lives, livelihoods and infrastructure and leads to critical shortages of water. The planet’s population will grow to nearly 10 billion people by 2050, two thirds living in cities that could be left unprepared for such rapid growth unless urban leaders grasp this opportunity to prosper by utilizing concentrated habitats to build more efficient infrastructures.

虽然在发展指标方面取得了进展,但全球稳定面临的风险可能正在升级,影响着这些来之不易的成就。气候变化正将农田变成荒漠,并带来极端天气,对生命、生计和基础设施构成威胁,导致严重缺水问题。地球上的人口到2050年将增至近100亿,其中三分之二将生活在城市。除非城市领导人抓住机会实现发展,利用密集居住地建设更加高效的基础设施,否则这些城市可能无法承受如此快速的人口增长。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

6. People are on the move, to cities and all parts of the world, in search of opportunity and safety. Population displacement and migration on a scale not seen since the Second World War bear witness to enduring challenges grounded in escalating conflicts and systemic inequalities. While some countries have been willing to open their arms to people in need, others have reacted by succumbing to deep national and international tensions and polarization.


Inequality and exclusion underlie many of today’s challenges


7. Inequality and exclusion underlie a great many of today’s challenges. Globalization has brought immense gains in the fight against poverty worldwide and has improved living conditions nearly everywhere. But it has been cruelly unfair: as wealth has increased, so too has its asymmetry, leaving millions behind in all parts of the world. Both developed and developing countries, North and South, face greater inequality and marginalization now than they did 20 years ago. Unless we work together, the coming decades are likely to drive poverty more deeply into fragile low-income countries, pushing them even further onto the sidelines, while even larger numbers of people struggling with poverty live in middle-income countries. Furthermore, this sense of exclusion is not limited to the poorest countries but is vividly on the rise in developed countries as well, fuelling trends of nationalism and a lack of trust in national and multilateral institutions. Our hard-won collective progress towards combating poverty and promoting common security is newly at risk.


Countries and institutions are struggling to fully deliver


8. Threats to global stability are frequently rooted in weak infrastructure and failing institutions in fragile States. Where States cannot provide basic protections and services to their people, the likelihood of violence, pandemics or violent extremism increases dramatically. We must collectively invest more to help countries build inclusive institutions and resilient communities capable of thriving in a globalized world.

全球稳定面临威胁,其根源往往是脆弱国家的薄弱基础设施和失灵的机构。国家不能为人民提供基本的保护和服务,出现暴力、流行病或暴力极端主义的可能性便急剧增加。我们必须共同加大力度,帮助各国建设可以在全球化世界中蓬勃发展的包容型机构和韧性社区。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

9. Overwhelmed, a significant number of States across the world are struggling to effectively address today’s major challenges and deliver the services needed by their populations. Tensions are exacerbated by a lack of opportunities and by a strong sentiment among many peoples — their youth especially — that they are being excluded by the very institutions meant to serve them. Few countries or institutions appear to have a long-term vision to meet peoples’ needs or strategies to manage today’s interlinked crises, instead finding themselves entangled in reactive responses.

世界各地许多国家负担沉重,艰难地努力有效应对当今的主要挑战并提供人民需要的服务。许多人,尤其是他们中的年轻人,缺乏机会,而且都强烈地感受到本该为他们服务的机构正在排斥他们,紧张局势因此而加剧。似乎没有国家或机构具有满足人民需求的长远愿景或是管理当今各种盘根错节的危机的战略,反而处处疲于应付。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

10. The United Nations and many other international institutions deserve credit for their achievements, but may also be perceived as bureaucratic and remote.


Demonstrating multilateralism matters more than ever


11. We need to rekindle faith in multilateralism and confidence in the United Nations as the place where States and civil society can come together to face the most pressing challenges in the world today.


12. The interconnected nature of today’s global trends unequivocally demonstrates that countries cannot manage these risks alone. Acting together is the most effective way to fight climate change, global terrorism and the threat of new pandemics and is the only way to manage forced displacements and migratory flows in a humane manner.


Countries cannot manage these risks alone


13. Member States clearly recognized this commonality when they adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change, two landmark achievements all the more remarkable for coming in a period of stark division in international responses to other challenges.


14. Along with the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, these multilateral agreements constitute the most important frameworks for guiding us along the pathway to a world where more people can enjoy freedom from want and fear. We can succeed only if we work in greater unison. Multilateralism is not optional. It is the most effective vehicle, whether regional or global, for achieving the goals of peace, inclusive sustainable development and human rights for all.


United Nations reform is essential


15. The United Nations has a proud record of achievement in keeping peace, improving human well-being and advancing human rights and the rule of law. But the Organization came into being at a particular moment in history. While its animating principles continue to stand the test of time, its day-to-day structures and practices are no longer well adapted to current challenges. The world needs a more effective, nimble and accountable United Nations to manage the crises of the twenty-first century.


16. My assessment of the world we live in demonstrates that we need to respond to interlinked global risks in a less fragmented and reactive manner. If the United Nations is to remain relevant and reliable, we must vigorously enact proactive reforms that are motivated by the objective of achieving better results for those most affected.


17. One of our main goals in steering the reform agenda must be to engage more effectively on prevention. For too long, our reactive responses towards threats to peace and security have been too slow, allowing crises to worsen so that effective action becomes more difficult. We know that preventing a crisis is much less costly and more effective than reacting to one. We know that catastrophic natural disasters can wipe out in seconds development gains that took years to achieve. We know from painful experience that wars destroy societies and that protracted crises keep generations locked in perpetual vulnerability. This must change.


18. I have called for a shift in approach, with a less reactive posture, towards a more robust approach to prevention. Prevention means doing everything we can, across a broad range of engagements and activities, to help countries avert the outbreak or worsening of crises that result in massive human suffering. Prevention is the common thread running through the interwoven fabric of my reform efforts. Both the 2030 Agenda and the sustaining peace resolutions (General Assembly resolution 70/262 and Security Council resolution 2282 (2016)) demonstrate strong support for a holistic approach to prevention; the best prevention is sustainable and inclusive development. While these two approaches are complementary, the 2030 Agenda remains the primary architecture within which the sustaining peace resolutions provide a solid framework for enabling the United Nations to concentrate on support for the planning and delivery of specific aspects of the Sustainable Development Goals as they pertain to peace.


19. I have set in motion several related reform processes. All aim to make the Organization’s approaches more integrated and coherent, reflective of a more comprehensive understanding of the greatest risks facing the world, and more securely financed. The reforms will foster stronger and more accountable leadership, cutting away many of the burdensome administrative rules that hamper quick, nimble responses to crisis situations. They will increase and strengthen the partnerships we need to deliver meaningful change on the ground. Last but not least, I am fully committed to ensuring gender parity and greater geographic diversity across the Organization in order to better reflect and serve the peoples of the world.

我已启动几个相关的改革进程,旨在使本组织的各种做法更加统筹一致,能够体现对世界所面临最大风险的更全面了解,并在供资方面更有保障。这些改革将推动发挥更强有力、更负责任的领导作用,去除有碍对危机局势作出迅速灵活反应的种种繁琐的行政规则。这些改革将增加和加强我们在实地促成切实变革所需的伙伴关系。最后但同样重要的是,我全力致力于在整个组织内切实实现性别平等和更大程度的地域多样性,以期更好地反映世界各地人民的情况,更好地为他们服务。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

20. The responsibility for preventing human suffering and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals rests with the Member States, but the United Nations has a vital supporting role to play. My reform agenda will make the United Nations a better partner for Member States in meeting their responsibilities.


21. In taking stock of these early months in office, I am above all inspired by the goodwill and creative ideas of people across the world. We must harness these forces as we serve the global common good. I look forward to working with Member States and stakeholders everywhere to build a stronger, more effective United Nations that can deliver today and for generations to come.

回顾我任期的最初几个月,最使我受到鼓舞和激励的是世界各地人民的良好意愿和充满创意的想法。在服务全球共同利益时,我们必须利用这些力量。我期待与会员国和各地利益攸关方合作,把联合国建设成一个能为今世后代交付成果的更强大、更有效的联合国。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

Chapter II

The work of the Organization


A. Promotion of sustained economic growth and sustainable development


The adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is an unparalleled achievement


22. The adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development represents an unparalleled achievement in setting objectives for the international community. It marks a paradigm shift towards a comprehensive and integrated vision of inclusive sustainable development, applicable to all people in all countries and explicitly anchored in human rights. To ensure that actions follow this vision, more must be done to incorporate the Sustainable Development Goals into national plans and strategies, establishing performance baselines and effective statistical capacities.

在为国际社会制定目标方面,《2030年可持续发展议程》的通过是一项前所未有的成就。这是朝着一个全面综合的包容性可持续发展愿景的根本性转变,适用于所有国家、所有人民,且明确立足于人权。为了切实根据这一愿景采取行动,必须开展更多工作,将可持续发展目标纳入国家计划和战略,制定业绩基准,并建立有效的统计能力。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

23. I am committed to ensuring that the success of the Agenda is measured by the yardstick of improvement of the well-being and prospects of the poorest, most excluded and most vulnerable people in society. Countries and stakeholders confirm that the Agenda’s core promise — to leave no one behind — must underpin the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals. The United Nations is undertaking cross-cutting efforts to support national actors in implementing this commitment through support for laws, policies and programmes and the ratification of international treaties. These include measures to eradicate poverty, combat discrimination and uphold equality for all.


24. Leaving no one behind was the theme of the 2016 high-level political forum on sustainable development, which serves as the central platform for follow-up and review of the 2030 Agenda. In a clear signal of their commitment and of the universal character of the Agenda, countries from all regions and levels of development are outlining national priorities and approaches to include the Sustainable Development Goals in their development plans and strategies. Almost a third of the Organization’s membership has volunteered to report on progress in implementing the 2030 Agenda.


The Sustainable Development Goals are for the whole of society


25. To meet these challenges, the successful implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals depends on national actions and on forging multilateral partnerships with Governments and non-governmental organizations, strengthening collaboration between national and local-level entities and promoting inclusivity in decision-making processes. The Sustainable Development Goals offer a new opportunity to demonstrate a commitment to serving people and building trust in political leadership. Key individual contributions are needed from experts, scientists in particular. Science is critical for understanding and identifying synergies and trade-offs among the Sustainable Development Goals, and an independent group of scientists has begun work to prepare the Global Sustainable Development Report for the 2019 high-level political forum. The United Nations is also soliciting expert opinions on advancing the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals and leveraging its holistic nature.

为应对这些挑战,需要成功落实可持续发展目标,而这就需要采取国家行动,需要与各国政府和非政府组织建立多边伙伴关系,需要加强国家和地方一级机构之间的协作,需要促进决策过程的包容性。可持续发展目标提供了新机会,可以借此机会表明为人民服务的承诺,树立对政治领导的信任。需要每个专家特别是科学家作出重要贡献。科学对了解和确定可持续发展目标之间的协同作用及平衡关系起着关键作用。一个由科学家组成的独立小组已开始工作,为2019年高级别政治论坛编写全球可持续发展报告。联合国正就如何推进可持续发展目标和发挥联合国的整体性优势征求专家意见。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

26. Cooperation on achieving the 2030 Agenda is working its way across the United Nations system. The Economic and Social Council partnership forum is a critical space for sharing the perspectives and contributions of all partners, while the New Urban Agenda adopted at Habitat III in October 2016 addresses the manner in which cities are planned, financed, governed and managed. The 2017 Ocean Conference brought people together to formulate tangible solutions on such areas as marine pollution, climate change, ocean acidification and ocean governance. In addition, it will be critical for developed countries to deliver on both official development assistance (ODA) and climate finance commitments.


1. The challenge of climate change


Climate change is undeniable; the science is beyond doubt and human influence is clear


27. Climate change is an overriding megatrend, with a multiplier effect on desertification, displacement of people, weather-related disasters and water scarcity and pressures on other natural resources. As the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has demonstrated in a series of exhaustive and authoritative reports, climate science is beyond doubt and human influence is clear. I am intensifying high-level political engagement aimed at limiting temperature rise to well below 2 degrees and as close as possible to 1.5 degrees Celsius. I am rallying the United Nations development system behind Member States as they pursue climate action, mobilizing resources to support the implementation of national climate action plans and strengthening partnerships through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation. I also intend to convene a dedicated climate summit in 2019 to mobilize political support.

气候变化是一个压倒性的大趋势,加剧了荒漠化、人口流离失所、与天气有关的灾害、水资源稀缺以及其他自然资源面临的压力。正如政府间气候变化专门委员会在一系列详尽的权威报告中所示,气候科学不容置疑,而人类的影响显而易见。我正在加强高级别政治参与,力求将气温上升幅度控制在2摄氏度以下,尽可能控制在1.5摄氏度左右。我正在动员联合国发展系统支持会员国采取气候行动,调动资源支持国家气候行动计划的实施,并通过南北、南南和三方合作加强伙伴关系。我还打算在2019年召开一次专门讨论气候变化问题的峰会,以调动政治支持。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

2. Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals


28. Despite the halving of the global poverty rate since 2000, intensified efforts are required to boost incomes, alleviate suffering and build the resilience of those still living in extreme poverty, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. While the proportion of humanity living in poverty is lower, some 700 million people still live in extreme conditions, and progress has not included a decline in inequality. Poverty as a percentage of population is deeply persistent in the least developed countries, although the largest number of people trapped in poverty live in middle-income countries.


29. In view of the variability of purchasing power parity, our efforts to eradicate poverty globally require a focus on all levels, from the least developed to the middle-income nations. Nevertheless, with the current economic growth trajectory, nearly 35 per cent of the population in the least developed countries may still be living in extreme poverty by 2030 (see figure I).


30. One of the keys to creating decent jobs and reducing poverty will be the promotion of structural transformation towards more productive and green activities. Structural transformations can generate resources for social protection that is designed to assist those who are unable to escape poverty with their own resources. Strong national ownership of the development agenda is critical.


31. Efforts to combat hunger and malnutrition have advanced significantly since 2000. The proportion of undernourished people worldwide declined from 15 per cent in the period 2000-2002 to 11 per cent in the period 2014-2016. Yet ending hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition for all will require continued and focused efforts, especially in Asia and Africa. Tragically, famine threatens four States today, caused by drought and conflict.


3. Data and statistics on the Sustainable Development Goals


32. In 2017, the Statistical Commission adopted the global indicator framework to monitor progress towards the goals and targets of the 2030 Agenda. Tracking progress on the Sustainable Development Goals requires the collection of an unprecedented amount of data disaggregated at all levels, which poses a major challenge for national and international statistical systems. The global statistical community is working to modernize and strengthen statistical systems to address all aspects of the production and use of data on sustainable development.

2017年,统计委员会通过了一个全球指标框架,用于监测《2030年议程》各项目标和具体目标的进展情况。为了跟踪可持续发展目标的进展情况,需要收集数量空前的各级分类数据,这对国家和国际统计系统来说是一项重大挑战。全球统计界正在努力更新和加强统计系统,以处理可持续发展数据的编制和使用方面的各种问题。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

33. Gender statistics will play a critical role in monitoring progress on gender equality and women’s empowerment across the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The United Nations is working collaboratively with other global, regional and national actors (including national statistical offices) to enhance the availability and use of gender statistics to support the accelerated implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals and achieve transformative results for women and girls.


4. Means of implementation


34. The ambitious and complex 2030 Agenda can be achieved only if countries have the means to pursue the goals. The Addis Ababa Action Agenda on financing for development identifies ways to unlock the necessary resources and investments. In its first substantive report, the Inter-Agency Task Force on Financing for Development concluded that the current global growth trajectory would not deliver the eradication of extreme poverty by 2030. However, it found that national actions and international cooperation could help change the global trajectory and support countries in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. A major undertaking of the Task Force in 2016-2017 was building a comprehensive catalogue of progress on more than 300 commitments and actions agreed by Member States.

要落实宏大而多层面的《2030年议程》,各国必须具备实现该议程各项目标所需的手段。关于发展筹资问题的《亚的斯亚贝巴行动议程》确定了释放必要资源和投资的途径。发展筹资问题机构间工作队在第一份实质性报告中总结指出:按照目前的全球增长趋势,到2030年无法消除极端贫困。不过,工作队认为,国家行动和国际合作有助于改变全球趋势,有助于支持各国实现可持续发展目标。工作队2016-2017年的一项重大任务是就会员国商定的300多项承诺和行动的进展情况建立全面目录。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

35. The financing required to achieve the 17 Sustainable Development Goals is estimated to be on the order of trillions of dollars annually. The redirection of capital flows can include efforts to attract, leverage and mobilize investments of all kinds — public, private, national and global. Nevertheless, there are theoretically enough savings in the global economy to drive this transformation, and the benefits will flow back to investors.


36. Strengthening the capacity of developing countries to formulate more effective and efficient tax systems is a critical element in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. The Committee of Experts on International Cooperation in Tax Matters has been working on a number of products, including training and in-country assistance, that will help countries to ensure appropriate taxation and in particular to counter tax evasion. In another initiative, the United Nations, OECD, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have jointly launched a new Platform for Collaboration on Tax.

提高发展中国家建立更高效、更有效的税务制度的能力,这是执行《2030年议程》的一个关键要素。国际税务合作专家委员会一直致力于提供包括培训和国内援助在内的多项服务,这将有助于各国切实做到妥善征税,尤其有助于打击逃税行为。此外,联合国、经合组织、国际货币基金组织和世界银行联合推出一项举措,启动了新的税务合作平台。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

37. The goal of enhanced development cooperation is to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed, landlocked and small island developing countries, to implement programmes and policies to end all dimensions of poverty. The Development Cooperation Forum, an inclusive multi-stakeholder platform, is the primary locus for discussing efforts to improve the quality, impact and effectiveness of development cooperation. It is used by Southern partners to share their experience, good practices, solutions and challenges among themselves and with a range of actors. In that context, the Government of Argentina, in collaboration with the United Nations, will host a high-level symposium on South-South and triangular development cooperation in Buenos Aires in September 2017.


5. Strengthening implementation


38. The 2030 Agenda provides a vision for development; the challenge now lies in its implementation. It is critical to mobilize adequate financial and non-financial support, ensure the effectiveness of multi-stakeholder partnerships and maintain a relentless focus on the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. The General Assembly requested me to prepare concrete proposals, and my vision includes planning for collective results, linking functions with funding. Member States have reaffirmed the complementarity and mutually reinforcing nature of the Sustainable Development Goals with peace and security and human rights, as well as with work streams under the sustaining peace agenda.


6. Regional dimensions


39. Increasingly, regional and subregional groupings of countries are identifying solutions to their common development challenges, while regional institutions are being called upon to work collectively with Member States to develop regional strategies and approaches, not only on cross-border issues but also on more traditional issues of economic, social and environmentally sound development.


7. Countries in special situations


40. Each country faces specific challenges, and the most vulnerable countries deserve special attention. The United Nations has also played an important role in establishing the Technology Bank for the Least Developed Countries; the challenge now is to fully operationalize the Bank in seeking to fulfil Sustainable Development Goal target 17.8.


8. Haiti


9. Effects of crime on development


44. Crime continues to erode growth and development outcomes as well as peace and security prospects for countries of all income levels. In the context of providing sustainable financing for development in line with the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the United Nations has intensified its strategic approach, whereby crime prevention is considered a fundamental determinant of sustainable development. This includes building the capacity of Member States to combat illicit financial flows, prevent corruption and strengthen anti-money-laundering efforts.


10. Natural disasters


45. Over the past decade, economic losses resulting from natural disasters have reached nearly $1.4 trillion, hindering economic growth and the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. Investment in resilient communities and green infrastructure for schools, hospitals, roads, bridges, water and sanitation, energy, transport systems and housing is an imperative more critical than ever before, as is investment in effective, multi-hazard early warning mechanisms. This is an important aspect of my prevention-oriented reform agenda.

过去十年,自然灾害造成的经济损失将近1.4万亿美元,阻碍了经济增长和可持续发展目标的实现。投资建设韧性社区和绿色基础设施,如学校、医院、道路、桥梁、水和环境卫生、能源、交通运输系统以及住房,已成为前所未有的当务之急。投资建设有效的多灾种预警机制同样是当务之急。这是我注重预防的改革议程的一个重要方面。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

11. Forests


46. The global focus since 1992 has been to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. However, in a ground-breaking decision in January 2017, the United Nations Forum on Forests set a target to increase global forest area by 3 per cent by 2030. The United Nations strategic plan for forests 2017-2030 (General Assembly resolution 71/285) provides a global framework for actions at all levels to sustainably manage all types of forests and trees outside forests and to halt deforestation and degradation. It features a set of six global forest goals and 26 associated targets to be reached by 2030, all of which are voluntary. The global forest goals and targets support the objectives of the international arrangement on forests and aim to contribute to progress on the Sustainable Development Goals and other international forest-related commitments.


47. Crime affects all aspects of development and forest management is no exception. The work of the United Nations in addressing wildlife and forest crime focuses not only on strengthening the law enforcement, criminal justice and legislative capacity of Member States but also on improving the livelihoods of vulnerable rural groups, such as local communities relying on natural resources and ecosystem services.


12. Empowering vulnerable social groups


48. With its central commitment to ensure dignity for all, the 2030 Agenda recognizes the contemporary global risks of rising inequality, discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. It also recognizes that people who are vulnerable must be empowered, including all women, children, youth, persons with disabilities, people living with HIV/AIDS, older persons, indigenous peoples, refugees, internally displaced persons and migrants.


49. As global populations are growing older, the Organization is creating a forum for dialogue on the challenges and opportunities of ageing. Strong stakeholder input around disability-inclusive development also led to the effective integration of important commitments in the New Urban Agenda, in line with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The number of young people is also growing, and the United Nations is broadening its strategy to more effectively account for the role of youth, including young women and men, in peacebuilding and humanitarian action, as well as to ensure identification of cross-pillar linkages.


50. My High-level Panel on Women’s Economic Empowerment identified purchasing goods and services from women-owned businesses as one of the primary drivers of progress. Corporations and Governments are also targeting companies owned by women in their procurement practices, while the United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination, covering 31 organizations and bodies, has prioritized purchasing from women-owned businesses.


B. Maintenance of international peace and security


1. Adapting to new conflicts


51. Today’s conflicts pose complex challenges for the Organization. For us to be better prepared and effectively respond to these demands, we must reinvigorate our approach to include:


(a) Fortifying our capacity to build political solutions to existing threats and emerging challenges;


(b) Ensuring that State and institution-building strengthen legitimacy through inclusion and attention to grievances;


(c) Upholding the Organization’s impartiality;


(d) Making effective use of the Secretary-General’s good offices through mediation support.


52. The United Nations must go beyond reacting to events and build anticipatory relationships with national and regional partners to prevent conflict. Prevention requires addressing the root causes of conflict across the three pillars of the United Nations: peace and security, human rights and inclusive development.


2. Women, peace and security


3. Youth, peace and security


53. Recent Security Council resolutions have spearheaded a growing focus on harnessing young people’s contribution to sustaining peace. The ongoing progress study on youth, peace and security is documenting the positive contribution of young women and men through in-depth consultations with youth. Further research needs to be done to better understand the implications of technology on growing youth unemployment and how technology can be harnessed in youth education.


4. Use of my good offices: preventive diplomacy and mediation


54. Engagement in preventing and ending grave violations against children can constitute an entry point for dialogue and mediation. State and non-State parties have pursued commitments to end grave violations against children.


5. Democratic transitions and elections


6. Crisis management


7. Sustaining peace


55. General Assembly and Security Council resolutions on sustaining peace have expanded the notion of peacebuilding. Previously seen as a purely post-conflict endeavour, peacebuilding aims to prevent the outbreak, escalation, continuation and recurrence of violence in order to sustain peace throughout a conflict cycle.


56. Fast, catalytic and risk-tolerant funding is crucial for sustaining peace. The Peacebuilding Fund maintained its support levels with the renewed commitment of 33 Member States at its pledging conference in September 2016. The Fund exceeded the United Nations-wide target to allocate at least 15 per cent to gender equality and women’s empowerment. It also expanded its role in financing cross-border and regional peacebuilding initiatives, launched the first United Nations dedicated funding stream on youth, peace and security, and for the first time directly funded civil society organizations.


8. Partnerships


57. To prevent conflict and sustain peace, we must assist countries in attaining the Sustainable Development Goals. Yet the link between inclusive sustainable development and the prevention of violence is not well understood. A joint United Nations-World Bank flagship study on how development and political processes interact for the prevention of violence, the first of its kind, is under way and will examine the evidence on how grievances linked to inequality and exclusion increase the risk of violent conflict.


C. Development of Africa


58. Africa today, like other parts of the world, presents a dynamic yet contradictory picture of progress and challenges. On the one hand, economic growth in several African countries surpassed that in other parts of the globe, and the data encouragingly show that enrolment in primary education in sub-Saharan Africa improved dramatically from 52 per cent in 1990 to 80 per cent in 2015, while the reduction in child mortality rates has also been significant. Yet some parts of Africa face threats and challenges involving protracted violence and human insecurity that undermine development. Continued conflict has meant that three of the four countries currently facing severe threats of famine are located in Africa.


59. Economically, the continent remains highly commodity dependent, while, as a result of the volatility in global commodity prices, unstable export income in many African countries has significantly affected economic growth patterns. Future challenges also confront the continent. Projected population growth estimates show Africa as the fastest-growing region of the world (see figure IV), with a growing youth population that will reach about 60 per cent of the total population by 2050 (see figure V). These young people require education, jobs, housing and health care, thereby putting pressure on Governments to deliver.


60. The continent can take advantage of this demographic dividend by investing in quality education, teacher training, technology and innovation, which would boost productivity, create jobs and promote inclusive growth and prosperity. Scaling up investments and strengthening the ability of institutions to deliver innovative solutions will involve multilateral partnerships, which the United Nations can facilitate. Providing opportunities and empowering women and youth as a development goal will be essential.


D. Promotion and protection of all human rights


Peace is itself a human rights imperative


61. Alongside bloody conflict, the past year has seen the continued deprivation of basic economic and social rights for millions of women, men and children owing to chronic poverty for some and weak governance or imposed austerity for many others. Massive inequality among genders, social groups and income levels has strained public confidence. All too often, economic and social insecurities are being blamed on “the other” — whether migrants or other racial, ethnic, gender or social groups — rather than on failures of public policy.


Human rights are at the core of my call for prevention and sustaining peace


62. Human rights measures are the lifeblood of any effort to prevent conflict and sustain peace. They are investments which bring both immediate and long-term benefits in building resilience, redressing grievances, reducing inequality and advancing sustainable development.


63. These missions conduct on-the-ground investigations and deliver fact-based impartial assessments, giving voice to the victims and drawing attention to situations of urgent global concern. Their findings and targeted recommendations lay the foundation to hold States, non-State actors and individuals accountable. Field officers also monitor and investigate allegations to prompt States to fulfil their human rights obligations, thus preventing future violations. Working with media is also essential.


64. Ultimately, the 2030 Agenda offers a road map towards a more rights-respecting world. A strong focus on human rights, equality and the empowerment of women has been integrated into the revised United Nations Development Framework guidelines, while the entire United Nations system is now committed to integrating the imperative of eliminating discrimination and reducing inequalities, leaving no one behind.

总而言之,《2030年议程》提供了走向一个更尊重人权的世界的路线图。修订后的联合国发展框架准则体现了对人权、平等和增强妇女权能的高度重视。整个联合国系统如今都致力于把消除歧视和减少不平等、不让任何一个人掉队的要务纳入各自工作。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

E. Effective coordination of humanitarian assistance efforts


65. During 2017, the United Nations and its humanitarian partners assisted more people than any previous year since the founding of the Organization. A total of 96.2 million people, more than half of them women and children, were targeted for life-saving assistance of food, shelter, health and protection in over 40 countries.


Devastating natural disasters now displace three times more people than conflicts


66. Yet devastating natural disasters, such as floods, storms, wildfires and severe weather, now displace three times more people than are displaced by conflicts.


67. More than 31 million new cases of internal displacement were recorded in 2016, the equivalent of one person forced to flee every second. Of these, more than 24.2 million people were displaced by natural hazards in 118 countries and territories, or more than three times the 6.9 million people who were recently displaced as a result of conflict. The frequency, intensity and cost of natural disasters have increased owing to changing weather patterns. The 2015/16 El Niño phenomenon prompted 23 countries across four continents to seek assistance for more than 60 million people, and there may be a new El Niño episode in 2017.

2016年共有3100多万起境内流离失所新案例,相当于每秒钟就有一人被迫背井离乡。其中,有118个国家和领土的2420多万人由于自然灾害而流离失所。这个数字相当于近期冲突所致流离失所人数(690万人)的三倍以上。由于天气模式的变化,自然灾害的频率、强度和代价都在上升。2015/16年度的厄尔尼诺现象促使4个大陆的23个国家为6 000多万人口寻求援助,2017年可能还会出现新一轮厄尔尼诺现象。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

68. An unprecedented food crisis has hit more people than ever before. Conflict, drought and violence have carried the threat of famine that has affected 20 million people in Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen.

空前严重的粮食危机波及的人数多于以往任何时候。冲突、干旱和暴力带来了饥荒威胁,已对尼日利亚、索马里、南苏丹和也门的2 000万人造成影响。

F. Promotion of justice and international law


1. Support for domestic authorities


A fully national Special Criminal Court has been established in the Central African Republic


69.  Increasingly aware of sexual violence and abuse, the United Nations has helped national authorities build their capacity to respond effectively. This assistance includes capacity-building for criminal investigations, prosecutions, military justice, legislative reform, protection of victims and witnesses and reparations.


70.  In 2017, the United Nations launched a flagship initiative on women’s access to justice. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the United Nations produced materials for a training course for judicial officers on human rights and violence against women, while in Egypt some 1,000 women benefited from free legal services.

2017年,联合国发起了妇女获得司法救助领头倡议。在坦桑尼亚联合共和国,联合国制作了关于人权和暴力侵害妇女行为问题法官培训教材。在埃及,有约1 000名妇女得益于免费法律服务。

2. International courts and mechanisms


71. The International Court of Justice, one of the six main bodies of the United Nations, continues to function as a central mechanism for the peaceful resolution of disputes and maintains a high level of judicial activity ( Acceptance of the Court’s compulsory jurisdiction among Member States is one of my highest priorities.


3. Promotion of international law


72. The International Law Commission completed its work on a proposed treaty for the protection of persons in the event of disasters and made significant progress on a possible new treaty on crimes against humanity. To protect the world’s oceans, the Ocean Conference was held at United Nations Headquarters in June 2017. Member States also worked towards an international legally binding instrument within the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to protect marine biological diversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Flagged as a major success, an amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer that will reduce emissions of powerful greenhouse gases was adopted by 197 countries in October 2016.


G. Disarmament


73. Disarmament and arms control have played an intrinsic role in easing international tensions and maintaining peace and security, and the Organization’s advocacy for disarmament is more vital than ever.


74. The United Nations now faces the additional challenges of cybersecurity, artificial intelligence and the potential harmful use of outer space. In an age of technical revolution, it is vital that the international community stay ahead of the curve to ensure that technology is not used for malicious purposes.


H. Drug control, crime prevention and combating international terrorism


75. The globalized movement of people and trade in goods, both legal and illegal, continues to expand faster than the international community can track, let alone regulate. The large movement of refugees and migrants, often triggered by conflict, has exposed more people to trafficking, with the Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2016 showing an alarmingly high proportion of children among the victims. Smuggled wildlife and antiquities are also caught up in this nightmare. Drawing on the first global database of seizures, the World Wildlife Crime Report: Trafficking in Protected Species, 2016 documented the trafficking of almost 7,000 wildlife species. In addition, technological advances are exploited for criminal purposes and cybercrime remains a global challenge. The United Nations is also addressing crime issues through the development of a global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration and a global compact for refugees (see para. 52 above).

合法和非法的全球范围人员流动和货物贸易继续扩大,增速之快超过了国际社会的跟踪了解能力,更不用说加以规范。通常由冲突引发的难民和移民大规模流动使更多人面临贩运风险。《2016年全球贩运人口问题报告》显示,受害者当中儿童所占比例高得惊人。野生动植物和文物走私也似这场噩梦一般。“2016年世界野生动植物犯罪报告:贩运受保护物种问题”利用首个全球查获数据库,记载了近7 000例野生物种贩运情况。此外,先进技术为犯罪活动所用,网络犯罪仍是一项全球挑战。联合国正在制订安全、有序和正常移民全球契约和全球难民契约来应对犯罪问题(见上文第52段)。

1. Drug control


76. The United Nations continues to support human rights-based drug policies and capacity-building in public health, criminal justice, prison administration and civil society in support of increased access to services, including HIV services, for people who use drugs and people in prisons. In the field of alternative development to replace drug crops, the United Nations supports rural communities by providing legitimate income-earning opportunities that focus on cash crops with sustainable markets.


2. Crime prevention


Two of my highest priorities are the elimination of all forms of violence against women and against children


77. Corruption has a deleterious effect on development because precious resources are siphoned off for personal gain. This year marked the beginning of the second implementation review cycle of the United Nations Convention against Corruption, which focuses on preventive measures and asset recovery.


3. Combating international terrorism


The General Assembly recently approved my proposal to create a new Office of Counter-Terrorism


Chapter III

Strengthening the Organization


78. Our efforts to implement the Organization’s ambitious reform agenda rest on ensuring that we simplify procedures, decentralize decision-making and move towards even greater transparency and accountability. The Organization requires systems, policies and procedures that bring decision-making closer to the point of delivery and empower senior management to deliver on their programmes. To bring about this paradigm shift, I have launched a set of action-based processes to strengthen the management of the Organization.


79. The United Nations must uphold its ethical standards. Therefore, I have strengthened the whistle-blower protection policy that allows the Ethics Office and the Office of Internal Oversight Services to take preventive action where a risk of retaliation against those reporting violations has been identified. Staff now also have the right to seek a review of Ethics Office determinations. The revised policy is based on elements deemed to be international best practice. I have asked an internal working group to consider additional areas for improvement and I intend to consult staff and management in coming months. Additional strengthening of United Nations ethical standards includes the establishment of the Anti-Fraud and Anti-Corruption Framework, which fosters a culture of integrity and honesty and informs staff about the ways in which the Secretariat prevents, detects, responds to and reports on fraud and corruption.


80.  Transforming the Organization to better deliver on its mandate is our ultimate goal. This means strengthening and integrating our management team, our methods of analysis and our early warning and delivery systems. It also means improving the quality of leadership at Headquarters and in the field and building the confidence of Member States.


Chapter IV



81.  The present report provides a snapshot of the work of the Organization in a world steeped in contradictory and complex challenges. Millions have been lifted out of poverty yet millions of others face the threat of famine. Globalization has brought prosperity to many yet others have been cruelly left behind, excluded and caught in a system of inequality and rising xenophobia. The world has witnessed the massive migration of people fleeing violent conflict on a scale not seen since the Second World War and the undeniable megatrend of climate change and its multiplier effects demand global action, yet multilateralism is being questioned at a time when we most need coherent global responses to these interconnected events. No nation acting alone can resolve these crises. The United Nations is the gravitational centre for dialogue and cooperation to find common solutions, and with its concentrated support Member States have reached two landmark agreements: the 2030 Agenda and the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change. Taken together, they demonstrate that nations have the will to work multilaterally when they see a driving need. They represent a clear road map to a mutual destination: taking care of our shared global home.


82.  The United Nations must be up to the challenge. I have laid out a number of reform proposals to make the Organization more effective, flexible and nimble, with a renewed culture of prevention permeating all our work. Ultimately, future generations will judge the United Nations by our ability to make our norms and aspirations a reality, particularly for those who suffer the most. The onus falls on the United Nations to prove its worth.





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