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双语:谈一谈上半年我国经济增长的含金量
文章来源:求是 发布时间:2020-02-06 19:50 作者:求是 点击:

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双语:谈一谈上半年我国经济增长的含金量

The Value of China’s Economic Growth in the First Half of 2019

宁吉喆在《求是》杂志发表署名文章《谈一谈上半年我国经济增长的含金量》

谈一谈上半年我国经济增长的含金量

The Value of China’s Economic Growth in the First Half of 2019

宁吉喆

Ning Jizhe

今年上半年,我国经济实现了6.3%的增长,国民经济继续运行在合理区间,民生福祉不断改善,转型升级稳步推进,发展后劲持续增强,经济高质量发展取得新的进展,为实现全年经济社会发展预期目标奠定了较好基础。6.3%的增长速度,是在全球经济贸易增速放缓和我国经济下行压力加大的情况下,通过深化供给侧结构性改革、创新宏观调控、优化营商环境、大规模减税降费、激发市场主体活力而实现的,是一个来之不易的增速。同时,6.3%的增速在全球主要经济体中位居前列,而且这是就业总体平稳、物价基本稳定、质量不断提高的增长,是可持续的增长、有后劲的增长,体现了总体平稳、稳中有进态势,具有成色高、含金量足的特征。

In the first half of this year, China’s economy grew by 6.3% and continued to operate within a reasonable range. Public wellbeing improved continuously, transformation and upgrading progressed steadily, the stamina of development continued to strengthen, and new progress was made toward high-quality growth, thereby laying sound foundations for meeting this year’s economic and social development targets. The growth rate of 6.3% did not come easily, but was achieved despite decelerating global economic and trade growth and mounting downward pressure on China’s economy. It was a result of our efforts to boost supply-side structural reform, create new methods of macro-control, improve the business environment, slash taxes and fees, and unleash the vitality of market entities. Ranking high among the world’s major economies, this growth rate comes from overall stable employment, basically steady prices, and constantly enhanced economic quality, thus being both sustainable and enduring. Featuring a high level of quality and value, this growth rate shows that China’s economy remains stable overall with a positive trend.

一、生产需求稳定增长,发展韧性明显增强

I. Production demand grew steadily, and development became significantly more resilient.

今年上半年,按照中央经济工作会议精神和《政府工作报告》部署,积极的财政政策、稳健的货币政策和就业优先政策有效实施,更高水平、更大力度对外开放不断深化,大规模减税降费扎实落地,企业融资成本逐步降低,有力有效应对内外部挑战,我国经济在高基数基础上实现了较快增长,经济运行保持在合理区间。

During the first half of this year, in line with the guiding principles of the Central Economic Work Conference and the arrangements of the Report on the Work of the Government, we effectively implemented a proactive fiscal policy, a prudent monetary policy, and an employment-first policy, opened up at a higher level and with greater intensity, took solid steps to slash taxes and fees, and gradually reduced enterprise financing costs. Taking a strong and effective stance against internal and external challenges, China’s economy grew rapidly from a large base figure, and continued to operate within a reasonable range.

经济增速位居世界前列。对于一个大型经济体来说,经济增长速度与经济总量有很大关系,总量越大,基数越高,实现高增长越难。2018年我国经济总量超过90万亿元,按年平均汇率折算达到13.6万亿美元,稳居世界第二位,占世界经济总量的比重接近16%。在较高的经济总量基础上,今年上半年国内生产总值同比增长6.3%,继续保持中高速增长。从全球范围看,我国经济增速位居世界主要经济体前列,在世界经济增长趋缓的大背景下格外亮眼,继续成为推动世界经济增长的重要引擎。而且,以这样的增长速度计算,我们一年的经济增量就相当于一个中等规模发达国家的经济总量。在国际环境复杂严峻、国内经济下行压力较大的情况下,我国经济能够继续保持6%以上增长,表明我国完全有条件、有能力、有信心应对各种风险挑战,实现经济社会发展主要目标。

1. China’s economic growth ranked among the highest in the world.

For a large economy, its growth rate is closely related to its size – the larger the size and base figure, the more difficult it is to achieve rapid growth. In 2018, China’s GDP exceeded 90 trillion yuan, or US$13.6 trillion as calculated at the yearly average exchange rate, ranking second globally and accounting for nearly 16% of the world economy. Based on the relatively large size of its economy, China’s GDP saw a year-on-year increase of 6.3% in the first half of this year, maintaining a medium-high growth rate. China’s economic growth ranked high among the world’s major economies, which was particularly striking against a backdrop of decelerating global economic growth, growth for which China continued to be an important engine. This growth rate means that China’s economic growth in a single year is equal to the entire economy of a medium-sized developed country. In a complex and daunting international environment and facing considerable downward pressure on the domestic economy, China’s economy has been able to maintain a growth rate of more than 6%, indicating that China has the conditions, ability, and confidence to surmount all risks and challenges and achieve its main goals for economic and social development.

产业持续发展。乡村振兴战略深入实施,农业供给侧结构性改革积极推进,夏粮生产喜获丰收,农业生产形势较好。上半年,第一产业增加值同比增长3.0%。夏粮产量2835亿斤,比上年增加59亿斤,增产2.1%,与历史产量最高的2017年持平;夏粮单产每亩359公斤,比上年增长3.5%。大规模减税降费深入推进,金融对实体经济支持力度加大,经营环境逐步改善,有效缓解工业生产压力。上半年,规模以上工业增加值同比增长6.0%;41个大类行业中,39个行业增加值保持同比增长;605种主要工业产品中,有366种产品产量实现同比增长,增长面达60.5%。服务业持续较快增长,转型升级加速推进,上半年服务业增加值同比增长7.0%,明显快于工业增速;服务业商务活动指数均位于53.0%以上的较高景气区间。

2. Industries continued to develop.

The rural revitalization strategy was fully implemented, agricultural supply-side structural reform was actively advanced, and agricultural production remained favorable with a bumper summer grain harvest. In the first half of this year, the value added of the primary industry saw a year-on-year increase of 3%. The summer grain output was 141.75 million metric tons, an increase of 2.95 million metric tons or 2.1% over last year, equaling the record high of 2017. The output of summer grain per mu (0.067 hectare) was 359 kilograms, a year-on-year increase of 3.5%. We worked hard to slash taxes and fees, intensified financial support for the real economy, and gradually improved the business environment, which effectively eased pressure on industrial production. In the first half of this year, the value added of industrial enterprises, each with an annual income of 20 million yuan or over and hereafter referred as large-scale enterprises, saw a year-on-year increase of 6%; 39 out of 41 major types of industries maintained year-on-year increases in value added; 366 out of 605 major industrial products, or 60.5%, achieved year-on-year increases in output. The service industry continued to grow quickly while transformation and upgrading also accelerated; its value added in the first half of this year saw a year-on-year increase of 7%, which was remarkably faster than that of the manufacturing industry; and its business activity index flourished at above 53%.

需求稳中有增。我国拥有近14亿人口,中等收入群体规模世界最大,市场空间巨大,加之适应居民需求的有效供给逐步增多,为消费扩大创造了良好条件。上半年,社会消费品零售总额同比增长8.4%,教育、健康、养老、体育、旅游等领域服务消费增势喜人。清明节、劳动节假日期间全国旅游人数、旅游收入均保持两位数增长。聚焦短板加快重大项目建设,消除民间投资隐性障碍,推进制造业转型升级,投资增长趋稳。上半年,固定资产投资(不含农户)同比增长5.8%,其中制造业投资和基础设施投资分别增长3.0%和4.1%。我国坚持多边主义,坚定维护自由贸易,与世界各国经贸往来稳步扩大。上半年,货物进出口总额增长3.9%,其中出口增长6.1%,保持较快增长。

3. Consumer demand grew amidst stability.

With a population of nearly 1.4 billion, China is home to the world’s largest middle-income group and boasts a huge market. In addition, we have gradually increased effective supply according to consumer demand in order to create favorable conditions for the expansion of consumer spending. In the first half of this year, total retail sales of consumer goods rose by 8.4% year-on-year, with consumption of services such as education, health, elderly care, sports, and tourism growing strongly. The numbers of tourists and revenue from tourism during the Qingming Festival and May 1st Labor Day holiday periods both maintained double-digit growth. We focused our efforts on economic weaknesses to accelerate the development of major projects, removed invisible barriers to private investment, and promoted transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry, thus stabilizing investment growth. In the first half of this year, investment in fixed assets (excluding that of rural households) grew by 5.8% year-on-year, with investment in the manufacturing sector and in infrastructure increasing by 3% and 4.1% respectively. China has upheld multilateralism, resolutely safeguarded free trade, and steadily developed economic and trade relationships with all countries. In the first half of this year, the total import and export of goods increased by 3.9%, with export maintaining the faster growth rate of 6.1%.

二、转型升级深入推进,经济结构优化调整

II. Transformation and upgrading further progressed, and the economic structure was optimized and adjusted.

中国经济转向高质量发展,结构优化升级已成为衡量发展质量的重要内容。今年上半年,我国坚持在发展中促转型,在转型中谋发展,聚焦发展不平衡不充分问题,推动需求结构优化调整,不断增强内需拉动,加快产业升级步伐,积极落实重大区域发展战略,促进城乡区域协调发展,国民经济结构不断改善,发展质量稳步提升。

As China’s economy shifts to high-quality development, structural optimization and upgrading has become an important aspect of assessing the quality of development. In the first half of this year, China continued to promote transformation in the course of development and pursue development amidst transformation, focused on resolving imbalanced and inadequate development, facilitated optimization and adjustment of the demand structure, strengthened the role of domestic demand as a driver of growth, expedited industrial upgrading, and implemented major regional development strategies. On this basis, we have enhanced coordinated development between urban and rural areas and between different regions, constantly improved the structure of the national economy, and steadily raised the quality of development.

需求拉动协调性增强。积极促进供需良性循环、培育形成强大国内市场,推动重点消费品更新升级,完善消费环境,消费基础性作用有效发挥。上半年,最终消费支出增长对经济增长的贡献率为60.1%,比资本形成总额高40.9个百分点。同时,消费升级态势明显,质量更优、效用更佳的产品受到消费者欢迎。服务性消费持续扩大,全部居民最终消费支出中服务消费占比为49.4%,同比提高0.6个百分点。顺应消费升级发展需要,高技术产业和社会领域投资快速增长,高技术产业投资同比增长11.5%,比全部投资快5.7个百分点。外贸转型升级步伐加快,出口附加值不断提高,一般贸易出口占我国出口总值的比重达58.8%,同比提高1.8个百分点;新能源汽车、集成电路、医疗器械等产品出口快速增长。

1. Consumer demand drove economic growth in a more coordinated manner.

We have actively encouraged a sound circle between supply and demand to foster a strong domestic market, promoted the renewal and upgrading of major consumer goods, and improved the consumption environment, thus effectively exerting the fundamental role of consumption. In the first half of this year, the contribution of final consumption expenditure growth to economic growth was 60.1%, 40.9 percentage points higher than that of gross capital formation. Meanwhile, the trend toward consumption upgrading is obvious, with higher quality and more efficient products proving popular. Consumption of services continued to expand, accounting for 49.4% of total household final consumption expenditure, a year-on-year increase of 0.6 percentage points. In line with the requirements for consumption upgrading and development, investment in the high-tech industry and the social domain rapidly increased, with investment in the high-tech industry growing by 11.5% year-on-year, 5.7 percentage points higher than total investment growth. Following the accelerated transformation and upgrading of foreign trade, the value added of exports continued to rise. General exports accounted for 58.8% of China’s total exports, a year-on-year increase of 1.8 percentage points, while exports of new-energy vehicles, integrated circuits, and medical instruments grew rapidly.

产业发展迈向中高端。服务业发展势头良好,占比稳步提升。上半年,第三产业增加值占国内生产总值的比重为54.9%,同比提高0.5个百分点;对经济增长的贡献率为60.3%,比第二产业高23.2个百分点。现代服务业较快发展。1—5月份,高技术服务业、科技服务业企业营业收入同比分别增长12.3%和12.0%,分别比全部规模以上服务业企业快2.2和1.9个百分点。工业向中高端加快跃迁,供给质量稳步提升。上半年,高技术制造业增加值同比增长9.0%,占规模以上工业增加值的比重为13.8%,同比提高0.8个百分点。农业结构调整稳步推进,高效优质农产品种植面积增加。大豆意向种植面积增长16.4%,品质较好、市场价格更优的中稻和一季晚稻播种面积增加。

2. Industrial development moved toward the medium-high end.

The service industry maintained strong momentum, steadily increasing its share in the economy. In the first half of this year, the value added of the tertiary industry accounted for 54.9% of GDP, a year-on-year increase of 0.5 percentage points, and its contribution to economic growth was 60.3%, 23.2 percentage points higher than that of the secondary industry. The modern service industry saw relatively fast development. From January to May, the operating incomes of enterprises in high-tech services and in scientific and technological services increased by 12.3% and 12% respectively year-on-year, faster than that of all large-scale enterprises in service industries by 2.2 and 1.9 percentage points respectively. Industries surged toward the medium-high end, with the quality of their supply improving steadily. In the first half of this year, the value added of the high-tech manufacturing industry grew by 9% year-on-year, accounting for 13.8% of that of large-scale industrial enterprises, constituting a year-on-year increase of 0.8 percentage points. Agricultural restructuring advanced steadily, with an increasing acreage of highly efficient and good quality agricultural products. The intended acreage of soybean production increased by 16.4%, while the acreage of middle- and late-season rice with better quality and higher market prices also increased.

区域发展差距继续缩小。新型城镇化有序推进,乡村振兴战略规划实施协调推进机制逐步建立,农村居民收入增长持续快于城镇。上半年,农村居民人均可支配收入实际增长6.6%,城镇居民人均可支配收入实际增长5.7%;城乡居民收入比为2.74,同比下降0.03。京津冀协同发展、长江经济带发展等重大区域战略任务扎实推进,支持东北振兴力度持续加大,区域发展格局继续改善,中西部地区与东部地区差距缩小。上半年,中部地区规模以上工业增加值同比增长8.4%,快于东部地区3.5个百分点;中部、西部地区居民人均可支配收入分别增长9.3%和9.1%,分别快于东部地区0.7和0.5个百分点。随着粤港澳大湾区、长三角一体化、雄安新区、海南全面深化改革开放等重大战略深入实施,区域协调发展将迎来新的机遇。

3. The regional development gap continued to narrow.

We have promoted the orderly advancement of a new type of urbanization, and gradually established mechanisms for planning, implementing, coordinating, and promoting the rural revitalization strategy, while incomes of rural residents have continued to grow at a faster rate than those of urban residents. In the first half of this year, the per capita disposable incomes of rural and urban residents increased by 6.6% and 5.7% respectively in real terms, and the ratio of per capita disposable incomes between the two was 2.74, down 0.03 year-on-year. We made solid progress in major regional strategic tasks such as the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, intensified support for the revitalization of the northeastern region, continued to improve the regional development layout, and narrowed the development gap between the central and western regions and the eastern region. In the first half of this year, the value added of large-scale industrial enterprises in the central region grew 8.4% year-on-year, 3.5 percentage points higher than that of the eastern region, while the per capita disposable incomes of residents in the central and western regions increased by 9.3% and 9.1% respectively, higher than that of the eastern region by 0.7 and 0.5 percentage points respectively. Thoroughly implementing major strategies such as the development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta, the development of the Xiongan New Area, and the comprehensive deepening of reform and opening up in Hainan Province will bring new opportunities for coordinated regional development.

三、共享发展深入人心,人民生活不断改善

III. The principle of shared development has taken root in the hearts of the people, while living standards have constantly improved.

衡量经济发展,不仅要看经济总量、增长速度,还要看给老百姓增加了多少获得感。我们在推动经济发展的同时,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,从解决群众最关心最直接最现实的利益问题入手,通过积极扩大就业,做好就业服务,多措并举增加居民收入,稳定市场价格,实施污染防治,人民群众得到较多实惠,获得感、幸福感、安全感不断提升。

In assessing economic development, we should not only look at size and growth rate, but also understand to what extent it gives ordinary people a sense of fulfillment. At the same time as promoting economic development, China has also upheld the principle of people-centered development, which begins with resolving the problems of most dire, direct, and practical concern to the people. We have actively expanded employment and provided employment services, adopted a combination of measures to increase personal incomes, stabilized market prices, and carried out pollution prevention and control, which has all brought more benefits to the people and constantly bolstered their sense of gain, happiness, and security.

就业基本盘保持稳定。今年以来,就业优先政策持续发力,高校毕业生、农民工、退役军人等重点人群就业创业工作扎实推进,对在调整优化产业结构过程中采取有效措施不裁员、少裁员企业给予稳岗补贴,拿出1000亿元失业保险基金结余实施职业技能提升行动,大规模开展职业技能培训,确保了就业大局稳定。上半年,全国城镇新增就业737万人,完成全年目标任务的67%。全国城镇调查失业率和31个大城市城镇调查失业率均稳定在5%左右,低于5.5%左右的预期目标。就业是民生之本,就业稳,收入稳,民心稳,有利于消费增长和经济增长,也为社会大局和谐稳定创造了良好条件。

1. Employment remained basically stable.

This year, we have persevered in implementing the employment-first policy, and made concrete efforts to boost employment and business startups for key groups such as university graduates, rural migrant workers, and demobilized military personnel. Throughout the process of adjustment and optimization of the industrial structure, we provided stable employment subsidies for enterprises that took effective measures to avoid or minimize layoffs. We also allocated 100 billion yuan from the surplus in unemployment insurance funds to implement a vocational skill building initiative, and carried out large-scale vocational skill training, thereby ensuring overall stability in employment. In the first half of this year, 7.37 million urban jobs were created across the country, already reaching 67% of the annual target. The survey-based urban unemployment rate both nationally and across 31 major cities remained stable at around 5%, lower than the projected target of 5.5%. Employment is the foundation of public wellbeing; stability in employment, personal income, and public morale is conducive to the growth of consumption and the economy, and creates favorable conditions for overall social harmony and stability.

居民收入实现同步增长。就业规模持续扩大,民生投入不断增加,个人所得税专项附加扣除落实,支撑居民收入较快增长。上半年,全国居民人均可支配收入同比名义增长8.8%,扣除价格因素,实际增长6.5%,比GDP增速快0.2个百分点,实现了居民收入增长与GDP增长基本同步,为居民生活改善提供了收入保障。就业形势稳定保证了居民工资性收入增长,全国居民人均工资性收入同比名义增长8.7%。农业生产形势较好、大规模减税降费为城乡居民经营净收入增长提供了有利条件,全国居民人均经营净收入同比名义增长8.9%,比上年同期加快1.9个百分点。与此同时,产业扶贫、教育扶贫、就业扶贫等成效持续显现。贫困人口相对较多的西藏、青海、贵州农村居民人均可支配收入同比分别名义增长12.5%、10.4%和10.3%,增速均快于全国农村居民。

2. Personal incomes grew in tandem with the economy.

Constantly expanding employment, continuously investing in public wellbeing, and implementing special additional deductions for individual income tax have all served to increase personal incomes. In the first half of this year, the national per capita disposable income increased 8.8% year-on-year in nominal terms, or 6.5% in real terms after adjusting for inflation, thus exceeding the GDP growth rate by 0.2 percentage points. We achieved basically simultaneous personal income and GDP growth, providing income security and thus improving people’s lives. Stable employment guaranteed the increase of salary-based personal incomes, and national per capita salary-based incomes saw a year-on-year increase of 8.7% in nominal terms. Positive conditions in agricultural production and large-scale tax and fee cuts provided favorable terms for the growth of net operating incomes of urban and rural residents, leading to a year-on-year increase of 8.9% in national per capita net operating incomes in nominal terms, or a year-on-year increase of 1.9 percentage points. Meanwhile, we continued to see results in poverty alleviation through the development of industry, education, and employment. The per capita disposable incomes of rural residents in areas with a relatively large poor population, such as Tibet, Qinghai, and Guizhou, increased by 12.5%, 10.4%, and 10.3% year-on-year respectively in nominal terms, exceeding the national rural growth rate.

市场价格温和上涨。市场供给总体充裕,供求形势基本稳定。上半年,居民消费价格同比上涨2.2%,低于3%左右的预期目标;扣除食品和能源的核心CPI上涨1.8%。工业制成品市场供给充足,价格涨幅较低或下降。鞋类价格同比上涨1.1%,家用器具、交通工具价格分别下降0.2%和1.7%。服务市场供给稳步增加,服务消费满足程度提高。服务价格同比上涨2.0%,其中通信服务价格下降1.2%。受鲜果、猪肉价格上涨影响,食品价格涨幅有所扩大,但多数食品供给较为充足,价格涨幅不高。粮食价格同比上涨0.5%,水产品价格下降1.1%。

3. Market prices rose moderately.

Market supply was abundant overall, and supply and demand were basically in balance. In the first half of this year, the consumer price index (CPI) rose by 2.2% year-on-year, lower than the projected 3% increase, while core CPI (excluding food and energy prices) rose 1.8%. Market supply of manufactured goods was plentiful, with prices in this category either showing weak growth or in decline. The price of shoes increased by 1.1% year-on-year, while household appliance and vehicle prices decreased by 0.2% and 1.7% respectively. Market supply of services steadily increased, and service consumption rose to meet consumer demand. Service prices increased by 2% year-on-year, while communications services saw a price drop of 1.2%. Food prices increased more rapidly due to the rising prices of fresh fruit and pork, although most foods only saw moderate price increases as supply was adequate. Grain prices rose by 0.5% year-on-year, while the prices of aquatic products decreased by 1.1%.

生态环境持续改善。污染防治七大标志性战役全面打响,《打赢蓝天保卫战三年行动计划》逐步落实,水污染防治法执法检查、净土保卫战持续推进,人民群众享受到更多的蓝天白云、绿水青山。上半年,全国337个地级及以上城市空气质量平均优良天数比例为80.1%,同比提高0.4个百分点;PM2.5浓度为40微克/立方米,下降2.4%;空气质量达标城市个数达142个,同比增加20个;1940个国家地表水评价断面中,水质优良(Ⅰ—Ⅲ类)断面比例同比上升4.4个百分点。

4. There was continued improvement of the environment.

We launched seven key campaigns in pollution prevention and control, gradually implemented the Three-year Action Plan for Keeping Our Skies Blue, continued to promote enforcement inspection of the Law on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution, and continued the fight to clean up our soil, so that our people may enjoy blue skies, clear waters, and lush mountains. In the first half of this year, the average proportion of days with good air quality in 337 cities at or above the prefecture level was 80.1%, up 0.4 percentage points year-on-year; PM2.5 concentration was 40 micrograms per cubic meter, down by 2.4%; there were 142 cities that met the required air quality standard, a year-on-year increase of 20; the proportion of the 1,940 surface water body sections under the national monitoring program that met good water quality standards (Grade I-III) was 4.4 percentage points higher year-on-year.

四、改革开放力度加大,发展活力持续增强

IV. We have intensified reform and opening up, and continued to boost the vitality of development.

观察经济发展,不仅要看短期发展水平,还要看长期发展后劲。我国有丰富的宏观调控经验和充足的政策空间,有极大的发展韧性、潜力和回旋余地,完全有条件保持经济平稳健康可持续发展。近年来,“放管服”改革持续深化,市场化法治化国际化营商环境加快打造,扩大开放更加主动,准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理等制度有序实施,大众创业万众创新蓬勃发展,新动能培育和新旧动能转换加快,为经济持续健康发展注入澎湃动力,也为经济可持续发展提供充足后劲支撑。从未来看,我国经济长期向好的基本面没有变也不会变。

To assess economic development, we should not only look at short-term development levels but also at long-term development potential. China boasts rich experience in macro-control and abundant policy space and enjoys great resilience, potential, and room for maneuver in its development. China is, therefore, well equipped to maintain steady, healthy, and sustainable economic development. In recent years, we have continued to bolster reforms to streamline administration, delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services, stepped up efforts to create an internationalized business environment that is market- and law-based, more actively expanded opening up, and implemented a management system based on pre-establishment national treatment and a negative list in an orderly manner. By doing so, we have vigorously promoted mass entrepreneurship and innovation, worked faster to foster new growth drivers and replace old growth drivers with new ones, injected strong impetus for sustained and sound economic development, and provided ample support for sustainable economic development. Looking forward, the fundamentals of China’s positive long-term economic prospects will not change.

发展新动能积聚壮大。市场准入负面清单修订完善,国家政务服务平台上线试运行,营商环境不断改善,新产业新业态新模式快速增长。上半年,工业战略性新兴产业增加值同比增长7.7%,比规模以上工业快1.7个百分点。人工智能、大数据等重点领域工程建设有序推进,5G商用正式开启,助力新兴业态快速发展。全国实物商品网上零售额同比增长21.6%,快于社会消费品零售总额13.2个百分点。适应市场需要的新产品快速增加,3D打印设备、智能手表、服务机器人、新能源汽车等产品产量增长较快,同比分别增长271.4%、162.9%、86.5%和34.6%。

1. New growth drivers have been accumulated and strengthened.

The negative list for market access was revised and improved, the national administrative service platform went online on a trial operation basis, the business environment was continually enhanced, and new industries as well as new forms and models of business multiplied rapidly. In the first half of this year, the value added of strategic emerging manufacturing industries saw a year-on-year increase of 7.7%, 1.7 percentage points higher than that of large-scale industries. Key projects such as artificial intelligence and big data were advanced in an orderly manner, and commercial use of 5G was officially launched, facilitating the rapid development of new forms of business. National online retail sales of physical goods saw a year-on-year increase of 21.6%, outpacing the growth of total retail sales of consumer goods by 13.2 percentage points. There was a rapid increase in new products to meet market demand, with the production of 3D printers, smart watches, service robots, and new-energy vehicles seeing rapid year-on-year increases of 271.4%, 162.9%, 86.5%, and 34.6% respectively.

高水平开放红利逐步显现。坚持共商共建共享,“一带一路”建设持续推进,成功举办第二届“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛,设施联通与产能合作加快,与沿线国家经贸往来扩大。上半年,我国与“一带一路”沿线国家进出口额同比增长9.7%,增速快于全部进出口总额5.8个百分点。外商投资法颁布,新的鼓励外商投资产业目录、全国和自贸试验区外资准入负面清单出台,重大外资项目有序落地。在全球跨境投资大幅下滑的背景下,我国实际使用外资(按人民币计价)同比增长7.2%,其中高技术产业实际使用外资增长40%以上。

2. The dividends of high-level opening up are gradually becoming more evident.

Upholding the principles of mutual consultation, joint development, and shared benefits, we continued to advance the Belt and Road Initiative, successfully held the Second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, expedited infrastructure connectivity and industrial capacity cooperation, and expanded economic and trade engagement with Belt and Road countries. In the first half of this year, the value of imports and exports between China and Belt and Road countries increased by 9.7% year-on-year, 5.8 percentage points faster than the growth of the total value of China’s imports and exports. We promulgated the Foreign Investment Law, introduced a new catalog of industries that encourage foreign investment and two negative lists for foreign investment – one for the whole country and the other for pilot free trade zones – and launched major foreign-funded projects in an orderly manner. Against a backdrop of significantly decreased cross-border investment globally, China’s actual use of foreign capital saw a year-on-year increase of 7.2% in RMB terms, within which the actual use of foreign capital in high-tech industries rose by over 40%.

微观主体活力得到增强。大规模减税降费有效降低企业负担,微观主体的获得感明显提升,发展能力增强。根据规模以下工业企业调查,二季度获得税收减免的企业占52.2%,比一季度上升3.0个百分点,占比连续6个季度上升。受益于减税降费,企业经营状况改善。6月末,规模以上工业企业资产负债率为57.0%,同比下降0.3个百分点。上半年,规模以上工业企业实现利润总额同比降幅比一季度收窄0.9个百分点。与此同时,营商环境不断改善有效助力微观主体成长。上半年,全国每天有1.9万户新登记企业,成为稳定就业、增加收入、推动增长的新力量。

3. The dynamism of microeconomic entities has been strengthened.

Large-scale tax and fee cuts effectively lightened the burden on enterprises, and significantly enhanced microeconomic entities’ sense of gain and capacity to develop. According to a survey, 52.2% of small-scale industrial enterprises received tax relief in the second quarter, up 3 percentage points over the first quarter, and this proportion increased for six consecutive quarters. Thanks to tax and fee cuts, the operational situation for enterprises showed improvement. By the end of June, the debt-to-asset ratio of large-scale industrial enterprises was 57%, down 0.3 percentage points year-on-year. In the first half of this year, the total profit of large-scale industrial enterprises was down 0.9 percentage points year-on-year from the first quarter. Meanwhile, a continuously improving business environment effectively promoted the growth of microeconomic entities. In the first half of this year, there were 19,000 registrations for new enterprises every day across the nation, which translated into new forces for stabilizing employment, increasing incomes, and promoting growth.

这些情况充分说明,上半年6.3%的经济增长有着沉甸甸的含金量,展现了中国经济总体平稳、稳中有进的发展态势。

The above facts fully prove that the 6.3% economic growth in the first half of this year was of significant value, demonstrating that China’s economy remains stable overall with a positive trend.

(作者:国家发展和改革委员会副主任兼国家统计局局长、党组书记)

(Ning Jizhe is Vice Minister, the National Development and Reform Commission, and Commissioner, the National Bureau of Statistics and Secretary of the Bureau’s CPC Leadership Group.)

文章来源:求是
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