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双语:在解决两不愁三保障突出问题座谈会讲话
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双语:习近平主席在解决“两不愁三保障”突出问题座谈会上的讲话

在解决“两不愁三保障”突出问题座谈会上的讲话

Speech at a Symposium on Resolving Prominent Problems in Poverty Alleviation

习近平

Xi Jinping

2019年4月16日

16 April 2019

今天,我们召开一个脱贫攻坚跨省区座谈会。这是党的十八大以来我第六次主持召开这样的会议。之前,我先后在延安、贵阳、银川、太原、成都主持召开过这样的座谈会,收到了明显成效。召开这次座谈会,主要是考虑距离完成脱贫攻坚目标任务只剩下不到两年时间,2019年尤为关键。今年工作做到位了,明年脱贫攻坚全面收官就能有一个更为坚实的基础。

Today, we are holding an interprovincial symposium on the fight against poverty. This is the sixth such meeting that I have presided over since the 18th National Congress of the CPC in 2012. Before this, I presided over symposiums on the same subject in Yan’an, Guiyang, Yinchuan, Taiyuan, and Chengdu, and our fight against poverty has obtained remarkable results. This symposium is being held in consideration of the fact that we have less than two years left to reach our poverty alleviation objectives, with the year 2019 being particularly crucial. If we perform our tasks effectively this year, we will be able to lay solid foundations for bringing our poverty alleviation initiatives to a satisfactory conclusion next year.

昨天中午一下飞机,我先前往石柱土家族自治县,考察了中益乡小学,看望了华溪村的贫困户和老党员,与村民代表、基层干部、扶贫干部、乡村医生进行了座谈,实地了解了重庆脱贫攻坚进展和解决“两不愁三保障”突出问题情况,对重庆的脱贫攻坚工作有了些直观的感受。对重庆的脱贫工作,我心里是托底的。这次会议的任务是,分析当前脱贫攻坚形势,研究解决“两不愁三保障”存在的突出问题。参加座谈会的有广西、重庆、四川、贵州、云南、陕西、甘肃、新疆8个省区市党委书记,重庆市的县乡村基层代表,以及中央有关部门主要负责同志。

After getting off the plane at noon yesterday, I first went to Shizhu Tujia Autonomous County where I visited Zhongyi Township Primary School as well as poor households and veteran CPC members in Huaxi Village. In the process, I had discussions with village representatives, local officials, poverty alleviation officials, and rural doctors. Through these discussions, I gained an up-close and personal understanding of the progress of poverty alleviation work in Chongqing and efforts that have been made to resolve the prominent problems in assuring the rural poor population that their food and clothing needs will be met and guaranteeing that they have access to compulsory education, basic medical services, and safe housing (referred to below as the “two assurances and three guarantees”), and I now feel at ease about the state of poverty alleviation in Chongqing. The tasks of this meeting are to analyze the current state of poverty alleviation efforts and to study and resolve outstanding problems relating to the “two assurances and three guarantees.” Attending the symposium are provincial-level Party committee secretaries from Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, and Xinjiang, local representatives of counties, townships, and villages within Chongqing, and officials of relevant central government departments.

刚才,大家介绍了情况,分析了问题,提出了意见和建议,讲得都很好。下面,我讲几点意见。

Those of you who have spoken just now have presented situations in your respective places, analyzed problems, and put forward ideas and proposals. This is very good. I would now like to add a few suggestions of my own.

一、准确把握脱贫攻坚形势

I. We must have an accurate grasp of the state of poverty alleviation efforts.

党的十八大以来,党中央把脱贫攻坚作为全面建成小康社会的底线任务和标志性指标,作出一系列重大部署。党的十九大后,党中央把打好精准脱贫攻坚战作为全面建成小康社会的三大攻坚战之一。这些年,脱贫攻坚力度之大、规模之广、影响之深前所未有,进展符合预期。

Since the 18th National Congress, the CPC Central Committee has made eradicating poverty the basic mission and symbolic benchmark of our efforts to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and put forward a series of major plans in this regard. After the 19th National Congress in 2017, the Central Committee designated eliminating poverty in a targeted manner as one of the three critical battles for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. In recent years, our poverty eradication efforts have reached unprecedented levels in terms of their intensity, scale, and impact, and we have made progress in line with anticipated targets.

2015年11月,在中央召开的扶贫开发工作会议上,我们明确,到2020年,要“确保我国现行标准下农村贫困人口实现脱贫,贫困县全部摘帽,解决区域性整体贫困”。我在会上提出脱贫攻坚要重点解决“扶持谁”、“谁来扶”、“怎么扶”、“如何退”4个问题。目前看,这些问题得到比较好的解决。

In November 2015, at the Central Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development, we made it clear that by 2020, we must “ensure that all rural residents falling below China’s current poverty line are lifted out of poverty, that all poor counties leave poverty behind, and that regional poverty is eliminated on the whole.” At that meeting, I said that poverty alleviation should focus on four issues – who exactly needs help, who should implement poverty alleviation initiatives, how poverty alleviation should be carried out, and what standards and procedures should be adopted for exiting poverty. As it stands, it seems that these issues have been resolved quite effectively.

为解决好“扶持谁”问题,我们坚持精准扶贫、精准脱贫,逐村逐户开展贫困识别,对识别出的贫困村、贫困户建档立卡,通过“回头看”和甄别调整,不断提高识别准确率。

To identify who exactly needs help, we have remained committed to alleviating and eradicating poverty in a targeted manner. We have carried out poverty screening at the level of individual villages and individual households, and registered cases of poverty identified through this process. We have also consistently made screening more accurate by adjusting our methods and criteria and by conducting follow-up examinations.

为解决好“谁来扶”问题,全国累计选派300多万县级以上机关、国有企事业单位干部参加驻村帮扶,目前在岗的第一书记20.6万人、驻村干部70万人,加上197.4万乡镇扶贫干部和数百万村干部,一线扶贫力量明显加强,打通了精准扶贫“最后一公里”。

To identify who should implement poverty alleviation initiatives, we have selected more than three million officials from government departments at or above the county level and from state-owned enterprises and government-affiliated institutions to serve as village-stationed providers of support. Currently, there are 206,000 first secretaries of CPC village committees and 700,000 village-stationed officials, in addition to 1,974,000 town-level poverty alleviation officials and millions of village officials. We have thus significantly bolstered our forces on the front lines of poverty alleviation, and ensured that our efforts in this regard overcome final key hurdles.

为解决好“怎么扶”问题,我们提出要实施“五个一批”工程,即发展生产脱贫一批、易地搬迁脱贫一批、生态补偿脱贫一批、发展教育脱贫一批、社会保障兜底一批,还有就业扶贫、健康扶贫、资产收益扶贫等,总的就是因地因人制宜,缺什么就补什么,能干什么就干什么,扶到点上扶到根上。

To identify how poverty alleviation should be carried out, we have put forward five key measures to lift people out of poverty: some by increasing production; some through relocation; some through ecological compensation; some through education; and some by providing allowances to assist them in meeting their basic needs. We have also alleviated poverty by boosting employment, improving medical services, and helping people earn returns on assets, etc. Overall, we have tailored initiatives to the needs of different localities and individuals, providing people with what they are missing and allowing them to do what they are capable of doing, thus alleviating poverty by getting to the root of the problem.

为解决好“如何退”问题,我当时提出4句话,即:设定时间表、留出缓冲期、实行严格评估、实行逐户销号。我们明确贫困县、贫困村、贫困人口退出标准和程序,指导各地科学合理制定脱贫滚动规划和年度计划,对拟退出的贫困县组织第三方进行严格评估,有关政策保持稳定。从各方面反映的情况看,已经宣布摘帽的县成效是实打实的。总的看,脱贫攻坚成效是明显的。

To identify standards and procedures for exiting poverty, I mentioned four points at the meeting in 2015: setting a timetable, giving a grace period, evaluating the results of our work against strict criteria, and identifying exits from poverty on a per-household basis. We have clearly defined the standards and procedures for poor counties, villages, and people to exit poverty, guided localities in rationally formulating rolling programs and annual plans for poverty alleviation, and organized strict third-party assessments of poor counties that are prepared to exit poverty, with relevant policies remaining stable. According to feedback from various sources, concrete results have been secured in counties that have declared their exit from poverty. Generally speaking, we have achieved clear results in our fight against poverty.

一是脱贫摘帽有序推进。现行标准下农村贫困人口从2012年的9899万人减少到2018年的1660万人,累计减少8239万人,连续6年每年减贫规模都在1000万人以上,贫困发生率由10.2%降至1.7%,改变了以往新标准实施后减贫人数逐年递减的趋势,打破了前两轮扶贫每当贫困人口减到3000万左右就减不动的瓶颈。全国832个贫困县,153个已宣布摘帽,284个正在进行摘帽评估,改变了贫困县越扶越多的局面。今年再完成减贫1000万人以上、摘帽330个县的任务,到2020年初预计全国只剩下600万左右贫困人口和60多个贫困县。

First, we have promoted exits from poverty in an orderly manner. The number of rural residents living below the current poverty line decreased from 98.99 million in 2012 to 16.6 million in 2018, a total reduction of 82.39 million. An average of more than ten million people have been lifted out of poverty each year for six years running, and poverty rate has dropped from 10.2% to 1.7%. We have changed the former trend toward a year-on-year decrease in the number of people being lifted out of poverty after adopting new standards for exiting poverty, and broken the bottleneck that existed in the past two rounds of poverty alleviation in which we were unable to further reduce the poor population when it dropped to about 30 million. Among the country’s 832 poor counties, 153 have declared that they have left poverty behind, and 284 are undergoing relevant evaluation. The number of poor counties, which used to increase despite our poverty alleviation efforts, is now decreasing. It is estimated that after fulfilling this year’s task of lifting ten million people and 330 counties out of poverty, there will be only six million poor people and 60-plus poor counties across the country at the beginning of 2020.

二是“两不愁”总体实现。贫困群众不愁吃、不愁穿应该说普遍做到了,困扰群众的行路难、吃水难、用电难、通讯难、上学难、就医难、住危房等问题在大部分地区得到了较好解决。

Second, we have achieved overall success with regard to the “two assurances.” We have ensured that essentially all of our poor citizens have adequate food and clothing, and that people in most areas have access to roads, drinking water, electricity, communication, education, medical services, and safe housing.

三是易地扶贫搬迁建设任务即将完成。“十三五”期间,我们计划对“一方水土养活不了一方人”的地方易地搬迁1000万左右建档立卡贫困人口,到去年底已经完成870万贫困人口的搬迁建设任务,大部分搬迁人口脱了贫,今年剩余建设任务将全面完成。

Third, construction tasks in alleviating poverty through relocation are nearing completion. During the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-2020), we planned to relocate about ten million people registered as living in poverty from inhospitable areas. By the end of last year, construction tasks related to the relocation of 8.7 million people had been completed, and most relocated people have been lifted out of poverty. We expect that the remaining construction tasks will be fully completed this year.

四是党在农村的执政基础更加巩固。一大批干部在脱贫攻坚战中得到锤炼,农村基层党组织凝聚力和战斗力明显增强,农村基层治理能力和管理水平明显提高,党群干群关系不断改善。

Fourth, the CPC’s governing foundations in rural areas have been further consolidated. A large number of officials have been tempered in the fight against poverty, local CPC organizations in rural areas have seen their cohesiveness and effectiveness significantly enhanced, rural governance and management capacity at the local level has improved markedly, and the relationship between the Party and the public and between officials and the public has continued to improve.

我们在扶贫脱贫方面取得的成就和经验,为全球减贫事业贡献了中国智慧和中国方案,彰显了中国共产党领导和我国社会主义制度的政治优势,赢得了国际社会高度评价,很多国家和国际组织表示希望分享中国减贫经验。在发展中国家中,只有中国实现了快速发展和大规模减贫同步,贫困人口共享改革发展成果,这是一个了不起的人间奇迹。

The success and experience that we have gained in poverty alleviation have contributed Chinese wisdom and solutions to the cause of global poverty reduction, demonstrating the political strength of the CPC’s leadership and China’s socialist system and winning praise from the international community. Many countries and international organizations have expressed their hope to benefit from China’s experience in poverty reduction. China is the only developing country that has simultaneously brought about rapid development and large-scale poverty reduction and enabled the poor population to share the fruits of reform and development. This is a miraculous achievement.

在肯定成绩的同时,我们也要清醒认识全面打赢脱贫攻坚战面临的困难和问题。困难和问题主要有3类。

While acknowledging our achievements, we must also be clearly aware of the difficulties and problems that we face as we push toward an overall victory in the fight against poverty. These fall into three main categories.

第一类是直接影响脱贫攻坚目标任务实现的问题。比如,脱贫标准把握不精准,有的降低标准,没实现“两不愁三保障”就宣布脱贫,更多是拔高标准,像易地搬迁面积超标准、看病不花钱、上什么学都免费等,脱离国情不可持续。再比如,深度贫困地区脱贫任务依然艰巨,“三区三州”仍有172万建档立卡贫困人口,占全国现有贫困人口的12.5%,贫困发生率8.2%。全国还有98个县贫困发生率在10%以上,建档立卡贫困人口359.6万人,占全国的26%,贫困发生率比全国高出13.3个百分点,是难中之难、坚中之坚。还比如,“三保障”工作不扎实,义务教育、基本医疗、住房安全和饮水安全等方面还存在薄弱环节。现在,全国贫困人口中14%需要解决“三保障”问题。还有,脱贫摘帽后工作放松,有的摘帽县出现撤摊子、甩包袱、歇歇脚的情况,有的摘帽县不是把精力物力用在巩固成果上,而是庆功搞铺张浪费。

The first includes problems that directly impact our efforts to realize our objectives in fighting poverty. For example, there are regions failing to accurately apply poverty alleviation standards. Some have lowered standards and claimed that they have exited poverty without seeing that the “two assurances and three guarantees” are fully in place. Even more have raised standards by pursuing free medical services, free education, or relocation with excessive living space. Such actions are not sustainable since they give no consideration to our national conditions. Another problem is that deeply impoverished areas are still facing daunting poverty alleviation tasks. There are still 1.72 million people registered as living in poverty in the “three regions” (Tibet, the four prefectures of Hotan, Aksu, Kashgar, and Kizilsu in southern Xinjiang, and the ethnic Tibetan areas in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu, and Qinghai) and the “three prefectures” (Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan, Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan, and Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu). With a poverty rate of 8.2%, these areas make up 12.5% of the country’s poor population. There are still 98 counties across the country where the poverty rate is above 10%. In these counties, there are 3.596 million people registered as living in poverty, accounting for 26% of the country’s poor population, and the poverty rate is 13.3 percentage points higher than the national rate. These areas represent the most stubborn challenge in our fight against poverty. Furthermore, we have yet to secure the “three guarantees,” since weak links still exist in guaranteeing access to compulsory education, basic medical services, safe housing, and safe drinking water. At present, issues covered in the “three guarantees” have yet to be resolved for 14% of the country’s poor population. Finally, we have seen efforts slacken after exits from poverty, with some counties abandoning poverty alleviation projects, shirking their responsibilities, or choosing to take a break, while others have wasted energy and resources on celebrations instead of building on their achievements.

第二类是工作中需要进一步改进的问题。比如,脱贫攻坚责任不落实、政策不落实、工作不落实问题,形式主义、官僚主义问题,数字脱贫、虚假脱贫问题,以及贪占挪用扶贫资金等问题。

The second includes further improvements that need to be made to our work. For example, numerous problems have emerged in poverty alleviation such as failure to assume responsibilities, implement policies, and carry out initiatives, going through formalities for formality sake and bureaucratic practices, deception and manipulation of figures, and misappropriation of poverty alleviation funds.

第三类是需要长期逐步解决的问题。比如,产业发展基础薄弱,易地扶贫搬迁后续帮扶措施乏力,稳定脱贫长效机制没有建立,贫困群众内生动力不足、陈规陋习难改等。对这些问题,要分清轻重缓急、妥善解决,必须解决且有能力解决的要抓紧解决,不能影响脱贫攻坚目标任务完成;有的问题是长期性的,攻坚期内不能毕其功于一役,但要有总体安排,创造条件分阶段逐步解决。

The third includes problems that need to be resolved gradually over the long term. For example, the foundations for industrial development are weak, follow-up assistance measures for poor people that have been relocated are insufficient, and long-term mechanisms for people to steadily make their way out of poverty have yet to be established. Among poor population, there is a lack of endogenous drive as well as outmoded customs and habits are difficult to break away from. We must properly resolve these problems by setting clear priorities. For problems that must and can be resolved, we should work quickly to find solutions so that they do not hinder us from completing our objectives in the fight against poverty. For certain protracted problems that cannot be solved overnight, we should make overall arrangements and lay the groundwork for them to be resolved in a step-by-step manner.

二、着力解决“两不愁三保障”突出问题

II. We must focus on resolving outstanding problems concerning the “two assurances and three guarantees.”

到2020年稳定实现农村贫困人口不愁吃、不愁穿,义务教育、基本医疗、住房安全有保障,是贫困人口脱贫的基本要求和核心指标,直接关系攻坚战质量。总的看,“两不愁”基本解决了,“三保障”还存在不少薄弱环节。

The basic requirements and core criteria for poverty alleviation are assuring the rural poor population that they have enough to eat and to wear and guaranteeing them access to compulsory education, basic medical services, and safe housing by 2020. These goals have a direct bearing on the quality of our fight against poverty. On the whole, the “two assurances” have essentially been settled, but there are still many areas of weakness in the “three guarantees.”

在义务教育保障方面,全国有60多万义务教育阶段孩子辍学。乡镇寄宿制学校建设薄弱,一部分留守儿童上学困难。在基本医疗保障方面,一些贫困人口没有参加基本医疗保险,一些贫困人口常见病、慢性病得不到及时治疗,贫困县乡村医疗设施薄弱,有的贫困村没有卫生室或者没有合格村医。在住房安全保障方面,全国需要进行危房改造的4类重点对象大约160万户,其中建档立卡贫困户约80万户。一些地方农房没有进行危房鉴定,或者鉴定不准。在饮水安全方面,还有大约104万贫困人口饮水安全问题没有解决,全国农村有6000万人饮水安全需要巩固提升。如果到了2020年这些问题还没有得到较好解决,就会影响脱贫攻坚成色。

With regard to guaranteeing access to compulsory education, there are more than 600,000 children that have discontinued their studies in the compulsory stage. Boarding schools in towns and townships are insufficiently developed, and it is difficult for some children left behind in rural areas to receive education. With regard to guaranteeing access to basic medical services, some poor people are not covered by basic medical insurance, and some do not receive prompt treatment for common illnesses and chronic conditions. Medical facilities in poor counties, townships, and villages are insufficient, and some poor villages have no clinics or qualified doctors. With regard to guaranteeing access to safe housing, throughout the country there are about 1.6 million households in four key groups (namely households eligible for subsistence allowances, individuals living in extreme poverty on basic assistance in rural areas, families of people with disabilities affected by poverty, and households registered as living in poverty) that require renovation of their dilapidated housing, of which 800,000 households are registered as living in poverty. Some rural areas have not carried out assessments of such housing or have failed to ensure the accuracy of these assessments. With regard to guaranteeing access to safe drinking water, the problem has yet to be resolved for about 1.04 million poor people, while water safety needs to be further consolidated and enhanced for 60 million rural residents. If not effectively resolved by 2020, these problems will greatly detract from our success in fighting against poverty.

对以上问题,各地区各部门要高度重视,统一思想,抓好落实。解决“三保障”突出问题,要坚持中央统筹、省负总责、市县抓落实的体制机制。扶贫领导小组要加强统筹协调和督促指导,及时调度情况。教育部、住房城乡建设部、水利部、国家卫生健康委、国家医保局既是扶贫领导小组组成部门,也是“三保障”工作的主管部门,主要负责同志要亲自抓,分管同志具体抓。要根据部门职能,明确工作标准和支持政策,指导各地进行筛查解决。相关省区市要组织基层进行核查,摸清基本情况,统筹组织资源,制定实施方案,研究提出针对性措施。市县具体组织实施,逐项逐户对账销号,确保不留死角。

Authorities and departments at all levels must take the above problems seriously, get on the same page, and carry out relevant initiatives effectively. To resolve outstanding problems concerning the “three guarantees,” we must adhere to systems and mechanisms under which the central government formulates overarching plans, provincial governments assume overall responsibility, and city and county governments take charge of implementation. The central leading group on poverty alleviation should enhance overall coordination, oversight, and guidance, and make relevant arrangements in a timely manner. The Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, the Ministry of Water Resources, the National Health Commission, and the National Healthcare Security Administration are not only part of the leading group on poverty alleviation, but also responsible for managing work related to the “three guarantees.” Principal leaders of these departments must personally take the initiative, while officials in charge of specific tasks must make concrete efforts. These departments must define clear standards for their work and establish supporting policies in line with their respective functions, and guide local authorities in analyzing and resolving problems. Relevant provincial-level governments should organize local units to conduct checks, feel out the situation on the ground, organize resources in a coordinated manner, formulate and implement plans, and work out targeted measures. City and county governments should take responsibility for the implementation of specific initiatives and verify exits from poverty on a case-by-case and household-by-household basis to ensure that no blind spots exist.

我多次强调,要坚持现行脱贫标准,既不拔高,也不降低。实现义务教育有保障主要是让贫困家庭义务教育阶段的孩子不失学辍学;实现基本医疗有保障主要是所有贫困人口都参加医疗保险制度,常见病、慢性病有地方看、看得起,得了大病、重病后基本生活过得去;住房安全有保障主要是让贫困人口不住危房;饮水安全有保障主要是让农村人口喝上放心水,统筹研究解决饮水安全问题。这是国家统一的基本标准,但各地情况不一样。比如,对住房安全有保障,南方住房要注重通风,北方住房要注重保暖;对饮水安全有保障,西北地区重点解决有水喝的问题,西南地区重点解决储水供水和水质达标问题。各地执行时要结合实际进行把握,不能一刀切。各地在解决“三保障”突出问题时做了不少探索,有些地方有意无意拔高了标准。对明显超出标准的,要予以纠正;对没有明显超标的,要保持政策稳定性、连续性,少“翻烧饼”。

I have emphasized on many occasions that we must adhere to current poverty alleviation standards and refrain from raising or lowering them. Guaranteeing access to compulsory education mainly entails ensuring that the school-age children of poor families complete their education. Guaranteeing access to basic medical services mainly entails ensuring that all poor people are covered by the medical insurance system, that there are facilities where they can access affordable treatment for common illnesses and chronic conditions, and that they can maintain a basic standard of living in the event that they become seriously ill. Guaranteeing access to safe housing mainly entails ensuring that poor people do not live in dilapidated housing. Guaranteeing access to safe drinking water mainly entails ensuring that rural citizens feel at ease about the water they drink and that we make coordinated efforts to analyze and resolve safety issues in this regard. These are the country’s unified, basic standards, but conditions vary from region to region. For example, with regard to ensuring housing safety, the southern region should focus on ventilation, while the northern region should focus on heating and insulation. With regard to ensuring the safety of drinking water, the northwestern region should focus on finding adequate sources of water, while the southwestern region should focus on the storage and delivery of water as well as on bringing water quality up to required standards. Therefore, different localities should act in line with actual conditions rather than trying to use “one-size-fits-all” solutions. Extensive inquiries have been made by various localities into how to resolve outstanding problems concerning the “three guarantees,” with some either wittingly or unwittingly raising standards. Such practices should be rectified if they markedly exceed standards. If standards are only exceeded by a small margin, however, then the stability and continuity of policies should be maintained in order to prevent too much chopping and changing.

解决“两不愁三保障”突出问题,摸清底数是基础,有的地方底数依然不是很清楚,这是不行的。有关部门要指导各地摸清底数,确保工作有的放矢。有关部门要加强数据比对衔接,不能一个部门一个数。行业主管部门要牵头制定工作方案,各省区市要制定实施方案,明确时间表、路线图,拿出过硬举措和办法,确保如期完成任务。解决“三保障”突出问题的政策、资金是够的,关键是抓好落实。要加大工作力度,聚焦突出问题,逐村逐户逐项查漏补缺、补齐短板。要宣传好政策和标准,统一思想认识,引导社会各方面准确理解,不能各说各的。

To resolve outstanding problems concerning the “two assurances and three guarantees,” it is essential to acquire a clear sense of basic conditions. Some localities have still failed to do so, and this is unacceptable. Relevant departments must guide all localities in getting a clear sense of basic conditions to ensure that they are working toward definite goals. Relevant departments should also enhance verification and connection of data in order to avoid inconsistencies between different departments. Supervisory departments for relevant industries should take the lead in formulating work plans, while provincial-level governments should formulate implementation plans, set timetables and roadmaps, and come up with effective measures and methods to ensure that tasks are completed on schedule. Our policies and funds for resolving outstanding problems concerning the “three guarantees” are sufficient; the key is ensuring that they are applied effectively. We need to intensify our efforts, focus on outstanding problems, and rectify deficiencies on a per-village, per-household, and per-case basis. We also need to publicize our policies and standards to ensure that we are all on the same page, and guide all sectors of society in accurately understanding these policies so as to prevent the emergence of varying interpretations.

三、扎实做好今明两年脱贫攻坚工作

III. We must make solid efforts this year and next in the fight against poverty.

我国总体上已基本实现了全面建成小康社会的目标,但还有一些短板,最大的短板是脱贫攻坚。现在,脱贫攻坚战进入决胜的关键阶段,打法要同初期的全面部署、中期的全面推进有所区别,最要紧的是防止松懈、防止滑坡。各地区各部门务必一鼓作气、顽强作战,不获全胜决不收兵。

Taking everything into account, China has already essentially achieved the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. However, there remain some shortcomings, the greatest of which is in our fight against poverty. The fight against poverty has now entered a crucial stage for us to secure a decisive victory. Our approach in this stage should differ from the overall planning of the initial stage and the overall advancement of the intermediate stage since now the most urgent task is to prevent our efforts from slackening or slipping. All localities and departments must press on without respite, not letting up until a complete victory has been secured.

第一,强化责任落实。“处事不以聪明为先,而以尽心为急。”脱贫攻坚是全面建成小康社会必须完成的硬任务。各省区市党政主要负责同志要增强“四个意识”、坚定“四个自信”、做到“两个维护”,强化政治责任,亲力亲为抓好脱贫攻坚。省级分管扶贫的负责同志岗位特殊,要熟悉情况、钻研业务,当好参谋助手,抓好工作落实。省里分管扶贫的负责同志要选优配强、原则上保持稳定,对不合适、不胜任的要做一些调整。各行业部门要围绕脱贫攻坚目标任务,按照尽锐出战要求,切实履职尽责、合力攻坚,对责任不落实、政策不落实、工作不落实影响任务完成的要进行问责。

First, we must strengthen accountability. As a Chinese saying goes, “Capable people attach greater importance to conscientiousness than to resourcefulness.” Winning the fight against poverty is a task that must be fulfilled if we are to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Principal leaders of provincial-level Party committees and governments must boost awareness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the CPC central leadership core, and keep in alignment; strengthen their confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics; resolutely uphold the General Secretary’s core position on the CPC Central Committee and in the Party as a whole, and resolutely uphold the CPC Central Committee’s authority and its centralized, unified leadership; and heighten their political responsibility as they take action in the fight against poverty. Provincial-level officials in charge of poverty alleviation must, on account of their special position, ensure that they are well acquainted with relevant circumstances and build expertise so that they can effectively advise and assist in the implementation of initiatives. Each province should select and appoint capable officials to take charge of poverty alleviation efforts. Leadership should remain stable in principle, but adjustments should be made where officials are found to be unsuited to their post or incapable of performing their duties. All industries and government departments must put their utmost effort toward our poverty alleviation objectives, working together and ensuring that they perform their duties. Those who hinder the fulfillment of our goals due to their failure to assume responsibilities, implement policies, and carry out initiatives must be held to account.

第二,攻克坚中之坚。深度贫困地区贫困程度深、基础条件差、致贫原因复杂,民族、宗教、维稳问题交织,是决定脱贫攻坚战能否打赢的关键。2017年6月,我在山西主持召开深度贫困地区脱贫攻坚座谈会,要求集中力量攻克“三区三州”等深度贫困堡垒。会后,党中央制定了支持深度贫困地区脱贫攻坚的实施意见,各方面都加大了力度,但不能放松。“三区三州”外的一些深度贫困县要加大工作力度,逐一研究细化实化攻坚举措,攻城拔寨,确保完成脱贫任务。

Second, we must overcome the most difficult challenges in poverty alleviation. Our efforts to address problems in areas with extreme poverty, poor basic conditions, complex causes of poverty, and overlapping ethnic, religious, and stability issues are the key in determining whether we can win the battle against poverty. In June 2017 in Shanxi, I presided over a symposium on poverty alleviation in deeply impoverished areas, calling for concentrated efforts to lift deeply impoverished areas such as the “three regions and three prefectures” out of poverty. After the meeting, the CPC Central Committee formulated guidelines for supporting poverty alleviation in these areas. Though various sectors have intensified their efforts in this regard, we must make sure that efforts do not slacken. There are certain deeply impoverished counties aside from the “three regions and three prefectures” where we need to redouble our efforts and work out specific and pragmatic measures through a step-by-step approach so that we may overcome difficult obstacles and ensure that poverty alleviation tasks are completed.

第三,认真整改问题。这次脱贫攻坚专项巡视和成效考核发现了不少突出问题和共性问题,主要表现在以下几个方面。一是没有把脱贫攻坚当作重大政治任务来抓,责任落实不到位,思想认识有差距,落实不力。二是贯彻精准方略有偏差,或发钱发物“一发了之”,或统一入股分红“一股了之”,或低保兜底“一兜了之”,没有把精力用在绣花功夫上。三是形式主义、官僚主义问题突出,像花钱刷白墙,又不能吃不能穿,搞这些无用功,浪费国家的钱!会议多、检查多、填表多,基层干部疲于应付。各地区各部门要全面排查梳理问题,各类问题要确保整改到位,为明年工作打下良好基础。

Third, we must work earnestly to rectify problems. The most recent round of special inspections and impact assessments of poverty alleviation has discovered numerous outstanding and endemic problems, which mainly exist in the following areas. The first is failure to regard poverty alleviation as a major political task. This results in inadequate assumption of responsibility, discordant thinking, and lackluster implementation. The second is deviation from the principle of targeted poverty alleviation. Some have reduced poverty alleviation to mere distribution of money and supplies, dividends from community businesses, or subsistence allowances instead of focusing their energy on doing precise work. The third is excessive formalism and bureaucratic practices. For instance, some have spent money on whitewashing walls, which brings no benefit at all to the public and only constitutes a pointless waste of the country’s money. In addition, local officials have been brought to the point of exhaustion by the large numbers of meetings to attend, inspections to conduct, and forms to fill out. Authorities of all regions and departments should take a full inventory of problems and ensure that problems in every category are properly rectified, so that we may lay sound foundations for next year’s work.

第四,提高脱贫质量。脱贫既要看数量,更要看质量,不能到时候都说完成了脱贫任务,过一两年又大规模返贫。要多管齐下提高脱贫质量,巩固脱贫成果。要严把贫困退出关,严格执行退出的标准和程序,确保脱真贫、真脱贫。要把防止返贫摆在重要位置,适时组织对脱贫人口开展“回头看”,对返贫人口和新发生贫困人口及时予以帮扶。要探索建立稳定脱贫长效机制,强化产业扶贫,组织消费扶贫,加大培训力度,促进转移就业,让贫困群众有稳定的工作岗位。要做好易地扶贫搬迁后续帮扶。要加强扶贫同扶志扶智相结合,让脱贫具有可持续的内生动力。

Fourth, we must raise the quality of poverty alleviation. Poverty alleviation must give consideration to both quantity and quality, but put greater focus on the latter. We cannot allow a scenario in which all localities claim that they have completed their poverty alleviation tasks on schedule but then slip back into poverty en masse a year or two down the line. Adopting a multi-layered approach, we must raise the quality of poverty alleviation and consolidate the results of our efforts in this regard. We must strictly control exits from poverty by rigorously enforcing relevant standards and procedures to ensure that poverty alleviation initiatives are genuinely effective and reach those who truly need help. We should prioritize the prevention of relapse into poverty, conduct timely follow-up checks on people lifted out of poverty, and offer prompt assistance to those relapsing into poverty as well as new cases of poverty. We should look into forming long-term mechanisms for people to steadily make their way out of poverty, including strengthening poverty alleviation by developing industries in poor areas and channeling consumer spending to these areas, enhancing relevant training, and promoting nonagricultural employment opportunities for the surplus rural workforce so that poor people can find stable jobs. We need to provide adequate follow-up support to people that have been relocated, and ensure that our poverty alleviation efforts help people build the confidence and capacity to pull themselves out of poverty so that the campaign is equipped with sustainable internal drive.

第五,稳定脱贫攻坚政策。“胜非其难也,持之者其难也。”今年上半年将累计有430多个贫困县宣布摘帽。考核中发现,一些摘帽县去年以来出现松劲懈怠,有的撤摊子、歇歇脚,有的转移重心、更换频道,有的书记、县长希望动一动,一些已脱贫的群众收入不增甚至下降。贫困县摘帽后,要继续完成剩余贫困人口脱贫任务,实现已脱贫人口的稳定脱贫。贫困县党政正职要保持稳定,做到摘帽不摘责任;脱贫攻坚主要政策要继续执行,做到摘帽不摘政策;扶贫工作队不能撤,做到摘帽不摘帮扶;要把防止返贫放在重要位置,做到摘帽不摘监管。有关部门要抓紧研究提出落实意见。

Fifth, we must keep our poverty alleviation policies stable. As an old Chinese saying goes, “The most difficult part of a victory is not winning it, but rather sustaining it.” In the first half of this year, more than 430 poor counties will bid farewell to poverty. During the assessment process, it was found that some counties that had shaken off the designation of being poor have grown sluggish in their efforts since last year. Some have put their feet up and abandoned poverty alleviation projects, and some have shifted their focus elsewhere. Party committee secretaries and administrators in some counties have shown eagerness to be transferred to other posts, and some people that have been lifted out of poverty have seen their incomes stagnate or even decrease. After shaking off the designation of being poor, counties must continue to complete the task of lifting their remaining poor out of poverty, and keep those who have already been lifted out of poverty from falling back in. In these counties, Party and government leadership should remain stable with officials aware that they still bear responsibility, major poverty alleviation policies should remain in force so that they are followed through with, poverty alleviation teams should remain in place so that they continue to provide assistance, and oversight should be prioritized to prevent people from slipping back into poverty. Relevant departments must work quickly to propose specific ways of satisfying these requirements.

第六,切实改进作风。要把全面从严治党要求贯穿脱贫攻坚全过程,强化作风建设,确保扶贫工作务实、脱贫过程扎实、脱贫结果真实。要完善和落实抓党建促脱贫的体制机制,做好脱贫攻坚干部培训,提高各级干部的责任感、使命感和工作能力。要发挥基层党组织带领群众脱贫致富的战斗堡垒作用,深化扶贫领域腐败和作风问题专项治理,把基层减负各项决策落到实处。

Sixth, we must improve our conduct. We need to incorporate the requirement of comprehensively governing the Party with strict discipline throughout the entire process of our fight to eradicate poverty, and improve our conduct in order to ensure that concrete efforts are made to alleviate poverty, that channels to exit from poverty are sound, and that poverty alleviation leads to genuine results. We need to implement and improve systems and mechanisms for promoting poverty alleviation through Party building, effectively train poverty alleviation officials, and enhance the abilities of officials at all levels while instilling within them a stronger sense of mission and responsibility. We need to exert the crucial role of local Party organizations in leading the general public out of poverty and toward prosperity, push deeper with efforts to combat corruption and misconduct in poverty alleviation, and implement policy decisions designed to ease the burdens on localities.

在扶贫一线的扶贫干部绝大部分牢记使命重托,用自己的辛苦换来贫困群众的幸福,有的长期超负荷运转,有的没时间照顾家庭孩子,有的身体透支亮红灯,有的甚至献出了宝贵的生命。对奋战在脱贫攻坚一线的同志们,我们要关心他们的生活、健康、安全,对牺牲干部的家属要及时给予抚恤、长期帮扶慰问。对在基层一线干出成绩、群众欢迎的干部,要注意培养使用。要加强宣传表彰,讲好脱贫攻坚故事。同时,对那些畏苦畏难、敷衍了事、弄虚作假的扶贫干部,要加强教育管理,该撤换的要及时撤换,该问责的要坚决问责。

The vast majority of officials working on the front lines of poverty alleviation have kept their mission firmly in mind, and worked hard for the wellbeing of the poor. Some have long been overloaded in their work, some have had no time to take care of their families and children, some have exhausted themselves to the point that they are unable to go on for health reasons, and some have even sacrificed their lives. We must show great care for the lives, health, and safety of those serving on the front lines of the fight against poverty, and immediately provide subsidies and long-term support for the families of deceased officials. We must see that officials who have performed well and won public approval at the local level are effectively trained and put to good use. We must also enhance publicity and commend outstanding officials so that the public is aware of stories of heroism from the fight against poverty. Finally, with regard to poverty alleviation officials who flinch in the face of difficulty, muddle through their work, or stoop to deception, we must enhance education and supervision, replacing those who should be replaced and holding to account those who should be held accountable.

打赢脱贫攻坚战是一项光荣而艰巨的历史任务,夺取全面胜利还要继续付出艰苦努力。我们要一鼓作气、越战越勇,为如期全面打赢脱贫攻坚战、如期全面建成小康社会作出新的更大贡献。

Winning the fight against poverty is a historic mission that is both glorious and immensely challenging. If we are to attain complete success in this mission, we must continue putting in arduous efforts. We must press on with courage and resolve, making new and greater contributions so that we may realize our goals of winning the fight against poverty and building a moderately prosperous society on schedule.

文章来源:新华网
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