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双语:2017年联合国秘书长工作报告(中英对照)
文章来源:UN 发布时间:2019-12-26 18:07 作者:UN 点击:

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Chapter I

Introduction

导言

1. I am deeply honoured and humbled to be at the helm of the United Nations at this critical time. In this annual report on the work of the Organization, which reflects on the first few months of my term and the last few months of my predecessor’s term, my aim is to offer a candid view of the world today and a realistic vision of how we can better deliver on the promise of the United Nations.

能在当前这一重要时刻执掌联合国,我深感荣幸,满怀谦恭之情。这份关于联合国工作的年度报告回顾了前任秘书长任期最后几个月和我上任以来几个月的情况。我想借此报告对当今世界提出坦率看法,并就如何更好地兑现联合国的诺言提出务实的愿景。

The world we live in presents a mixed picture of progress, challenges and opportunities

当今世界错综复杂,有进步,有机会,也有挑战

2. The United Nations was established to prevent war and human suffering by binding us together through a common rule-based international order. Today that order is laden with contradictory trends, and a clear assessment must be made if we are going to address these challenges effectively.

成立联合国,是为了建立一个基于规则的共同国际秩序,以此团结世界人民,防止战患,使人类免遭苦难。如今,这一秩序充满了各种相互矛盾的趋势。要有效应对这些挑战,我们必须对这一秩序加以清晰梳理。

3. Hundreds of millions of people have been lifted out of poverty. More children, both boys and girls, are achieving greater levels of education and more women are entering the political world than ever before. This progress represents concentrated efforts by United Nations Member States to work towards these and other development goals. Yet after years of decline, the number of conflicts is on the rise and they are lasting longer, fuelled by the spread of terrorism and violent extremism, transnational criminal networks and deep regional divisions. The threat of famine in several countries, resulting from violence compounded by drought, lurks just around the corner. These contradictory trends are exacerbated by international power dynamics that are in flux. As we move towards a multipolar world order composed of multiple and shifting centres of power, there is an added feeling of unpredictability.

已有数亿人摆脱了贫困。接受更高程度教育的男女儿童以及步入政坛的妇女比以往任何时候都多。这一进步是联合国会员国为实现这些和其他发展目标加紧努力的结果。然而,由于恐怖主义、暴力极端主义、跨国犯罪网络和严重区域分裂的蔓延,一度连年减少的冲突开始增多,持续时间也更长。在一些国家,暴力所致并因干旱而加剧的饥荒威胁迫在眉睫。不断变化的国际力量格局加剧了这些矛盾趋势。我们正走向由多个不断变换的力量中心构成的多极世界秩序,不可预测之感由此加深。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

4. Now more than ever, multilateral action is needed to find effective solutions to this mix of challenges.

面对这多重挑战,要找到有效应对办法,现在比以往任何时候都需要多边行动。

5. While progress on development indicators is moving ahead, the risks to global stability may be accelerating, affecting these hard-earned achievements. Climate change is creating deserts where once there was farmland; it is also generating extreme weather that threatens lives, livelihoods and infrastructure and leads to critical shortages of water. The planet’s population will grow to nearly 10 billion people by 2050, two thirds living in cities that could be left unprepared for such rapid growth unless urban leaders grasp this opportunity to prosper by utilizing concentrated habitats to build more efficient infrastructures.

虽然在发展指标方面取得了进展,但全球稳定面临的风险可能正在升级,影响着这些来之不易的成就。气候变化正将农田变成荒漠,并带来极端天气,对生命、生计和基础设施构成威胁,导致严重缺水问题。地球上的人口到2050年将增至近100亿,其中三分之二将生活在城市。除非城市领导人抓住机会实现发展,利用密集居住地建设更加高效的基础设施,否则这些城市可能无法承受如此快速的人口增长。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

6. People are on the move, to cities and all parts of the world, in search of opportunity and safety. Population displacement and migration on a scale not seen since the Second World War bear witness to enduring challenges grounded in escalating conflicts and systemic inequalities. While some countries have been willing to open their arms to people in need, others have reacted by succumbing to deep national and international tensions and polarization.

人们为了寻求机会和安全而向城市迁移,向世界各地迁移。人口流离失所和移民规模是第二次世界大战以来前所未有的,足见因不断升级的冲突和系统性不平等所致的挑战何等顽固。面对需要帮助的人,有些国家愿意敞开怀抱,而另一些国家却屈从于极度的国内和国际紧张关系和两极分化局势。

Inequality and exclusion underlie many of today’s challenges

当今许多挑战的根源是不平等和排斥现象

7. Inequality and exclusion underlie a great many of today’s challenges. Globalization has brought immense gains in the fight against poverty worldwide and has improved living conditions nearly everywhere. But it has been cruelly unfair: as wealth has increased, so too has its asymmetry, leaving millions behind in all parts of the world. Both developed and developing countries, North and South, face greater inequality and marginalization now than they did 20 years ago. Unless we work together, the coming decades are likely to drive poverty more deeply into fragile low-income countries, pushing them even further onto the sidelines, while even larger numbers of people struggling with poverty live in middle-income countries. Furthermore, this sense of exclusion is not limited to the poorest countries but is vividly on the rise in developed countries as well, fuelling trends of nationalism and a lack of trust in national and multilateral institutions. Our hard-won collective progress towards combating poverty and promoting common security is newly at risk.

当今许多挑战的根源是不平等和排斥现象。全球化使全世界的脱贫工作取得巨大成就,改善了几乎世界各地的生活条件。但全球化极为不公平:随着财富的增加,不对称的问题愈加严重,使世界各地数百万人远远落在后面。不论发达国家还是发展中国家,不论北方还是南方,他们面临的不平等和边缘化现象都甚于20年前。除非我们共同努力,不然在未来几十年,脆弱的低收入国家将面临更大的贫困问题,进一步陷入边缘化地位,在中等收入国家甚至将有更多的贫困人口。而且,这种受排斥感不仅仅存在于最贫困国家,在发达国家也明显抬头,助长了各种民族主义趋势,也使人们失去对国家机构和多边机构的信任。我们在消除贫困和促进共同安全方面来之不易的共同进步重新面临风险。

Countries and institutions are struggling to fully deliver

国家和机构正勉力提供全面服务

8. Threats to global stability are frequently rooted in weak infrastructure and failing institutions in fragile States. Where States cannot provide basic protections and services to their people, the likelihood of violence, pandemics or violent extremism increases dramatically. We must collectively invest more to help countries build inclusive institutions and resilient communities capable of thriving in a globalized world.

全球稳定面临威胁,其根源往往是脆弱国家的薄弱基础设施和失灵的机构。国家不能为人民提供基本的保护和服务,出现暴力、流行病或暴力极端主义的可能性便急剧增加。我们必须共同加大力度,帮助各国建设可以在全球化世界中蓬勃发展的包容型机构和韧性社区。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

9. Overwhelmed, a significant number of States across the world are struggling to effectively address today’s major challenges and deliver the services needed by their populations. Tensions are exacerbated by a lack of opportunities and by a strong sentiment among many peoples — their youth especially — that they are being excluded by the very institutions meant to serve them. Few countries or institutions appear to have a long-term vision to meet peoples’ needs or strategies to manage today’s interlinked crises, instead finding themselves entangled in reactive responses.

世界各地许多国家负担沉重,艰难地努力有效应对当今的主要挑战并提供人民需要的服务。许多人,尤其是他们中的年轻人,缺乏机会,而且都强烈地感受到本该为他们服务的机构正在排斥他们,紧张局势因此而加剧。似乎没有国家或机构具有满足人民需求的长远愿景或是管理当今各种盘根错节的危机的战略,反而处处疲于应付。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

10. The United Nations and many other international institutions deserve credit for their achievements, but may also be perceived as bureaucratic and remote.

联合国和许多其他国际机构取得了各种成绩,理应受到赞扬,但也可能被视为官僚主义、遥不可及。

Demonstrating multilateralism matters more than ever

彰显多边主义比以往任何时候都重要

11. We need to rekindle faith in multilateralism and confidence in the United Nations as the place where States and civil society can come together to face the most pressing challenges in the world today.

我们需使人们恢复对多边主义的信心和对联合国的信任,使人们重新相信联合国是各国和民间社会能够齐聚一堂共同应对当今世界最紧迫挑战的地方。

12. The interconnected nature of today’s global trends unequivocally demonstrates that countries cannot manage these risks alone. Acting together is the most effective way to fight climate change, global terrorism and the threat of new pandemics and is the only way to manage forced displacements and migratory flows in a humane manner.

当今的全球趋势相互关联,这清楚地表明,各国无法独自管理这些风险。共同行动是应对气候变化、全球恐怖主义以及新型大流行病威胁的最有效办法,也是对被迫流离失所和移民潮问题进行人性化处理的唯一途径。

Countries cannot manage these risks alone

各国无法独自管理这些风险

13. Member States clearly recognized this commonality when they adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change, two landmark achievements all the more remarkable for coming in a period of stark division in international responses to other challenges.

《2030年可持续发展议程》和关于气候变化的2015年《巴黎协定》的通过表明会员国都清楚认识到共同行动的重要性。国际社会对其他挑战的反应都存在极大分歧,在这样的时代背景下,这两项具有里程碑意义的成就显得更加弥足珍贵。

14. Along with the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, these multilateral agreements constitute the most important frameworks for guiding us along the pathway to a world where more people can enjoy freedom from want and fear. We can succeed only if we work in greater unison. Multilateralism is not optional. It is the most effective vehicle, whether regional or global, for achieving the goals of peace, inclusive sustainable development and human rights for all.

这两项多边协定与《联合国宪章》和《世界人权宣言》都是最重要的框架,指引我们迈向一个更多人能享有自由且免于匮乏和恐惧的世界。唯有更协调一致地工作,我们才能取得成功。多边主义并非可有可无,无论对区域还是全球而言,多边主义都是实现和平、包容性可持续发展和保障所有人人权的一个最有效工具。

United Nations reform is essential

联合国改革至关重要

15. The United Nations has a proud record of achievement in keeping peace, improving human well-being and advancing human rights and the rule of law. But the Organization came into being at a particular moment in history. While its animating principles continue to stand the test of time, its day-to-day structures and practices are no longer well adapted to current challenges. The world needs a more effective, nimble and accountable United Nations to manage the crises of the twenty-first century.

联合国在维持和平、改善人类福祉以及促进人权和法治方面的记录令人引以为豪。但本组织诞生于特定历史时刻,虽说它那富有生命力的各项原则依然经得住时间的考验,其日常架构和做法已不再那么适合于应对当前的挑战。世界需要一个更有效、更灵活、更负责的联合国来管理21世纪的危机。

16. My assessment of the world we live in demonstrates that we need to respond to interlinked global risks in a less fragmented and reactive manner. If the United Nations is to remain relevant and reliable, we must vigorously enact proactive reforms that are motivated by the objective of achieving better results for those most affected.

我对我们所处世界的梳理结果表明,我们需要以更集中、更主动的方式应对错综复杂的全球风险。要使联合国保持其现实意义和可靠价值,我们必须以切实为受影响最严重者提供更好结果为动力,大力实施积极的改革。

17. One of our main goals in steering the reform agenda must be to engage more effectively on prevention. For too long, our reactive responses towards threats to peace and security have been too slow, allowing crises to worsen so that effective action becomes more difficult. We know that preventing a crisis is much less costly and more effective than reacting to one. We know that catastrophic natural disasters can wipe out in seconds development gains that took years to achieve. We know from painful experience that wars destroy societies and that protracted crises keep generations locked in perpetual vulnerability. This must change.

指导我们改革议程的主要目标之一必须是更有效地参与预防工作。长期以来,我们对和平与安全面临的威胁所采取的被动应对措施,反应过于缓慢,导致危机恶化,以致更难采取有效行动。我们知道,与应对危机相比,预防危机的成本要低得多,且更加有效。我们知道,灾难性的自然灾害可以瞬间抹去历时多年才取得的发展成果。惨痛的经历告诉我们,战争可以摧毁社会,旷日持久的危机可以使数代人长期受困于脆弱境地。这种状况必须改变。

18. I have called for a shift in approach, with a less reactive posture, towards a more robust approach to prevention. Prevention means doing everything we can, across a broad range of engagements and activities, to help countries avert the outbreak or worsening of crises that result in massive human suffering. Prevention is the common thread running through the interwoven fabric of my reform efforts. Both the 2030 Agenda and the sustaining peace resolutions (General Assembly resolution 70/262 and Security Council resolution 2282 (2016)) demonstrate strong support for a holistic approach to prevention; the best prevention is sustainable and inclusive development. While these two approaches are complementary, the 2030 Agenda remains the primary architecture within which the sustaining peace resolutions provide a solid framework for enabling the United Nations to concentrate on support for the planning and delivery of specific aspects of the Sustainable Development Goals as they pertain to peace.

我已呼吁改变做法,在预防工作中采取更主动的姿态和更有力的办法。所谓预防,就是要竭尽所能,开展广泛互动和活动,帮助国家避免危机的爆发或恶化,以免造成大规模的人类苦难。预防工作是一条共同主线,将贯穿我的改革布局的各个方面。《2030年议程》和关于保持和平的相关决议(大会第70/262号决议和安全理事会第2282(2016)号决议)均表明大力支持在预防工作中采用全面办法;最好的预防就是可持续和包容性发展。虽然相辅相成,但《2030议程》仍然是首要架构。在这一架构下,保持和平相关决议作为一个坚实框架,使联合国可以集中力量支持可持续发展目标中与和平有关的具体方面的规划和落实。

19. I have set in motion several related reform processes. All aim to make the Organization’s approaches more integrated and coherent, reflective of a more comprehensive understanding of the greatest risks facing the world, and more securely financed. The reforms will foster stronger and more accountable leadership, cutting away many of the burdensome administrative rules that hamper quick, nimble responses to crisis situations. They will increase and strengthen the partnerships we need to deliver meaningful change on the ground. Last but not least, I am fully committed to ensuring gender parity and greater geographic diversity across the Organization in order to better reflect and serve the peoples of the world.

我已启动几个相关的改革进程,旨在使本组织的各种做法更加统筹一致,能够体现对世界所面临最大风险的更全面了解,并在供资方面更有保障。这些改革将推动发挥更强有力、更负责任的领导作用,去除有碍对危机局势作出迅速灵活反应的种种繁琐的行政规则。这些改革将增加和加强我们在实地促成切实变革所需的伙伴关系。最后但同样重要的是,我全力致力于在整个组织内切实实现性别平等和更大程度的地域多样性,以期更好地反映世界各地人民的情况,更好地为他们服务。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

20. The responsibility for preventing human suffering and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals rests with the Member States, but the United Nations has a vital supporting role to play. My reform agenda will make the United Nations a better partner for Member States in meeting their responsibilities.

预防人类苦难和实现可持续发展目标的责任在于会员国,但联合国可发挥重要的支持作用。我的改革议程将使联合国成为帮助会员国履行职责的更好伙伴。

21. In taking stock of these early months in office, I am above all inspired by the goodwill and creative ideas of people across the world. We must harness these forces as we serve the global common good. I look forward to working with Member States and stakeholders everywhere to build a stronger, more effective United Nations that can deliver today and for generations to come.

回顾我任期的最初几个月,最使我受到鼓舞和激励的是世界各地人民的良好意愿和充满创意的想法。在服务全球共同利益时,我们必须利用这些力量。我期待与会员国和各地利益攸关方合作,把联合国建设成一个能为今世后代交付成果的更强大、更有效的联合国。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

Chapter II

The work of the Organization

本组织的工作

A. Promotion of sustained economic growth and sustainable development

促进持续经济增长和可持续发展

The adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is an unparalleled achievement

《2030年可持续发展议程》的通过是一项前所未有的成就

22. The adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development represents an unparalleled achievement in setting objectives for the international community. It marks a paradigm shift towards a comprehensive and integrated vision of inclusive sustainable development, applicable to all people in all countries and explicitly anchored in human rights. To ensure that actions follow this vision, more must be done to incorporate the Sustainable Development Goals into national plans and strategies, establishing performance baselines and effective statistical capacities.

在为国际社会制定目标方面,《2030年可持续发展议程》的通过是一项前所未有的成就。这是朝着一个全面综合的包容性可持续发展愿景的根本性转变,适用于所有国家、所有人民,且明确立足于人权。为了切实根据这一愿景采取行动,必须开展更多工作,将可持续发展目标纳入国家计划和战略,制定业绩基准,并建立有效的统计能力。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

23. I am committed to ensuring that the success of the Agenda is measured by the yardstick of improvement of the well-being and prospects of the poorest, most excluded and most vulnerable people in society. Countries and stakeholders confirm that the Agenda’s core promise — to leave no one behind — must underpin the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals. The United Nations is undertaking cross-cutting efforts to support national actors in implementing this commitment through support for laws, policies and programmes and the ratification of international treaties. These include measures to eradicate poverty, combat discrimination and uphold equality for all.

我致力于确保以社会中最贫困、最受排斥、最弱势群体的福祉和命运是否得以改善作为衡量《2030年议程》成功与否的标准。各国和各利益攸关方确认,《2030年议程》的核心承诺是“不让任何一个人掉队”,这必须成为可持续发展目标落实工作的基础。联合国正在各领域作出努力,在法律、政策、方案和国际条约批准等方面提供支持,以此支持国家行为体落实这项承诺。这些努力包括消除贫困、与歧视现象作斗争和维护人人平等地位的措施。

24. Leaving no one behind was the theme of the 2016 high-level political forum on sustainable development, which serves as the central platform for follow-up and review of the 2030 Agenda. In a clear signal of their commitment and of the universal character of the Agenda, countries from all regions and levels of development are outlining national priorities and approaches to include the Sustainable Development Goals in their development plans and strategies. Almost a third of the Organization’s membership has volunteered to report on progress in implementing the 2030 Agenda.

“不让任何一个人掉队”是2016年可持续发展问题高级别政治论坛的主题,该论坛是后续落实和评估《2030年议程》的核心平台。为了表明对《2030年议程》的承诺,并鉴于该议程的普遍性,各区域、处于不同发展阶段的国家正在拟议国家优先事项和方针大纲,将可持续发展目标纳入各自国家的发展计划和战略。近三分之一的联合国会员国已自愿报告《2030年议程》执行情况。

The Sustainable Development Goals are for the whole of society

可持续发展目标造福全社会

25. To meet these challenges, the successful implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals depends on national actions and on forging multilateral partnerships with Governments and non-governmental organizations, strengthening collaboration between national and local-level entities and promoting inclusivity in decision-making processes. The Sustainable Development Goals offer a new opportunity to demonstrate a commitment to serving people and building trust in political leadership. Key individual contributions are needed from experts, scientists in particular. Science is critical for understanding and identifying synergies and trade-offs among the Sustainable Development Goals, and an independent group of scientists has begun work to prepare the Global Sustainable Development Report for the 2019 high-level political forum. The United Nations is also soliciting expert opinions on advancing the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals and leveraging its holistic nature.

为应对这些挑战,需要成功落实可持续发展目标,而这就需要采取国家行动,需要与各国政府和非政府组织建立多边伙伴关系,需要加强国家和地方一级机构之间的协作,需要促进决策过程的包容性。可持续发展目标提供了新机会,可以借此机会表明为人民服务的承诺,树立对政治领导的信任。需要每个专家特别是科学家作出重要贡献。科学对了解和确定可持续发展目标之间的协同作用及平衡关系起着关键作用。一个由科学家组成的独立小组已开始工作,为2019年高级别政治论坛编写全球可持续发展报告。联合国正就如何推进可持续发展目标和发挥联合国的整体性优势征求专家意见。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

26. Cooperation on achieving the 2030 Agenda is working its way across the United Nations system. The Economic and Social Council partnership forum is a critical space for sharing the perspectives and contributions of all partners, while the New Urban Agenda adopted at Habitat III in October 2016 addresses the manner in which cities are planned, financed, governed and managed. The 2017 Ocean Conference brought people together to formulate tangible solutions on such areas as marine pollution, climate change, ocean acidification and ocean governance. In addition, it will be critical for developed countries to deliver on both official development assistance (ODA) and climate finance commitments.

为落实《2030年议程》而开展合作的做法正在整个联合国系统普及。经济及社会理事会合作伙伴论坛是所有伙伴分享观点和出谋划策的重要场所,2016年10月人居三大会通过的《新城市议程》触及城市的规划、筹资、治理和管理方式。2017年海洋会议将人们汇聚一堂,就海洋污染、气候变化、海洋酸化和海洋治理等问题制定可行的解决办法。此外,发达国家兑现官方发展援助和气候融资两方面的承诺也非常重要。

1. The challenge of climate change

气候变化的挑战

Climate change is undeniable; the science is beyond doubt and human influence is clear

气候变化是不可否认的事实;其科学依据不容置疑,人类的影响显而易见

27. Climate change is an overriding megatrend, with a multiplier effect on desertification, displacement of people, weather-related disasters and water scarcity and pressures on other natural resources. As the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has demonstrated in a series of exhaustive and authoritative reports, climate science is beyond doubt and human influence is clear. I am intensifying high-level political engagement aimed at limiting temperature rise to well below 2 degrees and as close as possible to 1.5 degrees Celsius. I am rallying the United Nations development system behind Member States as they pursue climate action, mobilizing resources to support the implementation of national climate action plans and strengthening partnerships through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation. I also intend to convene a dedicated climate summit in 2019 to mobilize political support.

气候变化是一个压倒性的大趋势,加剧了荒漠化、人口流离失所、与天气有关的灾害、水资源稀缺以及其他自然资源面临的压力。正如政府间气候变化专门委员会在一系列详尽的权威报告中所示,气候科学不容置疑,而人类的影响显而易见。我正在加强高级别政治参与,力求将气温上升幅度控制在2摄氏度以下,尽可能控制在1.5摄氏度左右。我正在动员联合国发展系统支持会员国采取气候行动,调动资源支持国家气候行动计划的实施,并通过南北、南南和三方合作加强伙伴关系。我还打算在2019年召开一次专门讨论气候变化问题的峰会,以调动政治支持。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

2. Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals

可持续发展目标的进展

28. Despite the halving of the global poverty rate since 2000, intensified efforts are required to boost incomes, alleviate suffering and build the resilience of those still living in extreme poverty, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. While the proportion of humanity living in poverty is lower, some 700 million people still live in extreme conditions, and progress has not included a decline in inequality. Poverty as a percentage of population is deeply persistent in the least developed countries, although the largest number of people trapped in poverty live in middle-income countries.

全球贫困人口占比自2000年以来已减半,但仍需加紧努力,帮助那些依然生活在极端贫困中的人们增加收入,减轻困苦,建立恢复能力,尤其是在撒哈拉以南非洲。虽说贫困人口比例有所降低,但还是有约7亿人在极端条件下生活,而且在缓解不平等现象方面并没有取得进步。就人口比例而言,最不发达国家的贫困人口比例居高不下。但就人数而言,中等收入国家的贫困人数最多。

29. In view of the variability of purchasing power parity, our efforts to eradicate poverty globally require a focus on all levels, from the least developed to the middle-income nations. Nevertheless, with the current economic growth trajectory, nearly 35 per cent of the population in the least developed countries may still be living in extreme poverty by 2030 (see figure I).

鉴于购买力平价变化不定,我们在全球消除贫困工作中需重点关注从最不发达到中等收入等各个发展阶段的国家。不过,按照当前的经济增长趋势,到2030年,最不发达国家可能仍有近35%的人口生活在极端贫困中(见图一)。

30. One of the keys to creating decent jobs and reducing poverty will be the promotion of structural transformation towards more productive and green activities. Structural transformations can generate resources for social protection that is designed to assist those who are unable to escape poverty with their own resources. Strong national ownership of the development agenda is critical.

创造体面的工作机会和减少贫困的一个关键是促进结构转型,转向更有成效、更加绿色的经济活动。结构转型可为社会保障生成资源,帮助那些依靠自身资源无法脱贫的人们。国家对发展议程拥有强有力的自主权,这一点至关重要。

31. Efforts to combat hunger and malnutrition have advanced significantly since 2000. The proportion of undernourished people worldwide declined from 15 per cent in the period 2000-2002 to 11 per cent in the period 2014-2016. Yet ending hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition for all will require continued and focused efforts, especially in Asia and Africa. Tragically, famine threatens four States today, caused by drought and conflict.

2000年以来,消除饥饿和营养不良的工作已取得重大进展。全世界营养不良人口占比在2000至2002年期间为15%,到2014至2016年期间降至11%。然而,要全面消除饥饿、粮食不安全和营养不良,就必须持续开展集中努力,尤其是在亚洲和非洲。令人悲痛的是,由于干旱和冲突,目前有四个国家面临饥荒威胁。

3. Data and statistics on the Sustainable Development Goals

可持续发展目标的数据和统计数字

32. In 2017, the Statistical Commission adopted the global indicator framework to monitor progress towards the goals and targets of the 2030 Agenda. Tracking progress on the Sustainable Development Goals requires the collection of an unprecedented amount of data disaggregated at all levels, which poses a major challenge for national and international statistical systems. The global statistical community is working to modernize and strengthen statistical systems to address all aspects of the production and use of data on sustainable development.

2017年,统计委员会通过了一个全球指标框架,用于监测《2030年议程》各项目标和具体目标的进展情况。为了跟踪可持续发展目标的进展情况,需要收集数量空前的各级分类数据,这对国家和国际统计系统来说是一项重大挑战。全球统计界正在努力更新和加强统计系统,以处理可持续发展数据的编制和使用方面的各种问题。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

33. Gender statistics will play a critical role in monitoring progress on gender equality and women’s empowerment across the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The United Nations is working collaboratively with other global, regional and national actors (including national statistical offices) to enhance the availability and use of gender statistics to support the accelerated implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals and achieve transformative results for women and girls.

性别统计将发挥关键作用,帮助监测所有17项可持续发展目标促进性别平等和增强妇女权能的进展情况。联合国正与全球、区域和国家各级的其他行为体(包括国家统计部门)协调合作,加强性别统计数据的提供和使用,以支持加速落实可持续发展目标,支持为妇女和女童带来变革性的成果。

4. Means of implementation

执行手段

34. The ambitious and complex 2030 Agenda can be achieved only if countries have the means to pursue the goals. The Addis Ababa Action Agenda on financing for development identifies ways to unlock the necessary resources and investments. In its first substantive report, the Inter-Agency Task Force on Financing for Development concluded that the current global growth trajectory would not deliver the eradication of extreme poverty by 2030. However, it found that national actions and international cooperation could help change the global trajectory and support countries in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. A major undertaking of the Task Force in 2016-2017 was building a comprehensive catalogue of progress on more than 300 commitments and actions agreed by Member States.

要落实宏大而多层面的《2030年议程》,各国必须具备实现该议程各项目标所需的手段。关于发展筹资问题的《亚的斯亚贝巴行动议程》确定了释放必要资源和投资的途径。发展筹资问题机构间工作队在第一份实质性报告中总结指出:按照目前的全球增长趋势,到2030年无法消除极端贫困。不过,工作队认为,国家行动和国际合作有助于改变全球趋势,有助于支持各国实现可持续发展目标。工作队2016-2017年的一项重大任务是就会员国商定的300多项承诺和行动的进展情况建立全面目录。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

35. The financing required to achieve the 17 Sustainable Development Goals is estimated to be on the order of trillions of dollars annually. The redirection of capital flows can include efforts to attract, leverage and mobilize investments of all kinds — public, private, national and global. Nevertheless, there are theoretically enough savings in the global economy to drive this transformation, and the benefits will flow back to investors.

实现17项目标每年所需资金估计约数万亿美元。在改变资本流向的过程中,可努力吸引、利用和调动各种投资,包括公共、私人、国家和全球投资。但从理论上讲,全球经济中的储蓄足以推动这一转型,投资者也将从中受益。

36. Strengthening the capacity of developing countries to formulate more effective and efficient tax systems is a critical element in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. The Committee of Experts on International Cooperation in Tax Matters has been working on a number of products, including training and in-country assistance, that will help countries to ensure appropriate taxation and in particular to counter tax evasion. In another initiative, the United Nations, OECD, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have jointly launched a new Platform for Collaboration on Tax.

提高发展中国家建立更高效、更有效的税务制度的能力,这是执行《2030年议程》的一个关键要素。国际税务合作专家委员会一直致力于提供包括培训和国内援助在内的多项服务,这将有助于各国切实做到妥善征税,尤其有助于打击逃税行为。此外,联合国、经合组织、国际货币基金组织和世界银行联合推出一项举措,启动了新的税务合作平台。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

37. The goal of enhanced development cooperation is to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed, landlocked and small island developing countries, to implement programmes and policies to end all dimensions of poverty. The Development Cooperation Forum, an inclusive multi-stakeholder platform, is the primary locus for discussing efforts to improve the quality, impact and effectiveness of development cooperation. It is used by Southern partners to share their experience, good practices, solutions and challenges among themselves and with a range of actors. In that context, the Government of Argentina, in collaboration with the United Nations, will host a high-level symposium on South-South and triangular development cooperation in Buenos Aires in September 2017.

加强发展合作的目的是为发展中国家,特别是为最不发达国家、内陆发展中国家和小岛屿发展中国家提供充足、可预见的手段,以执行相关方案和政策,全方位消除贫困。发展合作论坛是包容各方的多利益攸关方平台,也是讨论如何努力提高发展合作的质量、影响和实效的主要场所。南方伙伴利用论坛彼此并与众多行为体分享经验、良好做法,并就解决方案和棘手难题进行交流。阿根廷政府将与联合国合作,于2017年9月在布宜诺斯艾利斯主办南南和三方发展合作高级别专题讨论会。

5. Strengthening implementation

加强执行工作

38. The 2030 Agenda provides a vision for development; the challenge now lies in its implementation. It is critical to mobilize adequate financial and non-financial support, ensure the effectiveness of multi-stakeholder partnerships and maintain a relentless focus on the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. The General Assembly requested me to prepare concrete proposals, and my vision includes planning for collective results, linking functions with funding. Member States have reaffirmed the complementarity and mutually reinforcing nature of the Sustainable Development Goals with peace and security and human rights, as well as with work streams under the sustaining peace agenda.

《2030年议程》提出了发展愿景,当前的挑战在于执行。必须调动充分的财政和非财政支持,确保多利益攸关方伙伴关系发挥实效,坚持不懈地着力于实现可持续发展目标。大会要求我拟定具体提议,我的设想包括为实现集体成果制定规划,将职能与供资挂钩。会员国已再次确认,可持续发展目标与和平、安全和人权以及保持和平议程下的各个工作流互为补充、相辅相成。

6. Regional dimensions

区域层面

39. Increasingly, regional and subregional groupings of countries are identifying solutions to their common development challenges, while regional institutions are being called upon to work collectively with Member States to develop regional strategies and approaches, not only on cross-border issues but also on more traditional issues of economic, social and environmentally sound development.

区域和次区域国家集团正日益寻找解决方案,应对共同的发展挑战。区域机构则日益响应呼吁,与会员国通力合作,不仅就跨境问题,而且就经济、社会和环境友好型发展等较传统问题制定区域战略和方针。

7. Countries in special situations

特殊处境国家

40. Each country faces specific challenges, and the most vulnerable countries deserve special attention. The United Nations has also played an important role in establishing the Technology Bank for the Least Developed Countries; the challenge now is to fully operationalize the Bank in seeking to fulfil Sustainable Development Goal target 17.8.

每个国家都面临具体挑战,最脆弱的国家应予特别关注。联合国在设立最不发达国家技术库方面也发挥了重要作用,当前的挑战在于使技术库全面运行,以期实现可持续发展目标中的具体目标17.8。

8. Haiti

海地

9. Effects of crime on development

犯罪活动对发展的影响

44. Crime continues to erode growth and development outcomes as well as peace and security prospects for countries of all income levels. In the context of providing sustainable financing for development in line with the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the United Nations has intensified its strategic approach, whereby crime prevention is considered a fundamental determinant of sustainable development. This includes building the capacity of Member States to combat illicit financial flows, prevent corruption and strengthen anti-money-laundering efforts.

犯罪活动继续侵蚀着各种收入水平国家的增长和发展成果以及和平与安全前景。联合国在根据《亚的斯亚贝巴行动议程》提供可持续发展筹资过程中强化战略方针,把预防犯罪视为可持续发展的一个根本决定因素,包括帮助会员国建设打击非法资金流动、防止腐败和加强反洗钱工作等方面的能力。

10. Natural disasters

自然灾害

45. Over the past decade, economic losses resulting from natural disasters have reached nearly $1.4 trillion, hindering economic growth and the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. Investment in resilient communities and green infrastructure for schools, hospitals, roads, bridges, water and sanitation, energy, transport systems and housing is an imperative more critical than ever before, as is investment in effective, multi-hazard early warning mechanisms. This is an important aspect of my prevention-oriented reform agenda.

过去十年,自然灾害造成的经济损失将近1.4万亿美元,阻碍了经济增长和可持续发展目标的实现。投资建设韧性社区和绿色基础设施,如学校、医院、道路、桥梁、水和环境卫生、能源、交通运输系统以及住房,已成为前所未有的当务之急。投资建设有效的多灾种预警机制同样是当务之急。这是我注重预防的改革议程的一个重要方面。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

11. Forests

森林

46. The global focus since 1992 has been to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. However, in a ground-breaking decision in January 2017, the United Nations Forum on Forests set a target to increase global forest area by 3 per cent by 2030. The United Nations strategic plan for forests 2017-2030 (General Assembly resolution 71/285) provides a global framework for actions at all levels to sustainably manage all types of forests and trees outside forests and to halt deforestation and degradation. It features a set of six global forest goals and 26 associated targets to be reached by 2030, all of which are voluntary. The global forest goals and targets support the objectives of the international arrangement on forests and aim to contribute to progress on the Sustainable Development Goals and other international forest-related commitments.

1992年以来全球的关注焦点一直是减少毁林和森林退化。但2017年1月联合国森林论坛作出一项开创性决定,确立了全球森林面积到2030年增加3%的全球目标。2017-2030年联合国森林战略计划(大会第71/285号决议)为在各级采取行动提供了一个全球框架,旨在可持续地管理各类森林和森林外树木,并制止毁林和森林退化。该战略计划包含一套在2030年年底前实现的自愿目标,包括6项全球森林目标和26项相关具体目标。全球森林目标及其各项具体目标支持国际森林安排的宗旨,目的是推动可持续发展目标和与森林问题有关的其他国际承诺取得进展。

47. Crime affects all aspects of development and forest management is no exception. The work of the United Nations in addressing wildlife and forest crime focuses not only on strengthening the law enforcement, criminal justice and legislative capacity of Member States but also on improving the livelihoods of vulnerable rural groups, such as local communities relying on natural resources and ecosystem services.

犯罪活动影响到发展的所有方面,森林管理同样受此影响。联合国应对损害野生动植物和森林犯罪活动的工作不仅注重加强会员国的执法、刑事司法和立法能力,而且注重改善依赖自然资源和生态系统服务的地方社区等农村弱势群体的生计。

12. Empowering vulnerable social groups

增强弱势社会群体的权能

48. With its central commitment to ensure dignity for all, the 2030 Agenda recognizes the contemporary global risks of rising inequality, discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. It also recognizes that people who are vulnerable must be empowered, including all women, children, youth, persons with disabilities, people living with HIV/AIDS, older persons, indigenous peoples, refugees, internally displaced persons and migrants.

《2030年议程》的核心承诺是确保人人享有尊严。议程认识到当今世界存在不平等、歧视、仇外心理和相关不容忍等现象加剧的全球风险。议程确认,必须增强弱势群体的权能,包括增强所有妇女、儿童、青年、残疾人、艾滋病毒/艾滋病感染者、老年人、土著人民、难民、境内流离失所者和移民的权能。

49. As global populations are growing older, the Organization is creating a forum for dialogue on the challenges and opportunities of ageing. Strong stakeholder input around disability-inclusive development also led to the effective integration of important commitments in the New Urban Agenda, in line with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The number of young people is also growing, and the United Nations is broadening its strategy to more effectively account for the role of youth, including young women and men, in peacebuilding and humanitarian action, as well as to ensure identification of cross-pillar linkages.

在全球人口老龄化这样的背景下,本组织正在设立关于老龄问题的挑战和机遇的对话论坛。利益攸关方围绕兼顾残疾问题的发展这一议题提供了重要投入,并使《新城市议程》能够依照《残疾人权利公约》切实纳入重要承诺。年轻人数目也在增加,联合国正在扩大战略,切实考虑男女青年在建设和平及人道主义行动中的作用,并切实查明各个支柱之间的联系。

50. My High-level Panel on Women’s Economic Empowerment identified purchasing goods and services from women-owned businesses as one of the primary drivers of progress. Corporations and Governments are also targeting companies owned by women in their procurement practices, while the United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination, covering 31 organizations and bodies, has prioritized purchasing from women-owned businesses.

我的增强妇女经济权能高级别小组认为,从妇女拥有的企业购买货物和服务是取得进步的主要驱动因素之一。企业和政府也在采购活动中重点关注妇女拥有的公司。此外,涵盖31个组织和机构的联合国系统行政首长协调理事会也已把从妇女拥有的企业采购列为优先选项。

B. Maintenance of international peace and security

维护国际和平与安全

1. Adapting to new conflicts

因应新的冲突

51. Today’s conflicts pose complex challenges for the Organization. For us to be better prepared and effectively respond to these demands, we must reinvigorate our approach to include:

当今各种冲突对本组织构成复杂挑战。为作好更充分的准备,有效回应这些需求,我们必须重振方略,包括:

(a) Fortifying our capacity to build political solutions to existing threats and emerging challenges;

加强我们针对现有威胁和新出现的挑战制定政治解决方案的能力;

(b) Ensuring that State and institution-building strengthen legitimacy through inclusion and attention to grievances;

通过包容并关注不满诉求,确保国家建设和体制建设加强合法性;

(c) Upholding the Organization’s impartiality;

维护本组织的公正;

(d) Making effective use of the Secretary-General’s good offices through mediation support.

通过调解支助有效利用秘书长的斡旋职能。

52. The United Nations must go beyond reacting to events and build anticipatory relationships with national and regional partners to prevent conflict. Prevention requires addressing the root causes of conflict across the three pillars of the United Nations: peace and security, human rights and inclusive development.

联合国不仅需要对事件作出反应,还必须与国家和区域伙伴建立防患未然的关系,预防冲突。预防工作需要从联合国三大支柱即和平与安全、人权和包容性发展着手,消除冲突根源。

2. Women, peace and security

妇女、和平与安全

3. Youth, peace and security

青年、和平与安全

53. Recent Security Council resolutions have spearheaded a growing focus on harnessing young people’s contribution to sustaining peace. The ongoing progress study on youth, peace and security is documenting the positive contribution of young women and men through in-depth consultations with youth. Further research needs to be done to better understand the implications of technology on growing youth unemployment and how technology can be harnessed in youth education.

安全理事会最近几个相关决议发挥引领作用,日益重视调动年轻人为保持和平作出贡献。正在进行的青年、和平与安全问题的进展研究项目,通过与青年深入磋商,记录青年男女所作的积极贡献。有必要进一步研究,更好地了解技术对日益严重的青年失业问题的影响,了解如何在青年教育方面利用技术。

4. Use of my good offices: preventive diplomacy and mediation

利用我的“斡旋”:预防外交和调解

54. Engagement in preventing and ending grave violations against children can constitute an entry point for dialogue and mediation. State and non-State parties have pursued commitments to end grave violations against children.

参与预防和制止严重侵害儿童行为,可以作为对话和调解的切入点。国家和非国家当事方都致力于履行制止严重侵害儿童行为的承诺。

5. Democratic transitions and elections

民主过渡和选举

6. Crisis management

危机管理

7. Sustaining peace

保持和平

55. General Assembly and Security Council resolutions on sustaining peace have expanded the notion of peacebuilding. Previously seen as a purely post-conflict endeavour, peacebuilding aims to prevent the outbreak, escalation, continuation and recurrence of violence in order to sustain peace throughout a conflict cycle.

大会和安全理事会关于保持和平的各项决议拓展了建设和平理念。过去,建设和平被视为纯属冲突后的工作,如今却着眼于预防暴力的爆发、升级、持续和再度发生,着眼于在整个冲突周期保持和平。

56. Fast, catalytic and risk-tolerant funding is crucial for sustaining peace. The Peacebuilding Fund maintained its support levels with the renewed commitment of 33 Member States at its pledging conference in September 2016. The Fund exceeded the United Nations-wide target to allocate at least 15 per cent to gender equality and women’s empowerment. It also expanded its role in financing cross-border and regional peacebuilding initiatives, launched the first United Nations dedicated funding stream on youth, peace and security, and for the first time directly funded civil society organizations.

供资速度快、催化作用强、能抗风险,这是保持和平的关键。有33个会员国在2016年9月建设和平基金认捐会议上再次承诺捐款,使建设和平基金得以维持支助力度。该基金超额实现了将至少15%的资金用于性别平等和增强妇女权能这一联合国全系统目标。建设和平基金在资助跨境和区域建设和平举措方面的作用也已扩大,启动了联合国在青年、和平与安全领域首个专项供资流,并首次直接为民间社会组织提供资助。

8. Partnerships

伙伴关系

57. To prevent conflict and sustain peace, we must assist countries in attaining the Sustainable Development Goals. Yet the link between inclusive sustainable development and the prevention of violence is not well understood. A joint United Nations-World Bank flagship study on how development and political processes interact for the prevention of violence, the first of its kind, is under way and will examine the evidence on how grievances linked to inequality and exclusion increase the risk of violent conflict.

为了预防冲突、保持和平,我们必须协助各国实现可持续发展目标。然而,包容性可持续发展与预防暴力之间的联系并不广为人知。联合国与世界银行正联合开展一项未曾有过的开拓式研究,探讨发展与政治进程如何互动促进预防暴力,并将循证研究与不平等和排斥现象相关的不满情绪如何增加暴力冲突风险。

C. Development of Africa

非洲的发展

58. Africa today, like other parts of the world, presents a dynamic yet contradictory picture of progress and challenges. On the one hand, economic growth in several African countries surpassed that in other parts of the globe, and the data encouragingly show that enrolment in primary education in sub-Saharan Africa improved dramatically from 52 per cent in 1990 to 80 per cent in 2015, while the reduction in child mortality rates has also been significant. Yet some parts of Africa face threats and challenges involving protracted violence and human insecurity that undermine development. Continued conflict has meant that three of the four countries currently facing severe threats of famine are located in Africa.

今日的非洲与世界其他地区一样,进步与挑战并存,有活力,也有矛盾。一方面,若干非洲国家的经济增长速度超出世界其他地区的增长速度。数据显示,撒哈拉以南非洲的小学入学率在1990年为52%,到2015年则大幅上升至80%。非洲的儿童死亡率也已大幅下降。这一进展令人感到鼓舞。但在另一方面,非洲一些地区却面临着旷日持久的暴力和民众缺乏安全保障等威胁和挑战,有损发展进程。由于持续的冲突,当前面临严重饥荒威胁的国家中,有四分之三在非洲。

59. Economically, the continent remains highly commodity dependent, while, as a result of the volatility in global commodity prices, unstable export income in many African countries has significantly affected economic growth patterns. Future challenges also confront the continent. Projected population growth estimates show Africa as the fastest-growing region of the world (see figure IV), with a growing youth population that will reach about 60 per cent of the total population by 2050 (see figure V). These young people require education, jobs, housing and health care, thereby putting pressure on Governments to deliver.

在经济方面,非洲大陆仍然高度依赖初级商品。由于全球初级商品价格的波动,许多非洲国家出口收入不稳,严重影响到经济增长模式。非洲大陆还面临着未来的挑战。人口增长预测表明,非洲是全球人口增长最快的区域(见图四),青年人口不断增加,到2050年将占人口总数的60%左右(见图五)。这些年轻人需要教育、就业、住房和保健,给政府的提供服务能力带来压力。

60. The continent can take advantage of this demographic dividend by investing in quality education, teacher training, technology and innovation, which would boost productivity, create jobs and promote inclusive growth and prosperity. Scaling up investments and strengthening the ability of institutions to deliver innovative solutions will involve multilateral partnerships, which the United Nations can facilitate. Providing opportunities and empowering women and youth as a development goal will be essential.

投资于优质教育、师资培训、技术和创新,从而提高生产力,创造就业机会,促进包容性增长和繁荣,非洲大陆便能够利用这一人口红利。扩大投资、加强各机构提供创新解决方案的能力,这需要多边合作伙伴的参与,联合国可为此提供便利。为妇女和青年提供机会并增强他们的权能,以此作为一项发展目标,十分必要。

D. Promotion and protection of all human rights

促进和保护所有人权

Peace is itself a human rights imperative

和平本身就是一项人权要务

61. Alongside bloody conflict, the past year has seen the continued deprivation of basic economic and social rights for millions of women, men and children owing to chronic poverty for some and weak governance or imposed austerity for many others. Massive inequality among genders, social groups and income levels has strained public confidence. All too often, economic and social insecurities are being blamed on “the other” — whether migrants or other racial, ethnic, gender or social groups — rather than on failures of public policy.

过去一年,除了血腥冲突之外,还有数百万妇女、男子和儿童因长期贫穷、治理不力或实行紧缩等原因而被持续剥夺基本的经济和社会权利。不同性别、不同社会群体和收入水平之间的严重不平等,侵蚀了公众的信心。经济和社会不安全状况往往被归咎于“他者”,无论是移民还是其他种族、族裔、性别或社会群体,而不是归咎于公共政策的失败。

Human rights are at the core of my call for prevention and sustaining peace

人权是我的预防冲突及保持和平呼吁的核心内容

62. Human rights measures are the lifeblood of any effort to prevent conflict and sustain peace. They are investments which bring both immediate and long-term benefits in building resilience, redressing grievances, reducing inequality and advancing sustainable development.

对于任何预防冲突和保持和平的努力而言,人权措施都是生命线。这些措施是一种投资,能够在建立复原力、消除冤情和不满、减少不平等现象和促进可持续发展等方面带来即时和长远的收效。公号高斋外刊双语精读

63. These missions conduct on-the-ground investigations and deliver fact-based impartial assessments, giving voice to the victims and drawing attention to situations of urgent global concern. Their findings and targeted recommendations lay the foundation to hold States, non-State actors and individuals accountable. Field officers also monitor and investigate allegations to prompt States to fulfil their human rights obligations, thus preventing future violations. Working with media is also essential.

这些调查团进行现场调查,开展以事实为依据的公正评估,让受害者得以发声,并提请人们注意需要全球紧急关注的局势。调查团的调查结果和有针对性的建议为追究国家、非国家行为体和个人的责任提供了基础。实地工作人员也监测和调查指控,促使各国履行人权义务,防止今后发生侵权行为。与媒体的合作也十分重要。

64. Ultimately, the 2030 Agenda offers a road map towards a more rights-respecting world. A strong focus on human rights, equality and the empowerment of women has been integrated into the revised United Nations Development Framework guidelines, while the entire United Nations system is now committed to integrating the imperative of eliminating discrimination and reducing inequalities, leaving no one behind.

总而言之,《2030年议程》提供了走向一个更尊重人权的世界的路线图。修订后的联合国发展框架准则体现了对人权、平等和增强妇女权能的高度重视。整个联合国系统如今都致力于把消除歧视和减少不平等、不让任何一个人掉队的要务纳入各自工作。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

E. Effective coordination of humanitarian assistance efforts

有效协调人道主义援助工作

65. During 2017, the United Nations and its humanitarian partners assisted more people than any previous year since the founding of the Organization. A total of 96.2 million people, more than half of them women and children, were targeted for life-saving assistance of food, shelter, health and protection in over 40 countries.

2017年,联合国及其人道主义伙伴所援助的人数多于本组织成立以来任何一年。共有40多个国家的9620万人(其中一半以上是妇女和儿童)成为粮食、住所、卫生和保护等生存援助的受援对象。

Devastating natural disasters now displace three times more people than conflicts

如今,毁灭性自然灾害所致流离失所人数比冲突所致流离失所人数多出三倍

66. Yet devastating natural disasters, such as floods, storms, wildfires and severe weather, now displace three times more people than are displaced by conflicts.

如今,洪水、风暴、野火和恶劣天气等毁灭性自然灾害所致流离失所人数却比冲突所致流离失所人数多出三倍。

67. More than 31 million new cases of internal displacement were recorded in 2016, the equivalent of one person forced to flee every second. Of these, more than 24.2 million people were displaced by natural hazards in 118 countries and territories, or more than three times the 6.9 million people who were recently displaced as a result of conflict. The frequency, intensity and cost of natural disasters have increased owing to changing weather patterns. The 2015/16 El Niño phenomenon prompted 23 countries across four continents to seek assistance for more than 60 million people, and there may be a new El Niño episode in 2017.

2016年共有3100多万起境内流离失所新案例,相当于每秒钟就有一人被迫背井离乡。其中,有118个国家和领土的2420多万人由于自然灾害而流离失所。这个数字相当于近期冲突所致流离失所人数(690万人)的三倍以上。由于天气模式的变化,自然灾害的频率、强度和代价都在上升。2015/16年度的厄尔尼诺现象促使4个大陆的23个国家为6 000多万人口寻求援助,2017年可能还会出现新一轮厄尔尼诺现象。公众号高斋翻硕 公众号高斋CATTI

68. An unprecedented food crisis has hit more people than ever before. Conflict, drought and violence have carried the threat of famine that has affected 20 million people in Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen.

空前严重的粮食危机波及的人数多于以往任何时候。冲突、干旱和暴力带来了饥荒威胁,已对尼日利亚、索马里、南苏丹和也门的2 000万人造成影响。

F. Promotion of justice and international law

促进司法和国际法

1. Support for domestic authorities

支持国内主管机构

A fully national Special Criminal Court has been established in the Central African Republic

在中非共和国设立一个完全本国的特别刑事法院

69.  Increasingly aware of sexual violence and abuse, the United Nations has helped national authorities build their capacity to respond effectively. This assistance includes capacity-building for criminal investigations, prosecutions, military justice, legislative reform, protection of victims and witnesses and reparations.

联合国日益认识到性暴力和性虐待问题,帮助国家当局建立有效应对能力。这方面的协助包括在刑事调查、起诉、军事司法、立法改革、被害人和证人保护和赔偿方面开展能力建设。

70.  In 2017, the United Nations launched a flagship initiative on women’s access to justice. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the United Nations produced materials for a training course for judicial officers on human rights and violence against women, while in Egypt some 1,000 women benefited from free legal services.

2017年,联合国发起了妇女获得司法救助领头倡议。在坦桑尼亚联合共和国,联合国制作了关于人权和暴力侵害妇女行为问题法官培训教材。在埃及,有约1 000名妇女得益于免费法律服务。

2. International courts and mechanisms

国际性法院和机制

71. The International Court of Justice, one of the six main bodies of the United Nations, continues to function as a central mechanism for the peaceful resolution of disputes and maintains a high level of judicial activity (www.icj-cij.org). Acceptance of the Court’s compulsory jurisdiction among Member States is one of my highest priorities.

国际法院是联合国六个主要机构之一,继续作为和平解决争端的核心机制发挥作用,维持高水平司法活动(www.icj-cij.org)。会员国接受国际法院的强制管辖是我最重视的优先事项之一。

3. Promotion of international law

促进国际法

72. The International Law Commission completed its work on a proposed treaty for the protection of persons in the event of disasters and made significant progress on a possible new treaty on crimes against humanity. To protect the world’s oceans, the Ocean Conference was held at United Nations Headquarters in June 2017. Member States also worked towards an international legally binding instrument within the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to protect marine biological diversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Flagged as a major success, an amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer that will reduce emissions of powerful greenhouse gases was adopted by 197 countries in October 2016.

国际法委员会完成了关于发生灾难时人员保护拟议条约的工作,在有可能就危害人类罪拟订新条约方面也取得了重大进展。为保护世界海洋,2017年6月在联合国总部召开了海洋会议。会员国还努力在《联合国海洋法公约》框架内拟订一份具有法律约束力的国际文书,旨在保护国家管辖范围以外区域的海洋生物多样性。2016年10月,197个国家通过了《关于消耗臭氧层物质的蒙特利尔议定书》修正案,这是一项重大成就,将有助于减少强大温室气体的排放。

G. Disarmament

裁军

73. Disarmament and arms control have played an intrinsic role in easing international tensions and maintaining peace and security, and the Organization’s advocacy for disarmament is more vital than ever.

裁军和军备控制在缓和国际紧张局势及维持和平与安全方面发挥着固有作用,本组织力促裁军的工作比以往任何时候都更为至关重要。

74. The United Nations now faces the additional challenges of cybersecurity, artificial intelligence and the potential harmful use of outer space. In an age of technical revolution, it is vital that the international community stay ahead of the curve to ensure that technology is not used for malicious purposes.

联合国目前还面临网络安全、人工智能、外层空间可能被有害利用等其他挑战。在当今这样一个技术革命时代,国际社会必须未雨绸缪,确保技术不被用于恶意目的。

H. Drug control, crime prevention and combating international terrorism

毒品管制、预防犯罪和打击国际恐怖主义

75. The globalized movement of people and trade in goods, both legal and illegal, continues to expand faster than the international community can track, let alone regulate. The large movement of refugees and migrants, often triggered by conflict, has exposed more people to trafficking, with the Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2016 showing an alarmingly high proportion of children among the victims. Smuggled wildlife and antiquities are also caught up in this nightmare. Drawing on the first global database of seizures, the World Wildlife Crime Report: Trafficking in Protected Species, 2016 documented the trafficking of almost 7,000 wildlife species. In addition, technological advances are exploited for criminal purposes and cybercrime remains a global challenge. The United Nations is also addressing crime issues through the development of a global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration and a global compact for refugees (see para. 52 above).

合法和非法的全球范围人员流动和货物贸易继续扩大,增速之快超过了国际社会的跟踪了解能力,更不用说加以规范。通常由冲突引发的难民和移民大规模流动使更多人面临贩运风险。《2016年全球贩运人口问题报告》显示,受害者当中儿童所占比例高得惊人。野生动植物和文物走私也似这场噩梦一般。“2016年世界野生动植物犯罪报告:贩运受保护物种问题”利用首个全球查获数据库,记载了近7 000例野生物种贩运情况。此外,先进技术为犯罪活动所用,网络犯罪仍是一项全球挑战。联合国正在制订安全、有序和正常移民全球契约和全球难民契约来应对犯罪问题(见上文第52段)。

1. Drug control

毒品管制

76. The United Nations continues to support human rights-based drug policies and capacity-building in public health, criminal justice, prison administration and civil society in support of increased access to services, including HIV services, for people who use drugs and people in prisons. In the field of alternative development to replace drug crops, the United Nations supports rural communities by providing legitimate income-earning opportunities that focus on cash crops with sustainable markets.

联合国继续支持以人权为本的药物政策,支持公共卫生、刑事司法、监狱管理和民间社会等领域的能力建设,协助为吸毒者和狱中人员提供更多服务,包括防治艾滋病毒的服务。为了以其他发展途径取代药用作物生产,联合国为农村社区提供合法创收机会,注重有可持续市场的经济作物,以此支持这些社区。

2. Crime prevention

预防犯罪

Two of my highest priorities are the elimination of all forms of violence against women and against children

消除对妇女和对儿童一切形式暴力行为是我最重视的两项要务

77. Corruption has a deleterious effect on development because precious resources are siphoned off for personal gain. This year marked the beginning of the second implementation review cycle of the United Nations Convention against Corruption, which focuses on preventive measures and asset recovery.

腐败有损发展,因为宝贵资源被吞噬,为个人牟利。今年是《联合国反腐败公约》第二个执行情况审查周期的第一年,工作重点是预防措施和资产追回。

3. Combating international terrorism

打击国际恐怖主义-

The General Assembly recently approved my proposal to create a new Office of Counter-Terrorism

大会最近核准了我关于设立新的反恐怖主义办公室的提案

Chapter III

Strengthening the Organization

加强联合国

78. Our efforts to implement the Organization’s ambitious reform agenda rest on ensuring that we simplify procedures, decentralize decision-making and move towards even greater transparency and accountability. The Organization requires systems, policies and procedures that bring decision-making closer to the point of delivery and empower senior management to deliver on their programmes. To bring about this paradigm shift, I have launched a set of action-based processes to strengthen the management of the Organization.

我们努力执行本组织积极进取的改革议程,为此必须切实简化程序,下放决策权,提高透明度,加强问责制。本组织需要的是能够缩短决策与执行之间距离并使高级管理人员有能力交付方案的制度、政策和程序。为了实现这种模式转变,我启动了一套以行动为本的流程,旨在加强本组织的管理。

79. The United Nations must uphold its ethical standards. Therefore, I have strengthened the whistle-blower protection policy that allows the Ethics Office and the Office of Internal Oversight Services to take preventive action where a risk of retaliation against those reporting violations has been identified. Staff now also have the right to seek a review of Ethics Office determinations. The revised policy is based on elements deemed to be international best practice. I have asked an internal working group to consider additional areas for improvement and I intend to consult staff and management in coming months. Additional strengthening of United Nations ethical standards includes the establishment of the Anti-Fraud and Anti-Corruption Framework, which fosters a culture of integrity and honesty and informs staff about the ways in which the Secretariat prevents, detects, responds to and reports on fraud and corruption.

联合国必须维护道德操守标准,因此,我加强了举报人保护政策,使得道德操守办公室和内部监督事务厅一旦发现违规行为举报人可能遭受报复即可采取预防行动。工作人员现在也有权要求复核道德操守办公室的决定。修订后的政策是以国际最佳做法为基础。我已要求一个内部工作组审议其他可进一步改进的领域,而且我打算在今后几个月与工作人员和管理人员进行协商。加强联合国道德操守标准的其他做法包括建立反欺诈和反腐败框架,以促进廉正和诚实文化,并向工作人员介绍秘书处防止、查明、处理和报告欺诈和腐败行为的方式方法。

80.  Transforming the Organization to better deliver on its mandate is our ultimate goal. This means strengthening and integrating our management team, our methods of analysis and our early warning and delivery systems. It also means improving the quality of leadership at Headquarters and in the field and building the confidence of Member States.

变革本组织,使本组织能更好地履行使命,这是我们的最终目标。这意味着加强和整合我们的管理团队、分析方法、预警和执行系统。它还意味着改善总部和外地的领导质量,建立会员国的信心。

Chapter IV

Conclusion

结论

81.  The present report provides a snapshot of the work of the Organization in a world steeped in contradictory and complex challenges. Millions have been lifted out of poverty yet millions of others face the threat of famine. Globalization has brought prosperity to many yet others have been cruelly left behind, excluded and caught in a system of inequality and rising xenophobia. The world has witnessed the massive migration of people fleeing violent conflict on a scale not seen since the Second World War and the undeniable megatrend of climate change and its multiplier effects demand global action, yet multilateralism is being questioned at a time when we most need coherent global responses to these interconnected events. No nation acting alone can resolve these crises. The United Nations is the gravitational centre for dialogue and cooperation to find common solutions, and with its concentrated support Member States have reached two landmark agreements: the 2030 Agenda and the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change. Taken together, they demonstrate that nations have the will to work multilaterally when they see a driving need. They represent a clear road map to a mutual destination: taking care of our shared global home.

本报告概述了本组织在一个充满矛盾和复杂挑战的世界中所开展的工作。数百万人已摆脱贫困,但另有数百万人却面临饥荒威胁。全球化给许多人带来繁荣,但另一些人却被无情地甩在后面,由于不平等和仇外心理日益严重的体制而受排斥,限于困境。全世界目睹了为逃离暴力冲突而出现的大规模移民,规模之大自第二次世界大战以来闻所未闻。不可否认的气候变化大趋势及其倍增效应需要我们采取全球行动,然而当我们最需要采取协调一致的全球行动以应对这些互为关联的事项之时,多边主义却正受到质疑。没有任何一个国家能够单独解决这些危机。联合国是开展对话与合作以寻求共同解决办法的重力中心,在联合国通力支持下,会员国已经达成两项里程碑性质的协定,即《2030年议程》和关于气候变化的2015年《巴黎协定》。这两项协定共同表明,各国在看到有迫切需要时愿意作出多边努力。两项协定是明确的路线图,引向一个共同目的地:保护我们共享的全球家园。

82.  The United Nations must be up to the challenge. I have laid out a number of reform proposals to make the Organization more effective, flexible and nimble, with a renewed culture of prevention permeating all our work. Ultimately, future generations will judge the United Nations by our ability to make our norms and aspirations a reality, particularly for those who suffer the most. The onus falls on the United Nations to prove its worth.

联合国必须胜任这项挑战。我已经提出了一些改革建议,旨在使本组织更加有效、灵活和敏捷,使新的预防文化贯穿于我们一切工作。我们是否有能力使我们的规范和愿望成为现实,特别是为那些苦难最深重的人们实现这一点,这最终将成为后代评价联合国的依据。联合国有责任证明自己的价值。

文章来源:UN
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