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双语:共建地球生命共同体:中国在行动
文章来源:外交部 发布时间:2020-09-30 15:11 作者:admin 点击:

共建地球生命共同体:中国在行动

Building a Shared Future for All Life on Earth: China in Action

——联合国生物多样性峰会中方立场文件

– Position Paper of the People’s Republic of China for the United Nations Summit on Biodiversity

中方支持联合国举办生物多样性峰会,赞赏联合国一直以来在推动全球环境治理进程所作努力和贡献。在全球生物多样性丧失加速、疫情对经济社会带来全面冲击的背景下,各方更应携手合作,共同应对全球生物多样性面临的严峻挑战。

China supports the United Nations in holding the Biodiversity Summit and lauds the UN efforts and contributions in advancing global environmental governance. Against the backdrop of accelerated global biodiversity loss and the impact of COVID-19 on various aspects of the economy and society, it is imperative that all parties work together to address the serious challenges facing global biodiversity.

中方高度重视生物多样性工作,坚持生态文明思想,不断加速生物多样性在国内各部门和各领域的主流化,通过实施生态保护工程等措施促进生态系统有效修复和保护,着力提高公众参与度,推动生物多样性国际合作与交流,美丽中国的建设进程不断推进。中方愿与各方分享生态文明建设经验,加强生物多样性合作,共同迈向“人与自然和谐共处”的2050年愿景。

China attaches great importance to biodiversity, adheres to the philosophy of ecological civilization, and has been working continuously to expedite the mainstreaming of biodiversity across all departments and sectors, promote effective restoration and protection of ecosystems through the implementation of ecological conservation projects and other measures, improve public participation, and boost international cooperation and exchanges on biodiversity. Sustained efforts have been made toward the initiative of “building a beautiful China”. China is ready to share its experience in advancing ecological civilization with all parties and step up cooperation on biodiversity in order to move the world toward the 2050 Vision of “Living in harmony with nature”.

作为《生物多样性公约》第十五次缔约方大会(COP15)主席国,中方坚定支持多边主义,一直是生物多样性多边进程的积极参与者和推动者。中方主张平衡推进《生物多样性公约》确定的保护生物多样性、持续利用其组成部分、公平合理分享由利用遗传资源而产生的惠益的三大目标,在坚持公正、透明、缔约方驱动原则前提下,推动各方扩大共识、相向而行,推动达成既具雄心又平衡务实的“2020年后全球生物多样性框架”,推动形成更加公正合理、各尽所能的生物多样性治理体系。

As the incoming presidency of the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), China is a staunch advocate of multilateralism and has always been an active participant and facilitator of the multilateral process of biodiversity. China stands for the balanced implementation of the Convention’s three objectives, namely the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. China urges all parties, under the principles of fairness, transparency and parties-driven process, to broaden consensus, move in the same direction, and facilitate the adoption of an ambitious, balanced and realistic Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, and move toward a more just and equitable biodiversity governance system that embodies the best efforts of all parties.

一、坚持生态文明思想

I. Adhering to the Philosophy of Ecological Civilization

为应对工业化过程所带来的环境污染、生态系统退化等严峻挑战,中国政府倡导并建设生态文明。生态文明思想继承了中国古代“天人合一”“道法自然”的优秀传统思想,是以人与自然、人与人、人与社会和谐共生、良性循环、全面发展、持续繁荣为基本宗旨的文化伦理形态。生态文明思想包含“八个坚持”原则,即坚持生态兴则文明兴,坚持人与自然和谐共生,坚持绿水青山就是金山银山,坚持良好生态环境是最普惠的民生福祉,坚持山水林田湖草是生命共同体,坚持用最严格制度最严密法治保护生态环境,坚持建设美丽中国全民行动,坚持共谋全球生态文明建设,将生态文明全面融入经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设各方面和全过程。生态文明思想所倡导的原则,与《生物多样性公约》确定的保护生物多样性、持续利用其组成部分、公平合理分享由利用遗传资源而产生的惠益的三大目标,以及“人与自然和谐共生”的2050年愿景高度契合。

In light of the serious challenges presented by industrialization such as environmental pollution and ecosystem degradation, the Chinese government has been advocating and working to advance ecological civilization, which draws upon the ancient Chinese notion of “unity of nature and man” and “follow nature’s course”. It embodies the cultural ethics based on the tenets of harmonious coexistence between man and nature, among human beings and between humanity and society, virtuous cycle, all-round development and sustainable prosperity. The philosophy is underpinned by eight principles that China upholds, i.e., civilizations thrive on their natural surroundings; man and nature should coexist in harmony; lucid water and lush mountains are invaluable assets; no welfare is more universally beneficial than a sound natural environment; mountains, waters, forests, farmlands, lakes and grasslands are part of a community of life; the strictest regulations and laws must be applied in protecting the environment; an all-nation effort is needed to build a beautiful China; global ecological conservation requires the joint efforts of all; and ecological civilization must be incorporated into all aspects and the whole process of advancing economic, political, cultural, and social progress. These principles align closely with the three objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity: the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. They are also highly compatible with the 2050 Vision “Living in harmony with nature”.

近年来,中国将“生态文明”写入宪法,纳入国家发展总体布局,提出创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展理念。在生态文明思想的指导下,中国生态文明建设进入了快车道,天更蓝、山更绿、水更清将不断展现在世人面前。

Ecological civilization was enshrined in the Chinese Constitution in 2018 and embedded in the master blueprint of national development. China has put forward the philosophy of innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development. Guided by the philosophy of ecological civilization, China’s efforts in this regard have kicked into high gear. The beautiful scroll of bluer skies, greener mountains and clearer waters will unfold in front of the world.

构建地球生命共同体是人类的共同梦想。面对生态问题的挑战,人类是一荣俱荣、一损俱损的命运共同体。中国坚持生态文明思想,在生态文明建设方面取得显著成就,中国愿与国际社会携手同行,牢固树立尊重自然、顺应自然、保护自然的意识,积极分享中国生态文明建设的经验,坚持绿色发展理念,倡导低碳、循环、可持续的生产生活方式,共建地球生命共同体,共谋全球生态文明之路。

Building a shared future for all life on Earth represents the shared aspiration of mankind. Faced with the ecological challenges, all people are members of a community where they rise and fall together. China adheres to the philosophy of ecological civilization and has made remarkable progress in this respect. China is willing to join hands with the international community to raise the awareness of respecting, following and protecting nature, actively share its experience in advancing ecological civilization, stay committed to green development and a low-carbon, circular and sustainable mode of production and life, jointly build a shared future for all life on Earth, and chart the course for global ecological civilization.

二、采取有力政策措施

II. Adopting Strong Policy Measures

(一)加速生物多样性主流化进程

1. Accelerating the Mainstreaming of Biodiversity

建立生物多样性部门协调机制。2011年,中国成立由国务院副总理任主任,23个国务院部门组成的“中国生物多样性保护国家委员会”,有力促进各部门间沟通与协调,统筹推进全国生物多样性工作。

China has developed inter-agency government coordination mechanisms for biodiversity. In 2011, the China National Committee for Biodiversity Conservation (CNCBC), composed of 23 departments under the State Council and headed by a Vice Premier, was established to promote communication and collaboration among departments and coordinate biodiversity actions at the national level.

制定实施生物多样性保护战略计划。中国于2010年制定并实施了《中国生物多样性保护战略与行动计划》(2011—2030年),提出中国未来20年生物多样性保护总体目标、战略任务和优先行动。自2015年起,通过实施生物多样性保护重大工程,对全国野生动植物资源进行调查观测,调查记录超过210万条,不断跟踪评估《中国生物多样性保护战略与行动计划》(2011—2030年)执行进展。

China has formulated and executed a strategic plan for biodiversity conservation. Drafted and adopted in 2010, the China National Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan (2011-2030) identified the overall goals, strategic tasks and priority actions for biodiversity conservation in the country for the coming two decades. Since 2015, China has conducted wildlife survey and monitoring through major biodiversity conservation projects, logging more than 2.1 million entries. Continued efforts have been made to track and evaluate the progress in the implementation of the Strategy and Action Plan.

将生物多样性纳入经济社会发展和生态保护修复规划、国土空间规划及其专项规划。中国高度重视生物多样性,将其纳入《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十三个五年规划纲要》(2016—2020年),通过建立国土空间规划体系,划定生态保护红线,开展自然保护地体系建设,形成生态保护总体格局,并在生态保护与建设、水土保持、耕地草原河湖休养生息、濒危野生动植物保护、水资源保护等相关规划和计划中进一步明确生物多样性保护和管理措施。今年6月,中国发布了《全国重要生态系统保护和修复重大工程总体规划(2021—2035年)》,全面提出未来十五年生态系统综合治理目标。

China has incorporated biodiversity into its overall planning for economic and social development, ecological protection and restoration, land use as well as its special plans. The country puts biodiversity conservation high on the agenda, codifying it into the 13th Five-Year Plan for Economic and Social Development (2016-2020). A comprehensive structure for ecological conservation has taken shape, marked by the introduction of a national spatial planning framework, setting the ecological conservation red lines and development of a nature reserve system. Measures for the protection and management of biodiversity are clearly identified through plans for ecological protection and improvement, water and soil conservation, rehabilitation of farmland, grassland, rivers and lakes, and protection of endangered wildlife and water resources. In June this year, China unveiled a 15-year comprehensive plan for ecosystem management entitled the Master Plan for the Major Projects for the Protection and Restoration of National Key Ecosystems (2021-2035).

加速推进地方生物多样性保护工作。四川、黑龙江等20多个地方政府先后发布了地方生物多样性保护战略与行动计划,设立生物多样性保护委员会,并将其作为推动生物多样性相关政策和行动落实的协调机制,参与地方和部门的重要决策与部署,有力推动地方生物多样性保护工作。

China has accelerated biodiversity conservation efforts at the local level. More than 20 local governments, such as Sichuan and Heilongjiang, have unveiled Provincial Biodiversity Conservation Strategies and Action Plans, with biodiversity conservation committees established to coordinate the implementation of related policies and actions and participate in major decision-making and planning at the local and departmental level in order to effectively support subnational biodiversity conservation.

(二)完善法律法规和政策体系

2. Improving the Legal and Policy Frameworks

为生物多样性保护提供坚实法律保障。中国颁布和修订了《环境保护法》《野生动物保护法》《种子法》《畜牧法》《渔业法》《森林法》《草原法》《海洋环境保护法》《自然保护区条例》《野生植物保护条例》等多部与生物多样性相关的法律法规,积极推动完善生物物种资源保护与监管、生物安全及生态损害赔偿法律法规。生物多样性保护和可持续利用的法律体系不断完善。

China has provided solid legal safeguards for biodiversity conservation. The country has promulgated and revised a host of laws and regulations pertinent to biodiversity conservation, including those on environmental protection, wild animal protection, seeds, livestock, fishery, forestry, grassland, the marine environment, protection of nature reserves and wild plants. Vigorous efforts have also been made to refine laws and regulations on the protection and oversight of biological resources, biosafety and compensation for ecological damage. The legal framework for the protection and sustainable use of biodiversity has seen continuous improvement.

为生物多样性保护制定全面有效政策。中国先后出台《关于加快推进生态文明建设的意见》《生态文明体制改革总体方案》等40多项涉及生态文明建设的文件,发布了《关于划定并严守生态保护红线的若干意见》《关于建立以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系的指导意见》《建立国家公园体制总体方案》等政策措施,为中国生物多样性保护工作提供了政策保障。

Comprehensive and effective policies for biodiversity conservation have been devised. China has released some 40 documents on advancing ecological civilization, including the Opinions on Accelerating the Advancement of Ecological Civilization and the Integrated Reform Plan for Promoting Ecological Progress. In the meantime, policy measures, such as the Opinions on Delineating and Strictly Observing the Ecological Conservation Red Lines, Guidance on Establishing a Protected Area System Composed Mainly of National Parks, and the Overall Plan for Establishing a National Park System, provide the policy backbone for biodiversity conservation in China.

立法革除滥食野生动物陋习,保障人民群众健康。2020年2月24日全国人大常委会表决通过了《关于全面禁止非法野生动物交易、革除滥食野生动物陋习、切实保障人民群众生命健康安全的决定》。全国人大常委会还明确提出要修订《野生动物保护法》及其相关法律,加快《生物安全法》的立法进程。

China has introduced legislation to ban the consumption of wild animals in order to protect public health. On February 24, 2020, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress voted in favor of the Decision to Comprehensively Prohibit the Illegal Trade of Wild Animals, Eliminate the Bad Habits of Wild Animal Consumption, and Protect the Health and Safety of the People. The Committee also explicitly stated the need to amend the Law on Wild Animal Protection and related regulations and to accelerate the legislation on biosafety.

(三)提供资金保障

3. Funding Support

近年来,中国政府投入生物多样性保护领域的资金持续加大。2017—2018年,连续两年安排超过2600亿资金投入生物多样性相关工作,是2008年投入的6倍。主要涉及领域包括自然保护区、天然林保护、自然生态保护、退耕还林还草、退牧还草、农业资源保护修复与利用、生物及物种资源保护、外来物种管理、草原保护与恢复、森林资源管理、野生动植物保护、湿地保护、荒漠化石漠化治理、降低捕捞强度、海洋环境保护与监测和相关转移支付等。仅国家级自然保护区领域,“十三五”期间即累计安排中央预算内投资12亿元,开展相关项目建设,提升国家级自然保护区管理、监测、科研能力。

Funding from the Chinese government toward biodiversity conservation has grown steadily in recent years. Over 260 billion yuan was earmarked in biodiversity-related causes each year in 2017 and 2018, six times the amount in 2008. The funding was mainly directed toward such areas as nature reserves, the protection of natural forests and ecosystems, conversion of farmland to forest and grassland, conversion of grazing land to grassland, protection, restoration and utilization of agricultural resources, protection of biological resources, alien species management, grassland protection and restoration, forest resources management, wildlife protection, wetland protection, control of desertification and rocky desertification, reduction of fishing intensity, marine environmental protection and monitoring and related transfer payments. A total of 1.2 billion yuan is allocated from the central budget for national nature reserves alone during the 13th Five-Year Plan period for projects designed to improve their management, monitoring, and scientific research capabilities.

妥善利用财税激励措施,积极调动民间资本。2008年中国制定出台多项所得税优惠法律条款和政策,对符合条件的环境保护、节能节水、资源综合利用、公共污水处理、公共垃圾处理等企业的应纳所得税允许不同比例的税前扣除、减免和减半征收。2009年起,中国对成品油消费税政策进行调整,通过提高消费税费单位税额,有效发挥税收杠杆作用来促进资源环境保护。2012年起在多个省份提高排污费征收标准,调整后污染物排污费征收标准增长一倍左右。2018年度,中国民间组织共募集生态环境保护资金30亿元,用于野生动物保护、海洋和湿地保护、植树植草及环境教育等。2020年中国设立国家绿色发展基金,首期募资规模885亿元,通过创新性金融制度,采用市场化运作和企业化管理,构建政府主导、企业主体、社会组织和公众共同参与的绿色金融责任体系,引导和激励更多社会资本投入绿色产业。

China has used a gamut of fiscal and tax incentives to mobilize private capital for biodiversity conservation. In 2008, the country rolled out a number of preferential income tax provisions and policies and allowed pre-tax deductions, tax exemptions and 50% discounts for eligible enterprises in such sectors as environmental protection, energy and water conservation, comprehensive utilization of resources, public sewage treatment and waste disposal. China adjusted the consumption tax on refined oil products in 2009, which aided in environmental sustainability by increasing the unit tax and leveraging the role of tax measures. Since 2012, pollution discharge fees have been roughly doubled in a number of provinces. In 2018, China’s environmental NGOs raised a total of 3 billion yuan for the protection of wildlife, the marine environment and wetlands, re-vegetation with trees and grasses and environmental education. In 2020, a national green development fund with a registered capital of 88.5 billion yuan was set up. The move is aimed at establishing a green financial system led by the government, predominated by the businesses and participated by social organizations and the public to direct and incentivize more private investments into green industries through innovative financial mechanisms, market-oriented operations and corporate management practices.

(四)加强生态保护和恢复

4. Strengthening Ecological Protection and Restoration

在湿地、森林、河流、荒漠等领域实施多项重大生态保护工程,取得积极进展。中国坚持“山水林田湖草是生命共同体”的理念,注重自然地理单元的连续性、完整性,物种栖息地的联通性,充分发挥大自然的自我恢复能力,科学推进生态系统修复工程,先后实施了山水林田湖草生态保护修复、退耕还林还草、退田还湿、三北和长江等重点防护林体系建设、天然林保护、森林质量精准提升、京津风沙源治理、石漠化综合治理、海洋牧场、长江流域重点水域禁捕等重点生态工程,有效改善和恢复了重点区域野生动植物生境。森林面积稳步提升,草原退化趋势得到遏制,湿地保护初见成效。自20世纪80年代末以来,森林面积和森林蓄积连续30年保持“双增长”。2009—2019年,全国共完成造林面积7130.7万公顷,成为同期全球森林资源增长最多的国家。卫星观测数据发现,全球从2000—2017年新增的绿地面积中,25%以上来自中国,中国对全球绿化增量的贡献居全球首位。

An array of major ecological protection projects in such areas as wetlands, forests, rivers and desertification have been conducted, and tremendous strides have been made. China subscribes to the philosophy that “mountains, waters, forests, farmlands, lakes and grasslands are part of a community of life”, and values the continuity and integrity of the natural geographical unit as well as habitat connectivity. Leveraging the self-healing power of nature and advancing ecological restoration projects in a scientific manner, the country has carried out a series of key programs including the protection and restoration of mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes and grasslands, conversion of farmland to forest and grassland, conversion of farmland to wetland, establishment of shelterbelts such as the “Three-North” Shelterbelt and the Yangtze River Shelterbelt, natural forest protection, forest quality improvement, the Beijing-Tianjin Sandstorm Source Control Project, comprehensive treatment of rocky desertification, marine pastures and fishing prohibition in key waters of the Yangtze River Basin. These projects have helped enhance and restore wildlife habitats in key areas. The forest coverage has steadily increased; grassland degradation has been curbed; and wetland protection efforts have seen initial success. Since the tail-end of the 1980s, both forest cover and stock volume have grown for 30 consecutive years. Between 2009 and 2019, China topped the world in forest resource increase with a total of 71.307 million hectares of land afforested. Satellite data show that more than a quarter of the newly added green space in the world between 2000 and 2017 was in China, making it the largest contributor to the greening of the global landscape.

稳步建立生态保护红线制度。生态保护红线是国土空间规划和管理的重要制度创新,是继“18亿亩耕地红线”后,另一条被提到国家层面的“生命线”,对维系生态安全格局、维护生态系统功能、保障经济社会可持续发展具有重要作用,计划到2020年底生态保护红线划定面积占比达到25%左右。在国土空间规划中逐级划定落实生态保护红线,将生态功能极重要和极脆弱区域划入生态保护红线,覆盖以国家公园为主体的各类自然保护地等,通过严格管理,减少人为活动对生态环境的扰动。生态保护红线是中国保护生物多样性、调整经济结构、规划产业发展、推进新型城镇化不可逾越的红线,但并不意味着对所有区域都实行“绝对”保护,它既不是“无人区”,也不是发展的“真空区”。中国政府鼓励各地合理利用生态保护红线内的优质生态资源,探索实现生态产品价值的机制。把绿水青山转化为金山银山,实现生态优势向经济优势的转化。

China has been working steadily to put in place a red line system for ecological protection, which marks a crucial institutional innovation for national spatial planning and management. It is yet another line in the sand drawn by the Chinese government following the declaration of a red line of no less than 1.8 billion mu (120 million hectares) of arable land. The country’s ecological red line is critical in maintaining its ecological security, ecosystem function, and sustainable socioeconomic development. About a quarter of land is scheduled to be covered by the red line by the end of 2020. An ecological red line has been drawn at each level down the chain of government spatial planning. The areas under special protection are important ecologically functional zones and ecologically vulnerable areas and cover all types of nature reserves with national parks being the main component. Environmental degradation caused by human activity has been reduced through strict management protocols. China does not allow its ecological protection red lines to be trampled upon as it strives to protect biodiversity, adjust its economic structure, draw blueprints for industrial development and promote a new type of urbanization. However, this is not equivalent to “absolute” protection for all areas, and is by no means “no man’s land” or a “vacuum” for development. The Chinese government encourages the sustainable utilization of high-quality ecological resources and the exploration of mechanisms to tap into the value of ecological products. In other words, lucid waters and lush mountains can be invaluable assets and the ecological benefits can be harnessed to create economic gains.

(五)不断完善就地与迁地保护

5. Continuing to Improve In-situ and Ex-situ Conservation

在就地保护方面,中国积极建立以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系。截至2018年底,各类自然保护地总数量已达1.18万个,其中国家公园试点10个,国家级自然保护区474个,省级自然保护区864个。各类自然保护地面积超过172.8万平方公里,占国土面积18%以上。基本形成类型比较齐全、布局基本合理、功能相对完善的自然保护地体系,90%的陆地自然生态系统类型、89%的国家重点保护野生动植物种类以及大多数重要自然遗迹在自然保护区中得到有效保护。

In terms of in-situ conservation, China has made active efforts to establish a protected area system with national parks being the main component. By the end of 2018, China had identified 11,800 protected areas, including 10 pilot national parks, and 474 national-level and 864 provincial-level nature reserves. Together, they span a total of 1.728 million square kilometers, accounting for more than 18% of China’s land mass. A protected area system with a relatively broad spectrum of reserve types, sound layout and complete set of functions has been put in place. Some 90% of the types of natural terrestrial ecosystems, 89% of the species on the national key list of protected wild plants and animals and the majority of China’s natural relics are being protected in the nature reserves.

在迁地保护方面,中国建立植物园(树木园)近200个,保存植物2.3万余种。建立动物园(动物展区)240多个,饲养各类动物775种;建立250处野生动物救护繁育基地,大熊猫、朱鹮等近10种濒危动物种群开始恢复,60多种珍稀、濒危野生动物人工繁殖成功和建立稳定人工种群。

When it comes to ex-situ conservation, China has set up nearly 200 botanical gardens (arboretums) and preserved more than 23,000 species of plants. The country has also built over 240 zoos (animal exhibition sites), in which 775 species of animals are being cared for, and established 250 wild animal rescue and breeding centers. The populations of close to 10 endangered species including the giant panda and crested ibis have begun to rebound. More than 60 rare and endangered wild animal species have gained a stable population through artificial propagation.

(六)加强基础能力建设

6. Strengthening Capacity Building

持续推进数据监测、研究和整理工作。中国先后编制并发布一系列相关技术规范,建立了由10个专项网和1个综合监测管理中心组成的中国生物多样性监测与研究网络。中国还开展了生物多样性编目,先后编制了《中国生物多样性红色名录—高等植物卷》《中国生物多样性红色名录—脊椎动物卷》《中国生物多样性红色名录—大型真菌卷》《中国生物物种名录》等重要的生物物种名录,为掌握全国生物多样性本底积累了基础数据。

China has been committed to data monitoring, research and collation. The country has issued a series of technical guidelines in this field, and created a national biodiversity monitoring and research network composed of 10 special networks and 1 integrated monitoring and management center. It has also undertaken efforts to catalogue biodiversity, resulting in such valuable works as China Biodiversity Red List – Higher Plants, China Biodiversity Red List – Vertebrates, China Biodiversity Red List – Large Fungi and Catalogue of Life in China. They laid a data groundwork for understanding and assessing China’s biodiversity.

大力开展遗传资源保护设施建设。中国建设了长期库、中期库、种质圃、原生境保护点和基因库相结合的国家作物种质资源保护体系。建立了保种场、保护区和基因库相配套的国家畜禽遗传资源保护体系。截至目前,中国长期保存作物资源51万份、畜禽地方品种560多个,位居世界前列。全国范围内建设31个药用植物种质资源保存圃,2个种质资源库,保存种子种苗1.2万多份。

China has vigorously built conservation facilities for genetic resources. A national crop germplasm resources conservation system featuring a consortium of long-term banks, mid-term banks, germplasm repositories, in-situ conservation sites and gene banks has been developed. The country has also established a system of protection for livestock and poultry genetic resources supported by the triple helix of breeding protection sites, protected areas and gene banks. To date, 510,000 specimens of crop plants and more than 560 local breeds of livestock and poultry are being preserved long-term. China ranks among the top in the world by both metrics. The country has set up 31 repositories for the preservation of medicinal plant species and 2 germplasm resource banks, which are responsible for the safekeeping of over 12,000 specimens of seeds and seedlings.

提升外来入侵物种防控能力。中国完善外来物种管理法律制度,发布自然生态系统外来入侵物种名单,指导地方开展外来入侵物种调查监测、防控灭除和监督管理。中国发布了一系列转基因生物及其产品的监测和风险评价技术标准和规范,转基因生物安全管理体系进一步完善。制定并实施《全国动植物保护能力提升工程建设规划(2017—2025年)》,重点加强外来入侵物种防控能力建设,积极防范外来物种入侵。

China has worked to improve the prevention and control of invasive alien species by refining the legal regime for their management, releasing the list of invasive alien species likely to threaten biodiversity and ecosystems, and advising and supporting local governments in the investigation, monitoring, prevention, elimination and management of invasive alien species. China has also issued a series of technical standards and specifications for the monitoring and risk assessment of genetically modified organisms and products, and improved its GMO safety management. The National Animal and Plant Protection Capacity Improvement Plan (2017-2025) has been devised and implemented to strengthen China’s ability to prevent and manage invasive alien species.

(七)加大生物多样性保护监督检查力度

7. Strengthening the Supervision and Inspection of Biodiversity Conservation

中国持续加大对破坏及危害生物多样性等违法活动的监督检查力度,完成了400多处国家级自然保护区卫星遥感监测,225处国家级风景名胜区遥感监测全覆盖,对涉及自然保护区的违法活动采取零容忍态度,通过开展监督检查专项行动进行严肃查处。此外积极开展国际合作,查处涉及野生动植物的违法犯罪案件,持续开展打击整治枪爆物品违法犯罪专项行动,从源头遏制持枪狩猎活动发生;严厉打击走私珍贵濒危野生动植物及其制品等违法行为,对非法携带和邮寄种子种苗等违法行为进行坚决查处,开展打击长江流域非法捕捞专项整治行动和打击市场销售长江流域非法捕捞渔获物专项行动,斩断非法捕捞、运输、销售长江野生鱼类的产业链。

China has continued to step up oversight and investigation of illegal activities such as the damage and endangerment of biodiversity. The monitoring of some 400 national nature reserves through satellite remote sensing has been completed, and 225 national scenic areas are all under the monitoring of remote sensing instruments. The country has adopted a zero-tolerance policy toward illegal activities in nature reserves, and imposed severe penalties accordingly following special investigations. China has actively engaged in international cooperation to investigate and prosecute criminal acts involving wildlife, and conducted special operations to combat illegal firearms and explosives in order to curb at the source the use of firearms for hunting. In addition, the country has cracked down on such activities as the trafficking of precious or endangered animal and plant species and products, investigated and prosecuted the illicit distribution and mailing of seeds and seedlings, launched special campaigns against illegal fishing in the Yangtze River Basin and the sale of illegally caught fish, and cut off the chain of unlawful fishing, transportation and sale of wild fish in the Yangtze River.

三、促进可持续发展

III. Promoting Sustainable Development

(一)生物多样性改善民生

1. Improving People’s Livelihood through Biodiversity

积极探索生物多样性保护与减贫协同推进。中国大力实施精准扶贫、精准脱贫基本方略,培育优势资源、发展生态产业,积极推进生物多样性保护与减贫试点示范,在充分考虑地方优势生物资源的基础上,研究探索出适合当地的生物多样性保护与减贫协同推进模式,试点地区生物资源均得到有效保护,贫困户年收入显著增加。

Proactive actions are taken to pursue synergistic progress in biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction. China has taken major steps in implementing the fundamental strategies for targeted poverty alleviation and elimination, fostering competitive resources to develop eco-industries while actively facilitating pilot and demonstration projects of biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction. With a synergistic model of biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction designed with advantageous local bio-resources taken into consideration, these bio-resources are effectively protected while the poverty-stricken households have seen significant increase in their annual income.

在开展生物多样性保护扶贫中,中国注重因地制宜,创新发展模式,发展特色产业。湖北省五峰土家族自治县地处生物多样性关键地区,也是国家级贫困县,通过建立蜜蜂养殖、蜜源植物种植与保护生物多样性协调的减贫模式,全县贫困户中有3500个有望脱贫,户均增收5000多元。该案例于2019年入选由世界银行、联合国粮农组织等联合发起的“110个全球减贫案例征集活动”最佳案例。

In poverty alleviation through biodiversity, China focuses on specific local conditions in innovating development models and empowering industries with distinctive local features. In Wufeng Tujia Ethnic Autonomous County in Hubei Province, a national-level impoverished county which is located in a key area of biodiversity, through a poverty reduction model featuring beekeeping and nectariferous plant farming in synergy with biodiversity conservation, 3,500 households are expected to shake off poverty, with an average income increase of over 5,000 yuan per household. This case was selected as one of the 110 Cases of Global Best Practice in Poverty Reduction initiated jointly by the World Bank and the FAO.

2016年以来,河北省围场县八顷村根据当地气候和土壤优势,积极探索发展生物多样性保护与减贫的产业项目,包括玫珑瓜种植、金莲花种植、有机富硒马铃薯种植、菊芋种植等产业,闯出一条生态产业致富路,带动全村贫困群众脱贫增收,形成了产业项目持续稳定发展的良好局面。2019年底实现整村脱贫,贫困综合发生率降至0.34%。

Since 2016, Baqing Village of Weichang County, Hebei Province has been actively engaged in industrial projects of biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction, capitalizing on local climate and soil advantages. A thriving economy empowered by eco-industries has taken shape with musk melons, trollius chinensis, selenium-rich organic potatoes and jerusalem artichoke generating higher income for the villagers. Thanks to the sustained and steady progress in the industrial projects, the entire village shook off poverty by the end of 2019 and the comprehensive incidence of poverty reduced to 0.34%

(二)促进生物多样性可持续利用

2. Promoting Sustainable Use of Biodiversity

扎实推动农业、林业等领域生物多样性可持续利用。中国通过建立生态文明建设目标评价考核、自然资源有偿使用、生态保护补偿、生态环境损害赔偿、自然资源资产离任审计等制度,积极推动林业、草原、湿地、农业、海洋等领域的生物多样性可持续发展,增加森林、草原、湿地等资源总量,增强生态系统功能,加强资源保护及灾害防控,协同推进生物多样性保护工作。执行《全国农业可持续发展规划(2015—2030年)》,化肥用量提前实现负增长,畜禽粪污、秸秆综合利用水平明显提升。

Substantial progress is made in sustainable use of biodiversity in agriculture and forestry. By introducing ecological civilization performance assessment and accountability, compensated use of natural resources, compensation for ecological conservation, accountability for ecological and environmental damage, off-office auditing of natural resources and assets, among other systems, China is actively promoting sustainable development of biodiversity in forestry, grassland, wetland, agriculture and marine environment, increasing the total forestry, grassland and wetland resources, enhancing the functions of ecosystems and implementing effective measures for resources conservation and disaster prevention for synergistic promotion of biodiversity conservation. With the implementation of the National Plan for Sustainable Development of Agriculture (2015-2030), a negative growth in the use of chemical fertilizers has been achieved ahead of schedule and the comprehensive utilization of livestock and poultry manure and crop stalks has experienced significant improvement.

强化海洋资源和水生生物资源可持续利用。中国实施了基于生态系统的海洋综合管理,开展一系列资源养护政策和措施,加强水生生物保护,可持续利用现有渔业资源。2003年以来,中国对第一大河长江全流域实行了每年3至4个月的禁渔期,2020年1月1日起,长江流域332个水生生物保护区实现全面禁捕,2021年1月1日起,将在长江干流和重要支流以及大型通江湖泊等重点水域实行10年禁捕,为长江生态系统休养生息提供时间和空间,守护长江生物多样性基因库。实施生态保护修复,强化珍稀濒危水生生物保护,大力开展水生生物资源增殖行动,放流重要水生生物苗种,有效修复水生生物资源。实施海洋伏季休渔和捕捞渔船“双控”制度,逐步压减海洋捕捞机动渔船数量和总功率,降低对渔业资源的捕捞压力。实施海洋渔业资源总量管理制度,逐步降低海洋捕捞产量,努力实现海洋捕捞总产量与海洋渔业资源承载能力相协调。

Sustainable use of marine resources and aquatic life resources has been enhanced. With ecosystem-based comprehensive marine management implemented in China, a set of policies and measures for resources conservation are put in place for better protection of aquatic life and sustainable utilization of existing fishery resources. Since 2003, the entire basin of the Yangtze River, the longest river in China, is subject to 3 to 4 months of fishing prohibition annually; since January 1, 2020, a fishing ban has been imposed on all 332 aquatic life conservation areas in the Yangtze River Basin; Starting on January 1, 2021, a ten-year fishing ban will be imposed on the mainstream and key tributaries of the Yangtze River as well as major lakes connected to it to provide time and space for the rehabilitation of its ecosystem, hence protecting the gene bank of biodiversity. Actions are taken for ecological conservation and restoration, emphasizing the protection of rare and endangered aquatic species, the proliferation of aquatic life resources and effective restoration by releasing fish fry into the waters. Summer moratorium of marine fishing and “double control” of fishing vessels, i.e., gradual reduction of both the number and total power of fishing vessels, are pursued to relieve the fishing pressure on fishery resources. A cap-based management system is implemented on marine fishery resources to gradually cut the marine catch, aiming at a balance between total marine catch and marine fishing resources capacity.

(三)生物多样性促进社会公平

3. Promoting Social Justice through Biodiversity

建立生态补偿机制,促进地区间、产业间均衡发展。中国持续加强重点生态功能区转移支付以及森林生态效益补偿、草原生态保护补助奖励和湿地生态补偿等方面的投入,开展生态核心区内居民生态搬迁、贫困地区集体林权制度改革、完善横向生态补偿等方式,推进生态保护扶贫行动。

An eco-compensation mechanism is established to promote balanced development between regions and industries. China has been increasing the transfer payment to key eco-function zones and increased the input in areas like forest eco-efficiency compensation, grassland ecological conservation subsidy and reward, and wetland ecological compensation. Efforts are made to carry out ecological relocation of residents in key eco-function zones and collective forest ownership reforms in poverty-stricken areas, and to improve trans-regional and cross-watershed ecological compensation, with a view to facilitating poverty alleviation through ecological conservation.

中国设立了国家重点生态功能区转移支付制度,充分发挥国家重点生态功能区转移支付的政策导向功能,推动地方政府加强生态环境保护和改善民生。2008—2019年中央财政累计下达转移支付资金5235亿元,年度转移支付金额覆盖818个县。通过国家重点生态功能区转移支付,全国自然保护区内生态系统的原真性和完整性得到了保护,青海三江源自然保护区、南水北调中线水源地保护区等国家重点生态功能区的生态环境质量稳中向好。国家重点生态功能区县域防风固沙、水土保持、水源涵养、生物多样性维护功能等保持稳定,每年生态环境质量良好的县域所占比例基本保持在50%以上,生态环境质量变好和保持稳定的县域比例维持在90%以上。

The transfer payment system for national key eco-function zones has been set up, as a policy guide for local governments in protecting the ecological environment and improving people’s livelihood. From 2008 to 2019, the central government has allocated a total of 523.5 billion yuan in transfer payment, which covers 818 counties annually. Such transfer payment has helped preserve the authenticity and integrity of the ecosystems in national nature reserves. Steady progress has been made in the environment of Sanjiangyuan (source of the Yangtze, Yellow and Lancang rivers) Nature Reserve in Qinghai Province, and the water source area of the middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. Counties at national key ecological function areas have effectively performed their functions in wind-break and sand-fixing, water and soil conservation, water source conservation and biodiversity preservation. Over 50% of them enjoy good environment and over 90% see their environment improved or well maintained.

通过生物多样性保护项目促进性别平等。中国是最早承诺社会性别主流化的46个国家之一,也是第四次世界妇女大会的东道国。中国于1995年制定了《中国妇女发展纲要》,并于2001年、2011年和2018年三次更新。其中,环境被列为促进社会性别平等的七个实施领域之一,共设立了10个目标,包括:全面解决农村饮水安全问题,降低水污染对妇女健康的危害;倡导妇女参与节能减排,践行低碳生活;提高妇女预防和应对灾害风险的能力,满足妇女在减灾中的特殊需求等,目前多数目标已提前实现。

Biodiversity conservation has helped promote gender equality. China is one of the first 46 countries pledging to work for social gender mainstreaming and the host country of the 4th World Conference on Women. China formulated the National Program for the Development of Women in 1995, and then updated it in 2001, 2011 and 2018 respectively. In the Program, environment was identified as one of the seven areas for promoting gender equality, with ten specific goals to be achieved. These goals include developing a holistic approach for drinking water safety in rural areas, reducing the damage to women’s health caused by water pollution, encouraging women to take part in energy-saving and emission reduction programs and lead a low-carbon life, enhancing women’s capacity in terms of disaster and risk prevention and preparedness, and meeting women’s special needs in disaster risk reduction. Most of the goals have been achieved ahead of schedule.

各级地方政府结合地方生态环境资源的特色,以生物多样性保护项目促进性别平等。甘肃省编制了《甘肃保护地项目性别主流化实施计划》和《项目“性别主流化计划”信息收集(监督)规程》,并借助实施相关项目,推动该区域妇女增加经济收入,同步提高家庭和社会地位,充分保障女性在生物多样性主流化过程中获取资源的能力和权利。

Local governments at all levels have promoted gender equality through biodiversity conservation projects by making full use of their respective ecological resources. Gansu Province has developed the Implementation Plan of Gender Mainstreaming in Protected Areas in Gansu and the Guidelines for Information Collection (Supervision) for the Gender Mainstreaming Project to increase women’s income, enhance their family and social status and protect their capability of and right to acquiring resources in the mainstreaming of biodiversity.

四、全社会广泛参与

IV. Encouraging the Engagement of the Entire Society

(一)政府加强引导

1. Enhanced Government Guidance

中国生态环境部积极组织开展“联合国生物多样性十年中国行动”系列活动,大力宣传生物多样性保护理念和法规措施。广电总局积极推动活动的开展,200多家媒体机构持续开展生物多样性宣传,提高公众参与度。在“世界环境日”“世界地球日”“国际生物多样性日”“世界野生动植物日”“世界湿地日”“防治荒漠化日”“国际森林日”等重要时间节点,自然资源、生态环境、林业与草原等部门举办系列宣传活动,宣传生物多样性保护的重要性和取得的成效,并指导地方开展系列宣传教育以及科普活动,调动全社会广泛参与。此外,借助新媒体拓展宣传平台、创新宣传模式,如在全国范围内开展生物安全知识进校园、进社区、进机关、进手机、进客舱、进展馆的“六进”活动。

The Ministry of Ecology and Environment has organized a series of events under the framework of “United Nations Decade on Biodiversity, China in Action” to enhance public awareness of the concept and regulatory measures of biodiversity. The National Radio and Television Administration (NRTA) has also played an active role. Over 200 media outlets have launched public awareness programs on biodiversity with enthusiastic public engagement. On important occasions such as the World Environment Day, Earth Day, International Biodiversity Day, World Wildlife Day, World Wetland Day, World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought, and International Day of Forest, departments of natural resources, eco-environment, forestry and grassland have launched events to raise public awareness of the importance and achievements of biodiversity conservation, and help roll out awareness campaigns and science education programs at local levels, with a view to encouraging broad social participation. In addition, new publicity platforms on the new media are used and new publicity models are explored to “bring biosafety information to campuses, communities, government bodies, mobile devices, plane cabins and exhibition halls” nationwide.

(二)企业积极行动

2. Enterprises in Action

构建企业与生物多样性全球伙伴关系。企业是开发和利用生物多样性资源的主体,也是实现全球生物多样性可持续发展的重要推动力量。2015年,中国加入了《生物多样性公约》秘书处发起的企业与生物多样性全球伙伴关系倡议(GPBB),鼓励企业参与生物多样性领域工作。中国企业坚持在库布齐沙漠开展防沙治沙工作,经过不懈努力,库布其沙漠森林覆盖率、植被覆盖率均大幅提升,生物种类从不足10种增加到530种,100多种绝迹多年的野生动植物再次出现。2011年12月,多家企业共同签署协议加入全球森林贸易网络(GFTN),承诺支持可持续的森林经营和负责任的林产品贸易,遏止非法采伐森林,推动可信赖的木材贸易认证。2015年,9家中国企业与6家非政府组织及行业协会共同发起“森林宣言”,呼吁中国相关企业承诺到2030年木制品供应链采购100%实现“零毁林”。

China has contributed to the building of the Global Partnership for Business and Biodiversity (GPBB). Business are the leading actors in exploring and utilizing biodiversity resources as well as the main force for the sustainable development of biodiversity. In 2015, China joined the GPBB initiated by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, encouraging domestic enterprises to get involved in biodiversity-related initiatives. Thanks to the desertification prevention efforts by Chinese enterprises in Kubuqi Desert, a significant increase has been achieved in forest and vegetation coverage, the number of species surged from less than 10 to 530, and over 100 wildlife species that were believed to have disappeared re-emerged. In December 2011, multiple companies signed an agreement to join the Global Forest & Trade Network (GFTN), pledging to drive sustainable forest management and responsible trade of forestry product, curb illegal logging and promote reliable timber trade certification. In 2015, nine Chinese enterprises and six NGOs and industrial associations jointly issued the Forest Declaration, calling on relevant Chinese enterprises to work together toward the goal of zero deforestation in supply chain of timber products by 2030.

此外,有关企业在基础设施建设中主动履行环境保护社会责任。负责乌东德水电站开发建设的企业将金沙江左岸一级支流黑水河作为鱼类栖息地进行保护,同时设立生态保护基金,用于流域生态环境保护和研究。负责叶巴滩水电站开发建设的企业将位于藏区的支流下游53公里河段作为栖息地进行保护,减缓工程实施对水生生态环境的不利影响。

Besides, some enterprises have taken the initiative to fulfill their environmental protection social responsibility. A company working on Wudongde Hydropower Station identified Heishui River, a primary tributary of Jinsha River, as a natural habitat for fish, and set up an ecological conservation fund for environmental protection and research in the river basin. Another enterprise responsible for the building of Yebatan Hydropower Station identified the 53km downstream reach of the tributary in Xizang as a natural habitat for protection and took measures to mitigate the adverse impact on aquatic environment caused by its project.

(三)公众广泛参与

3. Extensive Public Participation

近年来,中国民间环保组织蓬勃发展,社会公众环保意识显著提升,为生物多样性保护做出巨大贡献。2017年,23家中国民间机构共同发起了“社会公益保护地联盟”,致力于用民间的力量,通过协议保护、社区共管、委托保护、保护小区等创新模式,探索社区治理、公益治理、共同治理等全新治理模式,计划到2030年帮助中国保护至少1%的国土面积。同时,民间环保组织在生物多样性政策制定、信息公开与公益诉讼中发挥着越来越大的作用。在《国家公园法》和《野生动物保护法》制定修订过程中,政府相关部门专门组织公益组织和公众参与其中,为法律的修订建言献策,提出诸多宝贵建议,推动法律更加完善。3年间,中国企业和民间机构在内蒙古阿拉善、鄂尔多斯、巴彦淖尔、通辽和甘肃武威、敦煌等地区种植及养护了1.2亿棵树,种植总面积超过140万亩,预计控沙面积超百万亩。2020年4月,三江源称多嘉塘保护地正式上线蚂蚁森林,目前已捐赠保护超过1亿平方米。

In recent years, robust development of Chinese NGOs dedicated to environmental protection and notable enhancement in public awareness have greatly contributed to the endeavor of biodiversity conservation. In 2017, 23 NGOs jointly launched the Alliance of Civil Protected Area in an effort to create new governance models such as community governance, public welfare governance and joint governance. The goal is to harness non-governmental strength to help protect at least 1% of China’s total territory by 2030 through innovative approaches such as conservation concession agreement, co-management with local community, the land trust protected area model and community conserved area. In addition, environmental NGOs are playing an increasingly significant role in biodiversity policy-making, information disclosure, and public interest litigation. NGOs and the general public were involved in the formulation and revision of the Law on National Parks and the Law on Wild Animal Protection, and encouraged to contribute valuable insights and proposals. In three years’ time, 120 million trees were planted and maintained in Alxa, Erdos, Bayan Nur and Tongliao of Inner Mongolia, and Wuwei and Dunhuang in Gansu Province, covering a total area of 1.4 million mu (93,333 hectares), with sand control area estimated to be over 1 million mu (66,667 hectares). In April 2020, Ant Forest, an afforestation scheme initiated by a Chinese company, launched the conservation program of Chengduojiatang Protected Area in Sanjiangyuan. The program has offered protection to more than 100 million square meters of land through its donations.

五、建设性推动全球生物多样性治理

V. Promoting Global Biodiversity Governance in a Constructive Way

(一)深度参与《生物多样性公约》进程

1. Actively Participating in the Process of the Convention on Biological Diversity

中国是《生物多样性公约》及其有关议定书的重要参与者与推动者,率先签署和批准《生物多样性公约》,建设性参与《名古屋议定书》和《卡塔赫纳生物安全议定书》并推动其达成和生效。中方愿与各方一道,坚定支持生物多样性多边治理体系,共同推动《生物多样性公约》在全球生物多样性治理中发挥更大作用。

As a key participant and advocate of the Convention on Biological Diversity, China was among the first to sign and ratify the Convention, and has constructively engaged in its Nagoya Protocol and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, and contributed to the conclusion and entry into force of the instruments. China is ready to work with all parties to firmly uphold the multilateral biodiversity governance system and push for an even greater role of the Convention in global biodiversity governance.

中国始终严格履行《生物多样性公约》及相关议定书义务,按时高质量提交国家报告,2019年7月提交了《中国履行<生物多样性公约>第六次国家报告》。积极履行2010年《生物多样性公约》第十次缔约方大会通过的“爱知目标”,并取得积极进展,其中关于恢复和保障重要生态系统服务的目标14、增加生态系统的复原力和碳储量的目标15、实施国内战略与行动计划的目标17均进展显著。

China has conscientiously fulfilled the obligations stipulated in the Convention on Biological Diversity and related protocols and submitted high quality national reports as scheduled. In July 2019, China submitted its 6th National Report on the Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. China has actively implemented the Aichi Biodiversity Targets adopted at the 10th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, and achieved good results. In particular, marked progress has been made in Target 14 about restoration and safeguarding of ecosystems that provide essential services, Target 15 about enhancing ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks, and Target 17 about national biodiversity strategy and action plan.

促进与其他国际环境条约协同增效。中国积极参与《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》《联合国气候变化框架公约》《联合国防治荒漠化公约》《关于特别是作为水禽栖息地的国际重要湿地公约》《联合国森林文书》进程,注重生态系统完整性,积极推广“基于自然的解决方案”(NBS),将其作为应对气候变化、生物多样性丧失的协同解决方案,促进协同增效。2017年,承办《联合国防治荒漠化公约》第十三次缔约方大会,并与相关国际环境公约机构合作建立了国际荒漠化防治知识管理中心。2019年联合国气候行动峰会期间,中国和新西兰共同牵头NBS领域工作,与联合国及各参与方一道,发布《基于自然的气候解决方案政策主张》和《联合国气候行动峰会“基于自然的解决方案”倡议案例汇编》等成果,并向各方发出邀请,欢迎更多国家和组织加入NBS联盟,通过“NBS之友小组”继续加强交流合作。中国还结合实践,提出了“划定生态保护红线,减缓和适应气候变化”这一NBS行动倡议,为丰富NBS内涵贡献了中国方案。

In terms of synergistic effect with other international environmental treaties and conventions, China has taken an active part in the process of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat and the documents of the UN Forum on Forests. Emphasizing the ecosystem integrity, China has advocated “Nature-Based Solutions” (NBS), making it a synergistic solution in combating climate change and biodiversity loss. In 2017, China hosted COP13 of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and established, in cooperation with relevant international environmental conventions organizations, the International Desertification Control Knowledge Management Center. During the UN Climate Action Summit in 2019, China and New Zealand jointly led the efforts on NBS projects, by releasing, with the United Nations and other participating parties, the Policy Proposal on Nature-Based Solutions and the Collection of Cases of UN Climate Action Summit Nature-Based Solutions Initiative, and inviting more countries and organizations to join the NBS Alliance and enhance cooperation and exchanges through “Friends of NBS”. Based on its own experience, China has also proposed an NBS action initiative of “Drawing a ‘Red Line’ for Ecological Protection to Mitigate and Adapt to Climate Change”, further enriching the contents of NBS.

(二)全力推动COP15成功举办

2. Making Every Effort to Ensure the Success of COP15

积极推进COP15筹备工作。中国和《生物多样性公约》秘书处联合发布COP15主题和会标。COP15的主题为“生态文明:共建地球生命共同体”。会标外形似水滴,融合了中国的剪纸等传统文化和各种自然符号,紧扣主题和公约2050年愿景“人与自然和谐共处”,是公约进程和东道国元素的完美结合。中国已于2019年7月成立COP15筹备工作组织委员会和执行委员会,各项筹备工作有序推进,会场服务和保障措施日益完善。

Preparations for the fifteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15) are well underway. China and the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity have jointly announced the theme for COP15 and unveiled its official logo. The COP15 theme is Ecological Civilization: Building a Shared Future for All Life on Earth. The COP15 logo, which is in the shape of a water drop and features elements of nature, is inspired by the Chinese traditional art of paper-cutting. The logo fits well with the 2050 Vision of “living in harmony with nature” and combines the CBD process and symbols of the host country. The Organizing Committee and Executive Committee for COP15 were set up in July 2019, and all preparations, including venue services and logistic support, are progressing smoothly.

中国愿与各方分享生态文明建设和生物多样性保护方面的实践和经验,切实履行好东道国义务,发挥好主席国作用,与秘书处及其他各方加强沟通合作,鼓励私营部门、民间社会、慈善团体等利益相关方发挥更大作用,共同推动COP15取得圆满成功,推动全球生物多样性治理进程迈上新的台阶。

China is willing to share with all parties its experience and best practices in advancing ecological civilization and biodiversity conservation and fulfill its mandate as the host country. To play a constructive role in its capacity as the COP15 presidency, China will strengthen communication and cooperation with the Secretariat and all parties, engage the private sector, civil society, charity organizations and other stakeholders and encourage them to contribute to the success of COP15 and jointly promote the process of global biodiversity governance.

(三)积极推进2020年后全球生物多样性治理

3. Contributing to Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Governance

“2020年后全球生物多样性框架”(以下简称“框架”)作为《生物多样性公约》下重要战略规划文件,将对未来十年乃至更长时间的全球生物多样性治理做出规划,成为COP15的重要标志性成果。

The Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) to be considered and adopted at COP15 will be a milestone in the CBD history as it is a plan of strategic importance for global biodiversity governance in the next decade and beyond.

中方认为“框架”应兼具雄心与务实,平衡体现公约确定的保护生物多样性、持续利用其组成部分、公平合理分享由利用遗传资源而产生的惠益的三大目标。有关执行和保障机制应得到进一步完善和强化,以加强对发展中国家在资金、技术和能力建设方面的支持。中方期待各方在公开、透明、缔约方驱动等原则基础上,充分讨论和磋商,相向而行,扩大共识;期待COP15达成具有里程碑意义的“框架”成果文件,推进更加公正合理、各尽所能的2020年后全球生物多样性治理。

China is of the view that the Framework should be both ambitious and realistic and reflect in a balanced manner the three CBD objectives: conservation of biodiversity; sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. The means of implementation and enabling conditions under the GBF must be strengthened to ensure greater support for developing countries in terms of resource mobilization, technology and capacity building. China looks forward to a full discussion and consultation with all parties through an open, transparent and parties-driven process and calls on all parties to move in the same direction and expand consensus. China hopes that COP15 will come up with a landmark outcome document, and contribute to a more just and equitable post-2020 global biodiversity governance framework that embodies the best efforts of all parties.

六、加强国际交流与合作

VI. Strengthening International Exchanges and Cooperation

(一)建立广泛的双多边合作交流机制

1. Establishing Wide-ranging Mechanisms for Bilateral and Multilateral Cooperation and Communication

建立“一带一路”绿色发展多边合作机制。2013年,中国国家主席习近平提出“一带一路”合作倡议。多年来,中国积极推进共建绿色“一带一路”国际合作,与中外合作伙伴共同发起成立“一带一路”绿色发展国际联盟(以下简称“绿色联盟”),旨在打造“一带一路”绿色发展合作平台。目前绿色联盟下设“生物多样性保护和生态系统”等十个专题伙伴关系,已有中外合作伙伴150余家,涉及40多个国家,已经开展了10余场活动,内容涵盖生态系统评估和管理、企业与生物多样性伙伴关系、可持续农业、干旱区管理和可持续供应链等。逐步构建“一带一路”生态环保大数据服务平台,已经纳入100多个国家的生物多样性相关数据,为“一带一路”绿色发展提供决策和数据支持。实施绿色丝路使者计划,与发展中国家共同加强环保能力建设,先后为120多个共建国家培训环保官员、专家和技术人员2000多人次,其中涉及生物多样性的培训600多人次,为有关国家落实联合国《2030年可持续发展议程》做出重要贡献。

Establishing multilateral cooperation mechanisms for green development under the Belt and Road Initiative. Since Chinese President Xi Jinping announced the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in 2013, China has worked closely with the international community to build a green Belt and Road. China and international partners have jointly established the Belt and Road Initiative International Green Development Coalition, which serves as a platform for BRI cooperation on green development. To date some 150 Chinese and international partners from over 40 countries have joined the Coalition. BRI Green Coalition includes ten thematic partnerships, one of which is biodiversity and ecosystem management partnership. The Coalition has hosted ten major events covering a broad range of topics such as ecosystem evaluation and management, business and biodiversity partnership, sustainable agriculture, arid region management and sustainable supply chain. The BRI Environment Big Data Platform is in the making. The platform has biodiversity data from over 100 countries and provides data in support of a rational decision-making process for BRI green development projects. A Green Silk Road Envoy Program has been launched to help build up environmental protection capacity of developing countries. Under the program, China has provided more than 2,000 training opportunities for environmental protection officials, experts and technicians of over 120 participating countries. The training on biodiversity conservation had more than 600 participants. The Green Silk Road Envoy Program is a significant contribution to the implementation of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in those countries.

广泛开展双边合作。2019年,法国总统马克龙访华期间,与中国国家主席习近平就生物多样性保护等领域合作达成重要共识,共同发布了《中法生物多样性保护和气候变化北京倡议》。中国还与德国、挪威、英国、南非等分别建立双边合作机制,就生物多样性和生态系统服务、气候变化和生物安全等领域开展了广泛的合作与交流。与日本、韩国在中日韩环境合作机制下建立了中日韩三国生物多样性政策对话会议,在中国—东盟环境合作、澜沧江—湄公河环境合作、中国—非洲环境合作等平台中将生物多样性作为重点领域,定期就生物多样性保护、遗传资源获取和惠益分享等领域进行深入交流。

Expanding bilateral cooperation. In 2019, Chinese President Xi Jinping and the visiting French President Emmanuel Macron reached an important consensus on cooperation in biodiversity conservation and other fields, and jointly issued the Beijing Call for Biodiversity Conservation and Climate Change. China has established separate bilateral mechanisms with Germany, Norway, the UK, and South Africa for exchanges and cooperation in areas of biodiversity and ecosystem services, climate change and biosafety. China, Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK) have established a China-Japan-ROK tripartite policy dialogue on biodiversity under the framework of the China-Japan-ROK Trilateral Environmental Cooperation Mechanism. Biodiversity is also highlighted as a priority area in China’s environmental protection cooperation with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), riparian countries of the Lancang-Mekong River, and African countries. Meetings have been held on a regular basis to discuss issues related to biodiversity conservation, access to genetic resources and benefit sharing.

(二)深化南南合作

2. Strengthening South-South Cooperation

近年来,中国政府在南南合作框架下,积极为发展中国家保护生物多样性提供力所能及的支持。中国在绿色经济、国际环境公约履约等领域开展了一系列提高发展中国家环境管理能力的项目和活动,全球有80多个国家受益。在亚洲,中国定期举行澜沧江—湄公河环境合作圆桌对话,针对生态系统管理、可持续基础设施建设、生物多样性保护等议题进行交流;与东盟国家合作开发和实施了“生物多样性与生态保护合作计划”“加强东南亚国家制定和实施2011—2020年生物多样性保护战略和实现爱知目标能力”“GMS核心环境项目战略框架与行动计划(2018—2022年)”等一系列项目。在非洲,中国将生态保护作为主要合作领域,安排向有关国家提供生物多样性保护设备等项目;举办生物多样性保护领域培训班,培训发展中国家野生动植物保护、生态环境保护等领域官员和技术人员。

In recent years, the Chinese government has provided biodiversity conservation support for other developing countries to the best of its ability under the framework of South-South cooperation. China has carried out a number of projects and programs to help other developing countries build up their environmental management capacity in the development of green economy and compliance with international environmental conventions. Over 80 countries worldwide have benefited from these activities. In Asia, China has hosted regular roundtable meetings on Lancang-Mekong environmental cooperation, with a focus on ecosystem management, sustainable infrastructure, and biodiversity conservation. China and ASEAN member states have jointly launched and implemented a number of cooperation initiatives, including the China-ASEAN Cooperation Plan on Biodiversity and Ecological Conservation, the project of strengthening the capacity of South East Asian countries for the development and implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and Aichi Biodiversity Targets, and the GMS Core Environment Program Strategy Framework and Action Plan 2018-2022. Ecological conservation is also high on the agenda of China-Africa cooperation. China has provided biodiversity conservation equipment to African countries and sponsored seminars and workshops on biodiversity conservation to help train African government officials and technicians responsible for wildlife conservation and environmental protection.

面对疫情给经济发展造成的巨大压力,中国将始终坚持生态优先、绿色发展道路,继续做好生物多样性保护各项工作。中国将继续高举多边主义旗帜,秉持人类命运共同体理念,积极参与全球生物多样性治理,为共谋全球生态文明之路、共建地球生命共同体贡献中国智慧。我们愿与各国一道,建设一个充满生机、清洁美丽的世界!

In the face of the tremendous impact of COVID-19 on its economy, China remains committed to pursuing ecological protection and green development as its priorities and will press ahead with its planned biodiversity conservation projects and programs. China stands for multilateralism and is committed to building a community with a shared future for mankind. China will actively participate in global biodiversity governance and contribute to global ecological civilization and to a shared future for all life on Earth. China stands ready to join the international community in building a clean, beautiful world thriving with life.

文章来源:外交部

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