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双语:《中国的全面小康》白皮书
文章来源:新华网 发布时间:2021-10-06 16:32 作者:新华网 点击:

双语:21.9.28《中国的全面小康》白皮书

中国的全面小康全文英语版

中国的全面小康

China’s Epic Journey from Poverty to Prosperity

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

2021年9月

September 2021

目录

Contents

前言

Preface

一、迈向中华民族伟大复兴的关键一步

I. A Critical Step Towards National Rejuvenation

二、全面小康是全面发展的小康

II. Prosperity Through All-Round Development

(一)经济持续健康发展

Sustained and Healthy Economic Growth

(二)人民民主不断扩大

Expanding People’s Democracy

(三)文化更加繁荣发展

Flourishing Cultural Sector

(四)民生福祉显著提升

Improving People’s Wellbeing

(五)生态环境发生历史性变化

Historic Changes to the Eco-Environment

三、全面小康是全体人民的小康

III. Prosperity for All

(一)不让一个人掉队

Prosperity for Every Individual

(二)城乡融合发展

Integrated Urban-Rural Development

(三)区域协调发展

Coordinated Development Across Regions

四、全面小康是奋斗出来的小康

IV. Prosperity Through Hard Work

(一)始终以人民为中心

Always Putting the People First

(二)制定正确路线和战略策略

Developing Sound Policies and Strategies

(三)在改革开放中推进发展

Development Through Reform and Opening Up

(四)几代人苦干实干、接续奋斗

Perseverance over Generations

五、中国全面小康的世界意义

V. The World Benefits from China’s Prosperity

结束语

Conclusion

前言

Preface

小康是中华民族的千年梦想和夙愿。

Achieving moderate prosperity fulfills a long-cherished dream of the Chinese nation.

2021年7月1日,习近平总书记在庆祝中国共产党成立100周年大会上庄严宣告:“经过全党全国各族人民持续奋斗,我们实现了第一个百年奋斗目标,在中华大地上全面建成了小康社会,历史性地解决了绝对贫困问题,正在意气风发向着全面建成社会主义现代化强国的第二个百年奋斗目标迈进。”

On July 1, 2021, at the ceremony marking the centenary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and president of China, declared that thanks to the continued efforts of the whole Party and the entire nation, China had realized the First Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. This means that it has put an end to absolute poverty, and is now marching in confident strides towards the Second Centenary Goal of building a great modern socialist country.

100年来,中国共产党团结带领中国人民顽强拼搏,几代人一以贯之、接续奋斗,从“小康之家”到“小康社会”,从“总体小康”到“全面小康”,从“全面建设”到“全面建成”,小康目标不断实现,小康梦想成为现实。

Over the past hundred years, led by the CPC, generations of the Chinese people have persevered, progressing step by step from a subsistence standard of living to piecemeal prosperity, then to moderate prosperity throughout the country.

全面建成小康社会,是中华民族的伟大光荣。从百年前饱受欺凌屈辱到实现全面小康,中华民族无比自豪地站立在世界民族之林。全面建成小康社会,中华民族孜孜以求的美好梦想成为现实,标志着实现中华民族伟大复兴向前迈出新的一大步,中华民族迎来了从站起来、富起来到强起来的伟大飞跃。全面建成小康社会,彰显了中华民族对美好生活的向往追求和历经磨难始终不屈不挠、敢于斗争、敢于胜利的精神品格,极大增强了民族自信心自豪感,极大增强了中华民族实现伟大复兴的能力和力量。

The realization of moderate prosperity is a glorious achievement for the Chinese nation. Once subjected to oppression and humiliation, China now stands firm among the nations of the world. This represents one significant step closer to the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, and testifies to China’s historic transformation – from standing upright to becoming prosperous and growing in strength. This achievement reflects the Chinese people’s aspiration for a better life, and their indomitable will to surmount all difficulties and challenges on their way forward. It has boosted their pride and confidence in the nation, and inspired further endeavors on the quest for national rejuvenation.

全面建成小康社会,是中国人民的伟大光荣。从百年前受奴役受压迫到物质上富起来、精神上强起来,中国人民无比自豪地行进在中国特色社会主义道路上。幸福美好的小康生活,凝聚着中国人民的聪明才智,浸透着中国人民的辛勤汗水,淬炼了中国人民自强不息的奋斗精神,彰显了中国人民为实现梦想顽强拼搏、“敢教日月换新天”的意志品质。中国人民生活水平显著提升,道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信极大增强。中国人民是勤劳勇敢的人民,是伟大、光荣、英雄的人民。

The realization of moderate prosperity is a remarkable achievement by the Chinese people. From difficult beginnings they have made both material and cultural progress, moving forward with full confidence along the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The creation of a moderately prosperous society epitomizes their ingenuity, diligence, commitment to progress, and determination to pursue their dream and effect change for the better. Their living standards have improved markedly, and they have stronger faith in the path, theory, system and culture of Chinese socialism. The Chinese people are industrious, courageous and honorable – a great and heroic people.

全面建成小康社会,是中国共产党的伟大光荣。从百年前只有50多名党员到拥有9500多万名党员、领导着14亿多人口大国、具有重大全球影响力的世界第一大执政党,中国共产党无比自豪地走在时代前列。全面建成小康社会,兑现了党向人民、向历史作出的庄严承诺,彰显了党为中国人民谋幸福、为中华民族谋复兴的初心使命,彰显了中国共产党是中国人民攻坚克难、开拓前进的领导者和主心骨。党用实际行动,赢得了人民的信赖和拥护。

The realization of moderate prosperity is a commendable achievement for the CPC. Over the past hundred years, the CPC has grown from a small party with just over 50 members into the largest and most influential governing party in the world, with more than 95 million members in a country of over 1.4 billion people. Throughout this process, it has always been at the forefront of the times. In bringing about moderate prosperity, it has fulfilled a solemn promise, and lived up to its original aspiration and founding mission to seek happiness for the people and rejuvenate the Chinese nation. Leading the people in overcoming obstacles and moving forward, the CPC has won their trust and support with real actions.

全面建成小康社会,是中国对世界的伟大贡献。从百年前山河破碎、衰败凋零到今天蓬勃发展、欣欣向荣,中国无比自豪地屹立在世界东方。中国全面建成小康社会,既发展自己,也造福世界。不断富裕起来的中国人民,不断发展进步的中国,为维护世界和平、促进共同发展注入了正能量,彰显了构建人类命运共同体、建设美好世界的中国力量。

The realization of moderate prosperity is a major contribution China has made to the world. Over the past hundred years, China has emerged from poverty and the scourge of war, and become a dynamic and prosperous country, standing tall and proud in the East. In achieving moderate prosperity for the Chinese people, China has contributed to its own development and delivered benefits to the rest of the world. This has created positive momentum for world peace and common development, and contributed China’s strength to building a global community of shared future and a better world.

在一个底子薄、基础弱、国情复杂的大国,全面建成惠及十几亿人口的小康社会,极不平凡,极不容易,中国共产党和中国人民付出了长期艰辛努力。全面建成小康社会,中国人民过上了好日子,但还不富足,人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾仍然存在。中国共产党将团结带领人民,向着实现人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕继续迈进。

China is a populous country with complex national conditions, which in the recent past was afflicted with weak economic foundations. To realize moderate prosperity has required great perseverance, and represents a notable achievement on the part of the CPC and the people. But there is still much to do to improve living standards – the challenge remains between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people’s growing expectation for a better life. The CPC will lead the people to work harder for well-rounded human development and common prosperity.

为记录中国全面建成小康社会的伟大历程,介绍中国全面建成小康社会的探索实践,分享中国式现代化建设经验,特发布本白皮书。

To document China’s journey to moderate prosperity and to share its unique experience in modernization with the rest of the world, the Chinese government is releasing this white paper.

一、迈向中华民族伟大复兴的关键一步

I. A Critical Step Towards National Rejuvenation

小康是中华民族自古以来不懈追求的梦想。早在两千多年前,《诗经》就有“民亦劳止,汔可小康。惠此中国,以绥四方”的诗句,《礼记·礼运》描绘了“小康”理想社会状态,反映了中国先人对美好生活的向往和追求。千百年来,中国人民一直梦想实现小康。近代以后,中国逐步成为半殖民地半封建社会,国家蒙辱、人民蒙难、文明蒙尘,中华民族遭受了前所未有的劫难。中国人民始终不屈不挠、奋力抗争,始终为过上幸福美好的生活不懈奋斗。

Xiaokang, meaning moderate prosperity, has been a consistent aspiration of the Chinese nation since ancient times. More than 2,000 years ago the term appeared in the Book of Songs to mean modest comfort:

The people are hard-pressed, they need some modest comfort.

Do well by the Central Plains, and your rule will spread beyond.

Centuries later, the Book of Rites described the ideal state of society that xiaokang would bring about. Both gave expression to the ancient Chinese people’s desire for a better life. But for millennia moderate prosperity remained a dream. After the Opium War (1840-1842), China was gradually reduced to a semi-colonial, semi-feudal society and was subjected to terrible oppression. It went through immense humiliation, its people endured untold suffering, and the ancient Chinese civilization lost its way. However, the indomitable Chinese people never lost heart – they continued to fight tenaciously for their dream of a happy life.

100年前,中国共产党成立,这是开天辟地的大事变。中国共产党一经诞生,就把为中国人民谋幸福、为中华民族谋复兴确立为自己的初心使命。以毛泽东、邓小平、江泽民、胡锦涛、习近平同志为主要代表的中国共产党人,把人民对美好生活的向往作为奋斗目标,团结带领人民接续奋斗、艰苦奋斗、不懈奋斗,不断向着全面建成小康社会迈进。

The founding of the CPC a hundred years ago was a pivotal event in Chinese history. From the outset, the CPC has made the wellbeing of the Chinese people and the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation its abiding goals. Committed to meeting the people’s expectation for a better life, China’s communist movement, with Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao and Xi Jinping as its leading representatives, has united the Chinese people in a tireless struggle over generations, pressing ahead towards the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

党团结带领人民,取得新民主主义革命胜利,建立中华人民共和国,完成社会主义革命,确立社会主义基本制度,推进社会主义建设,实现了中华民族有史以来最为广泛而深刻的社会变革,实现了一穷二白、人口众多的东方大国大步迈进社会主义社会的伟大飞跃,为小康社会建设奠定了根本政治前提和制度基础,积累了重要物质基础,提供了强大精神支撑和安全保证。

Led by the CPC, the Chinese people have achieved one success after another. They won victory in the New Democratic Revolution, and founded the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. The socialist revolution, the establishment of socialism as China’s basic system, and the ensuing socialist construction brought about the most extensive and profound social changes in the history of the nation.

The transformation from a huge, poor and backward country in the East into a thriving socialist China created the fundamental political conditions and the institutional and material foundations for building a moderately prosperous society. It also provided an unfailing source of inspiration and secured the means required to complete this mission.

改革开放新时期,党团结带领人民持续推进小康社会建设,实现了人民生活从温饱不足到总体小康、奔向全面小康的历史性跨越。改革开放之初,邓小平同志首先用“小康”来诠释中国式现代化,提出“小康之家”,明确到20世纪末在中国建立一个小康社会的奋斗目标,并指出“所谓小康,从国民生产总值来说,就是年人均达到800美元”。从“小康之家”到“小康社会”,“小康”这一饱含中华文化深厚底蕴、富有鲜明中国特色、千百年来深深埋藏在中国人民心中的美好愿景,由此成为中国现代化进程的醒目路标。1982年,党的十二大首次把“小康”作为经济建设总的奋斗目标,提出到20世纪末力争使人民的物质文化生活达到小康水平。1987年,党的十三大制定“三步走”现代化发展战略,把20世纪末人民生活达到小康水平作为第二步奋斗目标。1992年,在人民温饱问题基本得到解决的基础上,党的十四大提出到20世纪末人民生活由温饱进入小康。1997年,党的十五大提出新的“三步走”发展战略,明确到2010年使人民的小康生活更加宽裕。经过长期不懈努力,20世纪末,人民生活总体上达到小康水平的目标如期实现。2002年,党的十六大针对当时小康低水平、不全面、发展很不平衡的实际,提出全面建设小康社会目标,即在21世纪头20年,集中力量,全面建设惠及十几亿人口的更高水平的小康社会,使经济更加发展、民主更加健全、科教更加进步、文化更加繁荣、社会更加和谐、人民生活更加殷实,小康社会建设由“总体小康”向“全面小康”迈进。2007年,党的十七大对实现全面建设小康社会的宏伟目标作出全面部署,在经济、政治、文化、社会、生态文明等方面提出新要求,全面建设小康社会的目标更全面、内涵更丰富、要求更具体。

After the launch of reform and opening up in 1978, the CPC made continuous efforts to build a better-off society, raising the living standards in China from bare subsistence to a basic level of moderate prosperity, and then ultimately to moderate prosperity in all respects.

In the early years of reform and opening up, Deng Xiaoping for the first time used the term xiaokang to present his vision of China’s modernization. He set the goal of delivering a xiaokang life for the Chinese people and building a xiaokang society by the end of the 20th century. “By xiaokang, we mean a per capita GNP of US$800,” he specified.

This long-cherished dream, grounded in traditional Chinese culture and bearing the distinctive hallmarks of the nation, has since become a significant milestone on China’s journey towards modernization.

At its 12th National Congress in 1982, the CPC for the first time made achieving xiaokang the overall objective of China’s economic development, and set the goal of delivering a life of moderate cultural and material prosperity for the people by the end of the 20th century.

At its 13th National Congress in 1987, the CPC formulated a three-step strategic plan for China’s modernization, and set the goal for the second step as elevating the people’s living standards to the level of moderate prosperity by the end of the 20th century.

At its 14th National Congress in 1992, when the basic needs of the Chinese people had largely been met, the CPC envisioned that their living standards would further rise, from simply having the basic necessities to enjoying moderate prosperity by the end of the 20th century.

At its 15th National Congress in 1997, the CPC put forward a new three-step strategic plan for economic development, setting the goal of creating a better-off life for the people by 2010.

Through perseverance and effort over these years, China achieved basic moderate prosperity at the end of the 20th century as scheduled.

At its 16th National Congress in 2002, the CPC pointed out that moderate prosperity remained at a relatively low level – it was not all-inclusive and was very unbalanced. Thus, the Party set the objective of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. For this purpose, in the first two decades of the 21st century China would further develop the economy, improve democracy, advance science and education, enrich culture, foster social harmony, and upgrade the quality of life.

At its 17th National Congress in 2007, the CPC drew up a comprehensive plan for complete success in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and fleshed out the detail, setting new requirements for economic, political, cultural, social and eco-environmental progress.

进入新时代,到了需要一鼓作气向全面建成小康社会目标冲刺的关键时刻。以习近平同志为核心的党中央,团结带领全党和全国人民,锚定这个宏伟目标,统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局,协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,攻坚克难,奋发有为,向着全面建成小康社会进军。2012年,党的十八大提出,在中国共产党成立100年时全面建成小康社会,并确定了全面建成小康社会目标,即经济持续健康发展,人民民主不断扩大,文化软实力显著增强,人民生活水平全面提高,资源节约型、环境友好型社会建设取得重大进展。由“全面建设小康”到“全面建成小康”,彰显了党团结带领人民夺取全面建成小康社会胜利的坚定决心。2017年,党的十九大科学把握党和国家事业所处的历史方位和发展阶段,全面分析全面建成小康社会的基础条件、内外因素,作出决胜全面建成小康社会、开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程战略部署,吹响了夺取全面建成小康社会伟大胜利的号角。习近平总书记把全面建成小康社会放在治国理政突出位置,提出一系列重要思想重要理念,作出一系列重大决策重大部署,强调,全面建成小康社会,是党向人民、向历史作出的庄严承诺,是实现中华民族伟大复兴中国梦的关键一步;在“四个全面”战略布局中,全面建成小康社会是战略目标、居于引领地位,全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党是三大战略举措;全面小康,覆盖的领域要全面、是“五位一体”全面进步,覆盖的人口要全面、是惠及全体人民的小康,覆盖的区域要全面、是城乡区域共同的小康;小康不小康,关键看老乡,全面建成小康社会最艰巨最繁重的任务在农村特别是在贫困地区;必须尽快把影响如期实现全面建成小康社会目标的短板补齐;全面建成小康社会要靠实干,基本实现现代化要靠实干,实现中华民族伟大复兴要靠实干;等等。习近平总书记亲自谋划、亲自指挥、亲自推动全面小康社会建设,团结带领全党和全国人民,战贫困、促改革、抗疫情、治污染、化风险,着力提升人民群众获得感、幸福感、安全感,解决了许多长期想解决而没有解决的难题,办成了许多过去想办而没有办成的大事,党和国家事业取得历史性成就、发生历史性变革。经过全党和全国人民持续奋斗和不懈努力,全面建成小康社会目标如期实现,实现中华民族伟大复兴迈出了关键一步。

After China entered the new era, the drive to achieve moderate prosperity in all respects reached a critical point. Firmly focusing on the goal, the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at its core defined the Five-sphere Integrated Plan and the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy, designed to overcome all remaining obstacles.

At its 18th National Congress in 2012, the CPC announced that China would realize the First Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2021 when the Party would celebrate its centenary. It defined the metrics for such a society – sustained and sound economic development, greater people’s democracy, a significant improvement in cultural soft power, higher living standards, and major progress in building a resource-conserving and environment-friendly society.

At its 19th National Congress in 2017, the CPC demonstrated its understanding that China had reached a historic juncture and development stage. It conducted a comprehensive analysis of the fundamental conditions required to achieve all-round moderate prosperity, and the internal and external factors impacting on the process. On this basis it defined a strategy for securing success in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and embarking on a journey to fully build a modern socialist China.

President Xi gave high priority to this endeavor in governance, presenting a series of important ideas and concepts and making a number of major decisions and arrangements. He emphasized the following issues:

To achieve moderate prosperity in all respects is a solemn promise made by the CPC. It is also a critical step towards realizing the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation.

In the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy, achieving the First Centenary Goal is the overarching and strategic objective, while deeper reform, advancing the rule of law, and strengthening Party self-governance are strategic measures.

Moderate prosperity in all respects means coordinated economic, political, cultural, social and eco-environmental progress, to the benefit of the entire population and covering both urban and rural areas.

Raising the standard of living of rural residents is critical to China’s success in realizing moderate prosperity, as the most challenging and onerous tasks lie in rural areas, especially the impoverished areas.

China must repair without delay the weak links that impede its endeavors to complete the First Centenary Goal.

Only through good solid work can China accomplish moderate prosperity in all respects, achieve basic modernization, and realize national rejuvenation.

President Xi has assumed leadership, made plans, and put his weight behind the endeavor to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects. He has rallied around him Party members and the Chinese people, and led them in eliminating absolute poverty, advancing reform, combating Covid-19, controlling pollution, and defusing risks. Under his leadership, the Chinese people have gained a stronger sense of fulfillment, happiness and security. China has addressed many long-standing and complex problems, and achieved many objectives where progress had been slow. The Party and the country have achieved historic successes and transformations in the pursuit of their cause.

After unremitting hard work by the entire Party and all the people, the moderately prosperous society in all respects has come to fruition as scheduled. This marks a critical step towards national rejuvenation.

2021年7月1日,习近平总书记在庆祝中国共产党成立100周年大会上庄严宣告,经过全党全国各族人民持续奋斗,我们实现了第一个百年奋斗目标,在中华大地上全面建成了小康社会。

At the ceremony marking the centenary of the CPC on July 1, 2021, General Secretary Xi declared that China had succeeded in the First Centenary Goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects through the continued efforts of the whole Party and the entire nation.

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