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双语:《中国军队参加联合国维和行动30年》
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中国军队参加联合国维和行动30年

China’s Armed Forces: 30 Years of UN Peacekeeping Operations

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

2020年9月

September 2020

目录

Contents

前言

Preface

一、中国军队为世界和平出征

I. Embarking on Missions for World Peace

二、中国军队是联合国维和行动的关键力量

II. A Key Force in UNPKOs

三、中国全面落实联合国维和峰会承诺

III. Implementation of Pledges Announced at the UN Summit

四、中国军队积极推动维和国际合作

IV. Active Efforts for Greater International Cooperation

五、中国军队服务构建人类命运共同体

V. Contributing to Building a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind

结束语

Closing Remarks

附录1 中国军队参加联合国维和行动大事记

Annex I Timeline of Activities in UNPKOs

前言

Preface

今年是中国人民抗日战争暨世界反法西斯战争胜利75周年,是联合国成立75周年,是中国军队参加联合国维和行动30周年。

This year marks the 75th anniversary of victory in the Chinese People’s War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and the World Anti-Fascist War. It is also the 75th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations (UN) and the 30th year since China’s armed forces first participated in UN peacekeeping operations (UNPKOs).

和平是中国人民的永恒期望,是中国发展的鲜明特征。新中国成立以来,中国坚定不移走和平发展道路,在实现自我发展的同时,为世界和平与发展作出了重要贡献。中国始终坚定维护以联合国为核心的国际体系,坚定维护以《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则为基石的国际关系基本准则,同各国一道,坚守多边主义,维护公平正义。

Peace is an ever-lasting aspiration of the Chinese people and the salient feature of China’s development. Since its founding, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has been firmly committed to the path of peaceful development; it has made a significant contribution to world peace and development while realizing its own development. China has always resolutely safeguarded the UN-centered international system and the basic norms governing international relations underpinned by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, and worked with countries around the world to uphold multilateralism, equity and justice.

中国以实际行动维护世界和平,积极参加联合国维和行动,是联合国第二大维和摊款国和会费国,是安理会常任理事国第一大出兵国。30年来,中国军队认真践行《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则,先后参加25项联合国维和行动,累计派出维和官兵4万余人次,忠实履行维和使命,为维护世界和平、促进共同发展作出积极贡献,彰显了和平之师、正义之师、文明之师形象。

China takes concrete actions to safeguard world peace and has actively participated in the UNPKOs. China is the second largest contributor to both peacekeeping assessment and UN membership fees, and the largest troop-contributing country (TCC) among the permanent members of the UN Security Council. Over the past 30 years, China’s armed forces have resolutely delivered on the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, and sent over 40,000 peacekeepers to 25 UN peacekeeping missions. They have faithfully performed their duties and made a positive contribution to world peace and common development. They have stood fast as a disciplined force for peace and justice.

进入新时代,中国军队全面落实习近平主席出席联合国维和峰会时宣布的承诺,以服务构建人类命运共同体为目标,加大对联合国维和行动的支持和参与力度,为冲突地区实现和平发展带去更多信心和希望。新时代的中国军队,已经成为联合国维和行动的关键因素和关键力量,为世界和平与发展注入更多正能量。

In the new era, China’s armed forces comprehensively implement the pledges announced by President Xi Jinping during the UN Leaders’ Summit on Peacekeeping. To contribute to building a community with a shared future for mankind, China’s armed forces have stepped up their support for and participation in the UNPKOs, bringing greater confidence and hope for peace and development to areas beset by conflict. As a critical element and key force in the UNPKOs, China’s armed forces in the new era have instilled more positive energy into world peace and development.

当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局。和平与发展仍是时代主题,但面临着日益严峻、不断增多的风险和挑战。不管国际风云如何变幻,中国始终是世界和平的建设者、全球发展的贡献者、国际秩序的维护者,中国军队始终是世界和平与发展的正义力量。

The world is undergoing profound changes unseen in a century. Despite mounting risks and challenges, peace and development remain the overriding theme of the times. No matter how the international landscape evolves, China will always strive to maintain world peace, promote global growth, and uphold international order. China’s armed forces will always be a force of justice for world peace and development.

回顾中国军队参加联合国维和行动30年的光辉历程,介绍新时代中国军队维护世界和平的理念与行动,中国政府特发布此白皮书。

The Chinese government is issuing this white paper to review the glorious journey of China’s armed forces in the UNPKOs over the past 30 years, to expound their ideas on safeguarding world peace in the new era, and to elaborate on the efforts they make.

一、中国军队为世界和平出征

I. Embarking on Missions for World Peace

联合国维和行动为和平而生,为和平而存,为维护世界和平作出了重要贡献。1971年,中国恢复在联合国的合法席位,以更加积极的姿态在国际事务中发挥作用。改革开放后,中国逐步参与联合国维和事务。1990年4月,中国军队向联合国停战监督组织派遣5名军事观察员,开启了中国军队参加联合国维和行动的历程。30年来,中国军队在联合国维和行动中,始终牢记履行大国担当、维护世界和平、服务构建人类命运共同体的初心和使命,为世界和平英勇出征、砥砺前行,中国“蓝盔”成为联合国维护和平的关键力量。

UN Peacekeeping, as an instrument developed for peace, has made a significant contribution to world peace. In 1971, China recovered its legitimate seat in the UN and began to play a more active role in international affairs. After reform and opening up began in 1978, China gradually increased its involvement in UN peacekeeping affairs. In April 1990, China’s armed forces dispatched five military observers to the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) and embarked on a new voyage as a participant in the UNPKOs. In the past three decades, China’s armed forces have engaged in the UNPKOs with courage and determination, always aspiring to fulfill their missions of meeting the responsibilities of a major country, safeguarding world peace, and contributing to the building of a community with a shared future for mankind. China’s Blue Helmets have become a key force in UN peacekeeping.

中国军队参加联合国维和行动,源于中华民族的和平基因。中华民族的“和”文化,蕴涵着天人合一的宇宙观、协和万邦的国际观、和而不同的社会观、人心和善的道德观,和平、和睦、和谐是中华民族最朴素的追求,和合共生、以和为贵、与人为善等理念在中国代代相传。几千年来,和平融入中华民族的血脉中,刻进中国人民的基因里,成为中国军队的不懈追求。

China’s armed forces participate in the UNPKOs, because the pursuit of peace is in the genes of the Chinese nation. The Chinese nation values peace and harmony. Ideas such as “unity of man and nature” “harmony among all nations” “harmony without uniformity” and “kindness towards fellow human beings,” voice the mind of the Chinese people on the universe, international relations, society and ethics. The pursuit of peace, amity and harmony has long been the primary aspiration of our nation. The philosophy of upholding peace, harmony, cooperation and common development has been passed down from generation to generation in China. For millennia, peace has been in the veins and the DNA of the Chinese nation. It is a consistent goal of China’s armed forces.

中国军队参加联合国维和行动,源于中国人民的天下情怀。中国人民历来有“世界大同,天下一家”的梦想,有“大道之行也,天下为公”的胸襟,有“先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐”的抱负,不仅希望自己过得好,也希望其他国家人民过得好。中国军队走出国门,播撒的是希望,带去的是和平。

China’s armed forces participate in the UNPKOs, because the Chinese people care about the wellbeing of humanity. The Chinese people always dream of living in a harmonious world where everyone belongs to one and the same family. They advocate that “a just cause should be pursued for the common good” and that one should put concern for the wellbeing of other people before personal interests. They hope for a better life not only for themselves, but also for other peoples across the world. Chinese service members join the UN efforts to bring hope and promote peace.

中国军队参加联合国维和行动,源于人民军队的根本宗旨。中国军队来自于人民、植根于人民,为人民而生、为人民而战,任何时候任何情况下都坚持全心全意为人民服务的根本宗旨,与人民同呼吸、共命运、心连心,把人民的利益放在第一位。中国维和部队胸怀人间大爱,秉持人道主义精神,为当地谋和平,为当地人民谋幸福。

China’s armed forces participate in the UNPKOs, because serving the people is the fundamental purpose of the people’s armed forces. China’s armed forces come from the people, have their roots in the people, developed to serve the people, and fight for the people. They serve the people wholeheartedly at all times and under all circumstances, remain close to the people, and always put the people’s interests first. With love and humanity, Chinese peacekeeping troops make efforts to bring peace and happiness to people in mission areas.

中国军队参加联合国维和行动,源于中国的大国担当。中国是联合国创始成员国,坚定维护联合国权威和地位,积极参加联合国维和行动,是中国作为国际社会负责任成员的应尽义务。中国是联合国安理会常任理事国,积极参加联合国维和行动,是中国履行大国责任的应有担当。世界和平不可分割,人类命运休戚与共。积极参加联合国维和行动,是中国携手各国推动构建人类命运共同体的应有之义。

China’s armed forces participate in the UNPKOs, because China honors its responsibilities as a major country. As a founding member of the UN and a responsible member of the international community, China honors its obligations, firmly supports the UN’s authority and stature, and actively participates in the UNPKOs. China is a permanent member of the UN Security Council, and therefore, it is incumbent on China as a major country to play an active part in the UNPKOs. World peace is indivisible and humanity shares a common destiny. To participate in the UNPKOs is integral to China’s joint efforts with other countries to build a community with a shared future for mankind.

中国军队参加联合国维和行动,秉持以下政策立场:

China’s armed forces commit themselves to the following policy stances on UN peacekeeping:

——坚持《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则。始终坚持恪守所有会员国主权平等、以和平方式解决国际争端等联合国主要原则,尊重各国自主选择的社会制度和发展道路,尊重并照顾各方合理安全关切。

Upholding the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. China always abides by the primary principles of the UN such as sovereign equality of all members and settlement of international disputes by peaceful means. It respects the social systems and development paths independently chosen by other countries, and respects and accommodates the legitimate security concerns of all parties.

——坚持联合国维和行动基本原则。始终坚持当事国同意、中立、非自卫或履行授权不使用武力的基本原则,尊重主权国家领土完整与政治独立,保持公平立场,准确执行安理会授权。

Following the basic principles of the UNPKOs. China always adheres to the basic principles of UN peacekeeping, including consent of the host nation, impartiality, and non-use of force except in self-defense and defense of the mandate. It respects the territorial integrity and political independence of sovereign states, always remains impartial, and strictly fulfills the mandate of the Security Council.

——坚持共商共建共享的全球治理观。始终坚持对话协商,建设持久和平的世界;坚持共建共享,建设普遍安全的世界;坚持合作共赢,建设共同繁荣的世界;坚持交流互鉴,建设开放包容的世界;坚持绿色低碳,建设清洁美丽的世界。

Championing the vision of global governance based on extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits. China stays committed to building a world of lasting peace through dialogue and consultation, to combining its efforts with others to bring about a world of common security for all, and to creating a world of common prosperity through win-win cooperation, an open and inclusive world through exchanges and mutual learning, and a clean and beautiful world by pursuing green and low-carbon development.

——坚持共同、综合、合作、可持续的新安全观。始终坚持尊重和保障每一个国家的安全,坚持统筹维护传统领域和非传统领域安全,坚持通过对话合作促进各国和本地区安全,坚持发展和安全并重以实现持久安全。

Pursuing common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security. China always respects and ensures the security of each and every country. It upholds security in both traditional and non-traditional fields, promotes the security of both individual countries and broader regions through dialogue and cooperation, and focuses on development and security so that security would be durable.

——坚持以和平方式解决争端。始终坚持以和平方式解决国家间和国家内部存在的分歧和争端,以对话增进互信,以对话解决纷争,以对话促进安全,坚决反对动辄诉诸武力或以武力相威胁。

Staying committed to peaceful means in settling disputes. China advocates that disputes and differences between countries or within a country should be resolved through peaceful means. Countries should increase mutual trust, settle disputes and promote security through dialogue. Willful threat or use of force should be rejected.

——坚持筑牢维和伙伴关系。始终坚持通过维和行动改革,调动当事国、出兵国、出资国等积极性,充分发挥区域和次区域组织的作用,在维和行动领域推动构建更加紧密的伙伴关系。

Building stronger peacekeeping partnerships. China strives to bring about greater involvement of host nations, TCCs and fund contributing countries (FCCs) through UN peacekeeping reform. It leverages the role of regional and sub-regional organizations, and promotes closer partnerships in peacekeeping operations.

二、中国军队是联合国维和行动的关键力量

II. A Key Force in UNPKOs

30年来,中国军队派出维和官兵的数量和类型全面发展,从最初的军事观察员,发展到工兵分队、医疗分队、运输分队、直升机分队、警卫分队、步兵营等成建制部队以及参谋军官、军事观察员、合同制军官等维和军事专业人员。中国维和官兵的足迹遍布柬埔寨、刚果(金)、利比里亚、苏丹、黎巴嫩、塞浦路斯、南苏丹、马里、中非等20多个国家和地区,在推进和平解决争端、维护地区安全稳定、促进驻在国经济社会发展等方面作出了重要贡献。

Over the past 30 years, China’s armed forces have contributed a growing number of peacekeepers across an expanding range of deployments. From a few military observers at the outset of its involvement, China’s armed forces are now sending both formed units and military professionals. Chinese military peacekeepers serve on the UN missions in engineer, medical, transport, helicopter, force protection and infantry units, and as staff officers, military observers and seconded officers. Chinese military peacekeepers have left their footprints in over 20 countries and regions including Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Liberia, Sudan, Lebanon, Cyprus, South Sudan, Mali and the Central African Republic. They have made a tremendous contribution to facilitating the peaceful settlement of disputes, safeguarding regional security and stability, and promoting economic and social development in host nations.

(一)监督停火

1. Ceasefire Supervision

监督停火旨在确保冲突各方履行停火协议,是联合国维和行动的初始职能,也是中国军队承担的首项联合国维和任务。自1990年起,以军事观察员、参谋军官、合同制军官等为代表的中国维和军事专业人员队伍不断发展壮大。30年来,中国军队累计向25个维和特派团及联合国总部派出维和军事专业人员2064人次。迄今,共有13名中国军人担任特派团司令、副司令,战区司令、副司令等重要职务。2020年8月,有84名维和军事专业人员正活跃在维和特派团和联合国总部,主要担负巡逻观察、监督停火、联络谈判、行动指挥、组织计划等任务。

Ceasefires are supervised to ensure that conflicting parties abide by their agreements. It was the earliest function of UN peacekeeping, and the first task undertaken by Chinese military peacekeepers. Since 1990, in addition to military observers, more military professionals have been involved in UN peacekeeping as staff officers and seconded officers. In the past three decades, China’s armed forces have sent 2,064 military professionals to 25 missions and UN headquarters (UNHQ). Thirteen of them have been appointed to key positions as force commander, deputy force commander, sector commander, and deputy sector commander. In August 2020, 84 military professionals were working on missions and at UNHQ on patrols, observation, ceasefire supervision, liaison, negotiation, command and control, and operations planning.

军事观察员部署在冲突一线,为维和行动决策提供信息,经常受到武装冲突威胁。2006年7月25日,黎以冲突期间,中国军事观察员杜照宇在炮火中坚守岗位履行职责,为和平事业献出了年轻的生命,被追记一等功,并被联合国授予哈马舍尔德勋章。

Military observers are deployed in conflicts to gather information for decision making. Their lives are often threatened by armed conflicts. On July 25, 2006, during the Israel-Lebanon conflict, Du Zhaoyu, a young Chinese military observer deployed in south Lebanon, bravely remained at his post, fulfilled his duty, and made the ultimate sacrifice for peace. He was posthumously awarded First Class Merit by the Chinese military and the Dag Hammarskjöld Medal by the UN.

(二)稳定局势

2. Stabilizing the Situation

迅速稳定局势是推进和平进程的前提条件,是联合国维和特派团的主要任务,也是近年来中国维和部队职能拓展的重要方向。部分维和任务区安全形势严峻,各类冲突不断,恐怖袭击、暴力骚乱频发。在各类维和分队中,步兵营主要执行武装巡逻、隔离冲突、止暴平暴、警戒搜查等任务,是维和行动的主力军、安全局势的“稳定器”。

Promptly stabilizing the situation paves the way for the peace process. This is a main task of UN peacekeeping missions, and an important area to which Chinese peacekeeping troops have expanded their functions in recent years. The security situation in some mission areas is challenging, marred by frequent conflicts, terrorist attacks and violent riots. Among all peacekeeping units, it is the infantry battalions that are mainly tasked with armed patrol, separating conflicting parties, riot control, cordoning, and search. They are the backbone for UN peacekeeping and the stabilizers of security.

2015年1月,中国军队向联合国南苏丹特派团(联南苏团)派遣1支700人规模的步兵营,这是中国军队首次成建制派遣步兵营赴海外执行维和任务。5年来,中国军队先后向南苏丹派遣6批维和步兵营。迎着朝霞出发、披着星光归营,在枪声中入睡、在炮声中惊醒,这是维和步兵营官兵工作生活的真实写照。截至2020年8月,维和步兵营累计完成长途巡逻51次、短途巡逻93次,武装护卫任务314次,武器禁区巡逻3万余小时,为稳定当地局势发挥了重要作用。2018年8月,南苏丹首都朱巴发生大规模械斗流血事件。中国维和步兵营奉命出击,果断处置,迅速平息事态。

In January 2015, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) dispatched an infantry battalion of 700 troops to the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), the first organic unit of its kind to operate overseas in a peacekeeping mission. Over the past five years, six rotations have been committed to UNMISS. The Chinese infantrymen worked day and night amid the rattle of gunfire and the rumble of explosions in the mission area. As of August 2020, these battalions had completed 51 long-range and 93 short-distance patrols, 314 armed escorts, and over 30,000 hours of patrols in weapons-free zones, making a significant contribution to stabilizing the local situation. In August 2018, when a large riot erupted in Juba, capital of South Sudan, the Chinese infantry battalion acted immediately on orders and quelled the violence decisively and promptly.

(三)保护平民

3. Protecting Civilians

保护平民是联合国维和行动的重要内容,也是中国维和官兵义不容辞的责任、义无反顾的抉择。近代以来,中国人民饱受战乱之苦,中国官兵深知和平之宝贵、生命之无价。在战火频仍的维和任务区,中国维和官兵用汗水和青春浇灌美丽的和平之花,用热血和生命撑起一片片和平的蓝天。

The Protection of Civilians (POC) is an important part of the UNPKOs. It is a duty that Chinese military peacekeepers resolutely undertake. The Chinese people suffered immensely from the scourge of war in modern times, and Chinese service members know only too well the value of peace and life. In war-torn mission areas, Chinese military peacekeepers maintain peace with their sweat, youth and lives.

2016年7月,南苏丹首都朱巴爆发武装冲突,政府军和反政府武装持续激战,双方投入坦克、大口径火炮、武装直升机等重型武器,身处交火地域的大量平民生命安全受到严重威胁。中国维和步兵营及友邻部队共同承担辖区内朱巴城区及城郊百余村庄平民的安全保护任务。面对枪林弹雨,中国维和官兵用血肉之躯构筑“生命防线”,阻止武装分子接近平民保护区,守护了9000多名平民的生命安全。执行任务期间,李磊、杨树朋两名战士壮烈牺牲,用生命履行使命,以英勇无畏践行了保护生命、捍卫和平的铮铮誓言,被追记一等功,并被联合国授予哈马舍尔德勋章。

In July 2016, an armed conflict broke out in Juba between government and opposition forces. Heavy weapons including tanks, large-caliber artillery, and armed helicopters were employed by both sides in fierce exchange of fire, putting a large number of civilians in severe danger. The Chinese infantry battalion, together with peacekeepers from other countries, was responsible for protecting civilians in downtown Juba and over a hundred surrounding villages. Facing a raging storm of gunfire and artillery bombardment, the Chinese infantrymen risked their lives to build a defense for life and prevented the militants from approaching the POC camp, and ensured the safety of over 9,000 civilians. Corporal Li Lei and Sergeant Yang Shupeng sacrificed their lives in the action. They lived up to the solemn pledge and sacred obligation of protecting lives and safeguarding peace with bravery and sacrifice. They were posthumously conferred First Class Merit by the Chinese military and the Dag Hammarskjöld Medal by the UN.

(四)安全护卫

4. Providing Force Protection

安全护卫是确保联合国特派团设施和人员安全的重要任务。中国军队作为联合国维和行动的重要参与者,积极派出维和安全部队,为联合国维和行动提供有力的安全保障。

Force protection is vital to securing the personnel and assets of UN peacekeeping missions. As an important contributor to the UNPKOs, China’s armed forces have been active in sending in troops to the UN missions to provide reliable force protection.

2013年12月,中国军队向联合国马里多层面综合稳定特派团(联马团)派遣1支170人的警卫分队,承担联马团东战区司令部安全警戒、要员护卫等任务,这是中国军队首次派遣安全部队参与维和行动。马里是联合国最危险的维和任务区之一,自杀式袭击、路边炸弹等恐袭事件屡屡发生。7年来,中国军队先后向马里维和任务区派遣8批警卫分队、官兵1440人次,在危机四伏的撒哈拉沙漠南缘,警卫分队官兵出色完成任务,累计执行武装巡逻及警戒护卫等行动3900余次,被联马团东战区誉为“战区王牌”。2016年5月31日,中国维和士兵申亮亮为阻止载有炸药的恐怖分子车辆冲入联合国维和营地壮烈牺牲,被追记一等功,并被联合国授予哈马舍尔德勋章。中华人民共和国成立70周年之际,申亮亮烈士被授予“人民英雄”国家荣誉称号。

In December 2013, China’s armed forces dispatched a force protection unit of 170 troops to the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) to conduct guard duties and VIP protection at the Sector East Headquarters. This was the first time that China’s armed forces had dispatched troops to carry out force protection duties for the UNPKOs. Mali is among the most dangerous mission areas, afflicted by frequent suicide attacks, roadside bombs and other terrorist assaults. Over the past seven years, China’s armed forces have sent 1,440 troops for force protection in eight rotations to MINUSMA. The units have fulfilled their tasks effectively in the hazardous southern edge of the Sahara Desert, including over 3,900 armed patrols and armed escorts. They have earned themselves the reputation of “des troupes d’élite” of Sector East. On May 31, 2016, First Sergeant Shen Liangliang was killed trying to prevent a terrorist vehicle laden with explosives from crashing into the UN camp. He was posthumously conferred First Class Merit by the Chinese military and the Dag Hammarskjöld Medal by the UN. On the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the founding of the PRC, First Sergeant Shen Liangliang was conferred the national honorary title of People’s Hero.

2017年3月12日,南苏丹边境城镇耶伊爆发激烈冲突,7名联合国民事人员被困在交火区域中心,生命安全面临严重威胁。中国赴南苏丹维和步兵营火速派出12名官兵前往救援。行进途中险情不断,救援官兵临危不惧,与武装分子斗智斗勇,3次突破拦截,成功将全部被困民事人员安全转移。此次救援行动及时高效,被联南苏团作为解救行动成功范例加以推广。

On March 12, 2017, an intense conflict broke out in Yei, a border town in South Sudan. Seven UN civilian staff were caught in the crossfire and they were at severe risk of losing their lives. The Chinese infantry battalion immediately sent in 12 officers and soldiers to the rescue. Despite threats and dangers in their way, they outmaneuvered the militants, defeated three interception attempts, and successfully evacuated the trapped personnel. This timely and efficient operation was hailed and publicized as an exemplary model of rescue operations by UNMISS.

(五)支援保障

5. Deploying Enabling Capabilities

工程、运输、医疗、直升机等后勤保障分队在联合国维和行动中扮演着不可或缺的重要角色,是当前中国军队向海外派遣维和部队的主体。在各维和任务区,中国后勤保障分队官兵以过硬的素质、精湛的技能和敬业的精神,创造了“中国质量”“中国速度”“中国标准”等一块块闪亮的中国品牌。

Force enablers such as engineer, transport, medical, and helicopter units play an irreplaceable role in the UNPKOs. Currently, the majority of Chinese peacekeeping troops perform such enabling tasks. On UN peacekeeping missions, Chinese military peacekeepers in the logistic support units have become the embodiment of China’s quality, speed and standards through their skills, professionalism and dedication.

2020年1月,联马团北战区泰萨利特维和营地遭到恐怖袭击,造成20多人受伤。部署在东战区的中国医疗分队紧急前出,将7名乍得维和部队伤员接回至中国医疗分队。经过全力抢救,所有伤员转危为安。2020年5月,中国维和工兵分队克服新冠肺炎疫情防控压力大、安全形势严峻等不利因素,高标准、高质量完成南苏丹西部索普桥修建,打通瓦乌至拉加线路,赢得当地政府和人民的高度评价和赞誉。

In January 2020, some terrorists attacked the Tessalit Camp in the Sector North of MINUSMA and wounded more than 20 people. The Chinese medical unit in Sector East was rushed in by air and evacuated seven injured Chad peacekeepers to the Chinese medical camp. All the wounded were saved by prompt emergency treatment. In May 2020, despite the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and a tense security situation, the Chinese engineer unit built a bridge over the Sopo River in South Sudan to the highest quality standards. This bridge created a transport route between Wau and Raga, which was highly commended by the local government and residents.

30年来,中国军队先后向柬埔寨、刚果(金)、利比里亚、苏丹、黎巴嫩、苏丹达尔富尔、南苏丹、马里8个维和任务区派遣111支工兵分队25768人次,累计新建和修复道路1.7万多千米、桥梁300多座,排除地雷及未爆炸物1.4万余枚,完成大量平整场地、维修机场、搭建板房、构筑防御工事等工程保障任务;先后向利比里亚、苏丹2个任务区派遣27支运输分队5164人次,累计运送物资器材120万余吨,运输总里程1300万余千米;先后向刚果(金)、利比里亚、苏丹、黎巴嫩、南苏丹、马里6个任务区派遣85支医疗分队4259人次,累计接诊救治病人、抢救伤员24.6万余人次;向苏丹达尔富尔派遣3支直升机分队420人次,累计飞行1602架次、1951小时,运送人员10410人次、物资480余吨。

In the past 30 years, China’s armed forces have contributed 111 engineer units totaling 25,768 troops to eight UN peacekeeping missions in Cambodia, the DRC, Liberia, Sudan, Lebanon, Sudan’s Darfur, South Sudan, and Mali. These units have built and rehabilitated more than 17,000 kilometers of roads and 300 bridges, disposed of 14,000 landmines and unexploded ordnance, and performed a large number of engineering tasks including leveling ground, renovating airports, assembling prefabricated houses, and building defense works. Twenty-seven transport units totaling 5,164 troops were dispatched to the UN peacekeeping missions in Liberia and Sudan. They transported over 1.2 million tons of materials and equipment over a total distance of more than 13 million kilometers. Eighty-five medical units of 4,259 troops were sent to six UN peacekeeping missions in the DRC, Liberia, Sudan, Lebanon, South Sudan, and Mali. They have provided medical services to over 246,000 sick and wounded people. Three helicopter units totaling 420 troops were sent to Sudan’s Darfur. They completed 1,951 flight hours, transported 10,410 passengers and over 480 tons of cargo in 1,602 sorties.

(六)播撒希望

6. Sowing the Seeds of Hope

过上幸福美好生活,是各国人民的共同期盼。远赴海外的中国维和官兵用实际行动,为遭受战火摧残的人民带去了和平、点亮了希望。

It is the common aspiration of all peoples throughout the world to live a better life. Far from home, Chinese military peacekeepers have made concrete efforts to bring peace and hope to war-afflicted peoples.

积极协助开展人道主义救援。30年来,中国维和部队与国际人道主义机构携手,积极参与难民安置、救济粮发放、难民营修建和抢险救灾等行动,开展了大量卓有成效的工作。2020年4月,刚果(金)东部乌维拉地区暴发罕见洪灾,人民生命财产安全面临严重威胁,中国工兵分队临危受命,紧急加固堤坝、修复被毁桥梁,打通生命通道,有力保护当地人民安全。

To actively facilitate humanitarian assistance. Over the past 30 years, China’s peacekeeping troops worked extensively and effectively with international humanitarian agencies, and have played an active role in resettling refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs), distributing food, building refugee and IDP camps, and carrying out disaster relief tasks. In April 2020, Uvira in eastern DRC was struck by a rare flood, which posed a severe threat to the lives and property of the locals. The Chinese engineer unit was assigned to disaster relief work at the most critical moment and rushed to help reinforce levees and restore damaged bridges. They have given the locals access to help and protection, and effectively ensured the safety and security of the affected population.

广泛参与战后重建。战乱国家或地区签署和平协议后,帮助其恢复社会秩序、改善民生,是防止冲突再起、实现持久和平与稳定的治本之策。中国维和部队积极参与驻地战后重建进程,承担重要基础设施援建、协助监督选举、医护人员培训及环境保护等任务,得到驻在国政府和人民的积极评价。苏丹达尔富尔地区地处沙漠边缘、地质结构复杂,是世界上极度贫水地区之一,2007年至2013年期间,中国工兵分队给水官兵克服重重困难,先后在当地打井14口,有效缓解当地人民的饮水难题。

To participate extensively in post-conflict reconstruction. In a post-war country or region, when a peace agreement is reached, it is essential to restore livelihoods and social order in order to prevent the recurrence of conflict and achieve lasting peace and stability. Chinese peacekeeping troops have played an active role in post-conflict reconstruction of host nations. They built important infrastructure, monitored elections, trained local doctors and nurses, and promoted environmental protection. Their efforts have been acclaimed by the governments and peoples of host nations. Darfur lies on the edge of a desert with complex geology. It is one of the regions afflicted by the world’s most severe water shortages. From 2007 to 2013, Chinese military engineers drilled 14 wells in the most difficult circumstances, and effectively alleviated the problem of water scarcity for the locals.

传递温暖和爱心。中国维和官兵不仅是和平的守护人,也是友谊的传播者。中国赴刚果(金)医疗分队与驻地布卡武市“国际儿童村”结成对子,用真情传递爱心和温暖,中国女官兵被孩子们亲切称作“中国妈妈”,这一爱心接力棒已经接续了17年,在当地传为佳话。中国赴南苏丹维和部队向当地人民传授农业技术、赠送农具菜种,并应邀到当地中学开设中国文化和汉语课程,深受学生们欢迎。

To pass on love and care. Chinese military peacekeepers are not only guardians of peace but also messengers of friendship. The Chinese medical units in the DRC ran a twinning project in SOS Children’s Village Bukavu to offer help. Touched by the love and care from the units, children in the village called the female members their Chinese mothers. The consistent efforts of the Chinese units over the past 17 years have won widespread praise from the locals. In UNMISS, Chinese military peacekeepers provided agricultural techniques, farming tools and vegetable seeds to local people. They were invited by local middle schools to teach lessons on Chinese culture and language, which were very popular with the students.

30年来,中国军队先后参加25项联合国维和行动,累计派出维和官兵4万余人次,16名中国官兵为了和平事业献出了宝贵生命。2020年8月,2521名中国官兵正在8个维和特派团和联合国总部执行任务。中国女性维和官兵在维和行动中发挥了越来越重要的作用,先后有1000余名女性官兵参与医疗保障、联络协调、扫雷排爆、巡逻观察、促进性别平等、妇女儿童保护等工作,展示了中国女性的巾帼风采。中国维和部队的出色表现,受到联合国高度认可,赢得国际社会广泛赞赏,为国家和军队赢得了荣誉。2019年10月1日,中国维和部队方队首次在国庆阅兵中接受祖国和人民检阅。

Over the past 30 years, China’s armed forces have contributed more than 40,000 service members to 25 UN peacekeeping missions. Sixteen Chinese military peacekeepers have sacrificed their lives for the noble cause of peace. As of August 2020, 2,521 Chinese military peacekeepers were serving on eight UN peacekeeping missions and at UNHQ. Chinese service women are playing an increasingly important role in peacekeeping. More than 1,000 female peacekeepers have worked in medical support, liaison, coordination, demining, explosive ordnance disposal, patrol, observation, gender equality promotion, protecting women and children, and other fields. They demonstrated the talent and professionalism of Chinese women on their UN missions. Chinese peacekeeping troops have been commended by the UN and the international community for their contribution. They have won honor for their country and military. On October 1st, 2019, Chinese military peacekeepers were reviewed for the first time by the country and the people in the parade celebrating the 70th anniversary of the PRC.

三、中国全面落实联合国维和峰会承诺

III. Implementation of Pledges Announced at the UN Summit

2015年9月28日,中国国家主席习近平出席联合国维和峰会,宣布支持联合国维和行动的6项承诺。中国政府和军队坚决贯彻落实习近平主席决策部署,言必信、行必果,以实际行动履行相关承诺,取得一系列重要成果。5年来,中国维和部队构成从单一军种为主向多军兵种拓展,任务类型从支援保障向综合多能转型,行动目标从制止武装冲突向建设持久和平延伸,维和能力进一步提升。

On September 28, 2015, President Xi Jinping addressed the Leaders’ Summit on Peacekeeping at UNHQ and announced six measures that China would take to support UN peacekeeping. The Chinese government and armed forces have faithfully implemented the decisions and directions of President Xi Jinping, and taken concrete steps to honor their promises. Important progress has been made over the past five years. China’s armed forces have expanded the composition of their peacekeeping troops from single service to multiple military branches, enabling Chinese peacekeepers to perform diverse tasks in addition to enabling functions. The objectives of China’s peacekeeping efforts have extended beyond conflict prevention to building lasting peace. As a result, the peacekeeping capacity of China’s armed forces has been further strengthened.

(一)完成维和待命部队组建

1. A Peacekeeping Standby Force in Position

维和行动快速部署,能为和平争取机会,为生命赢得时间。中国军队大力支持联合国维和能力待命机制建设,提升维和行动快速部署能力。2017年9月,完成8000人规模维和待命部队在联合国的注册,包括步兵、工兵、运输、医疗、警卫、快反、直升机、运输机、无人机、水面舰艇等10类专业力量28支分队。2018年10月,13支维和待命分队通过联合国组织的考察评估,晋升为二级待命部队。2019年至2020年,先后有6支维和待命分队由二级晋升为三级待命部队。中国维和待命部队按照联合国标准严格施训,始终保持规定待命状态,是一支训练有素、装备精良、纪律严明的专业力量。中国已成为联合国维和待命部队数量最多、分队种类最齐全的国家。此外,中国公安部2016年6月率先组建了全球首支成建制常备维和警队,该警队2019年10月晋升为快速部署等级。

Rapid deployment of peacekeeping forces means greater opportunities to maintain peace and protect lives. China’s armed forces fully support the UN in developing the Peacekeeping Capability Readiness System (PCRS) and reinforcing UN rapid deployment capacity. In September 2017, China completed the registration of a UN peacekeeping standby force of 8,000 troops. This force has 28 units in ten categories – infantry, engineer, transport, medical, force protection, rapid response, helicopter, transport aircraft, UAV, and surface ship units. In October 2018, after a satisfactory Assessment and Advisory Visit (AAV) by a UNHQ team, 13 of these units were elevated to PCRS Level 2. In 2019 and 2020, six units were upgraded to PCRS Level 3 from Level 2. The Chinese standby force has been trained in strict compliance with the UN criteria and maintained the requisite degree of preparedness. It is now a well-trained, well-equipped and disciplined specialized force. China has become the country with the largest number of standby peacekeeping troops of the most diversified profile. In addition, in June 2016, the Chinese Ministry of Public Security set up a permanent peacekeeping police squad, the first of its kind in the world. The squad was pledged to the PCRS Rapid Deployment Level (RDL) in October 2019.

(二)派遣更多保障人员参加联合国维和行动

2. More Enabling Capabilities to the UNPKOs

工程、运输、医疗等后勤保障力量是维和行动的重要支撑,既有效提高特派团履职效能,又为驻在国战后重建和改善民生发挥重要作用。中国军队具有派遣保障分队参加维和行动的传统和优势。2015年联合国维和峰会以来,中国军队积极响应联合国维和行动在工程保障、医疗救治等方面的力量需求,先后派遣25批维和工兵和医疗分队共7001人,参加在刚果(金)、南苏丹、苏丹达尔富尔、马里、黎巴嫩的维和行动。2020年8月,中国军队有6支工兵分队1188人、4支医疗分队199人正在遂行联合国维和任务。他们在危险动荡和艰苦环境下修路架桥、扫雷排爆、救死扶伤、支援重建,圆满完成联合国赋予的各项任务,为当地和平进程作出积极贡献,树立了联合国维和部队的良好形象。

Enabler troops including engineer, transport and medical units provide vital support to peacekeeping missions. They play an important part in promoting the effectiveness of UN missions, facilitating post-conflict reconstruction and improving lives in host nations. China traditionally deploys hard-to-source enabler troops. After the Leaders’ Summit on Peacekeeping in 2015, China responded actively to the UN call for more enabler assets including engineering and medical capabilities. Twenty-five rotations of engineer and medical units totaling 7,001 troops have been committed to missions in the DRC, South Sudan, Sudan’s Darfur, Mali and Lebanon. As of August 2020, six Chinese engineer units of 1,188 troops and four medical units of 199 troops were serving on UN missions. In the danger, turbulence and harsh conditions of mission areas, Chinese military peacekeepers have successfully performed all tasks entrusted by the UN including building paved roads and bridges, clearing mines and explosives, providing medical services, and supporting reconstruction in host nations. They have contributed to the local peace process and promoted the public image of UN peacekeepers.

(三)完成为各国培训维和人员任务

3. Training Foreign Peacekeepers

中国军队秉持资源共享、合作共赢的精神,积极帮助其他出兵国提高训练水平,增强应对复杂环境能力,更好遂行联合国维和任务。5年来,先后举办了保护平民、维和特派团高级官员、维和教官、维和军事专业人员、女性维和军官等20批专业培训,为60多个国家训练维和人员1500余人。中国军队开展扫雷援助项目,为柬埔寨、老挝、埃塞俄比亚、苏丹、赞比亚、津巴布韦等国培训扫雷人员300余人。此外,中国公安部培训多国维和警务人员1000余人。

China’s armed forces are willing to share their peacekeeping assets in a spirit of win-win. They have actively helped other TCCs improve training, build capability to respond to complex situation, and better perform in the UNPKOs. In the past five years, China has provided 20 training programs to over 1,500 peacekeepers from more than 60 countries, covering civilian protection and courses for senior mission officials, trainers, military professionals, and female officers. The Chinese military provided assistance in demining and trained more than 300 professionals from countries including Cambodia, Laos, Ethiopia, Sudan, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The Chinese Ministry of Public Security also trained more than 1,000 foreign peacekeeping police officers.

(四)向非盟提供无偿军事援助

4. Military Aid Gratis to the African Union (AU)

维和行动的主要需求在非洲。为支持非洲国家提高自身维和维稳能力,以非洲方式解决非洲问题,中国军队积极落实对非盟1亿美元无偿军事援助,支持非洲常备军和危机应对快速反应部队建设。迄今为止,中国军队已向非盟交付首批军援装备和物资,派遣军事专家组对非方人员进行交装培训,并与非盟就下阶段军援安排达成一致。

Africa has the greatest need for peacekeeping. In order to help the African countries improve their ability to maintain peace and stability, and provide African solutions to African issues, the PLA has honored China’s commitment of gratis military aid to the value of USD100 million to support the African Standby Force and the African Capacity for Immediate Response to Crisis. The first installment of the aid including military equipment and supplies has been delivered to the AU, and Chinese military experts have been sent to complete the hand-over and provide end-user training. The PLA has agreed with the AU on the arrangement of the next aid installments.

(五)派出首支维和直升机分队遂行任务

5. The First Peacekeeping Helicopter Unit in Operation

中国战鹰为和平翱翔。2017年8月,中国军队向非盟-联合国达尔富尔混合行动(联非达团)派出140人的首支直升机分队部署到位,编配4架中型多用途直升机,主要承担部队投送、行动支援、人员搜救后送、后勤补给等任务。中国维和直升机分队在海外陌生复杂环境下完成多个高风险任务,成为联非达团重要的军事航空力量,为联合国在苏丹达尔富尔地区的维和行动提供了重要支撑。

The PLA helicopter unit made its first flight on a peacekeeping mission in August 2017. China’s armed forces deployed their first peacekeeping helicopter unit of 140 troops to the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID). The unit was composed of four medium multi-purpose helicopters and tasked with force delivery, operational support, search and rescue, medical evacuation, and logistic supply. The unit adapted itself to the unknown complexities of overseas missions and fulfilled multiple high-risk tasks. It has become an essential airborne arm of UNAMID and a pillar of the UN peacekeeping operations in Darfur.

(六)设立中国-联合国和平与发展基金支持联合国维和行动

6. China-UN Peace and Development Fund in Support of the UNPKOs

为更好支持联合国和平事业,促进多边合作,中国设立了中国-联合国和平与发展基金。2016年至2019年,中国-联合国和平与发展基金在和平安全领域共开展52个项目,使用资金约3362万美元。其中23个项目涉及支持联合国维和行动,使用资金约1038万美元,包括联合国维和行动统筹规划、非洲维和能力建设、维和人员安保、在苏丹达尔富尔与马里等维和行动中的民生项目等。

To support the UN efforts for peace and advance multilateral cooperation, China has established a China-UN Peace and Development Fund. From 2016 to 2019, the fund financed 52 peace and security projects to a total value of USD33.62 million. Twenty-three of these projects were in support of the UNPKOs, which cost USD10.38 million. The goal of these projects is to strengthen coordination and planning of the UNPKOs, increase African peacekeeping capacity, provide protection for peacekeepers, and improve lives in Sudan’s Darfur, Mali and other mission areas.

四、中国军队积极推动维和国际合作

IV. Active Efforts for Greater International Cooperation

世界和平需要各国共同维护,维和行动需要多方加强合作。中国军队先后与90多个国家、10多个国际和地区组织开展维和交流与合作,通过团组互访、专家交流、联演联训、人员培训等形式增进相互了解,交流经验做法,加强务实合作,密切双多边关系,不断提升维和能力。

World peace is the responsibility of all countries and peacekeeping calls for expanding multilateral cooperation. China’s armed forces have cooperated on peacekeeping with over 90 countries and 10 international and regional organizations. They have enhanced mutual understanding, shared experience, extended practical cooperation, strengthened bilateral and multilateral relations, and promoted peacekeeping capability through exchange of visits, expert discussions, joint exercises and training, and personnel training.

(一)加强战略沟通,凝聚维和共识

1. Strengthening Strategic Communication to Build Consensus on Peacekeeping

加强与联合国高层的战略沟通,是联合国维和行动向前发展的重要途径。2012年以来,习近平主席11次会见联合国秘书长,在多个国际场合就世界和平与发展提出中国主张、中国方案,表达支持联合国维和行动的立场。2015年,习近平主席出席联合国维和峰会,提出恪守维和基本原则、完善维和行动体系、提高快速反应水平、加大对非洲的帮扶等主张。中国军队坚决贯彻落实领导人达成的共识,加强与联合国相关机构密切沟通,多次参加联合国维和部长级会议、联合国维和出兵国参谋长会议,积极推动维和领域合作。

Better strategic communication with the UN leadership is an important means to move the UNPKOs forward. Since 2012, President Xi Jinping has had 11 meetings with UN Secretary-Generals, proposed Chinese ideas and Chinese solutions for world peace and development on multiple international occasions, and reiterated China’s support for the UNPKOs. In 2015, President Xi Jinping attended the Leaders’ Summit on Peacekeeping at UNHQ and presented proposals that the basic principles of peacekeeping should be strictly followed, the peacekeeping system needs to be improved, rapid response needs to be enhanced, and greater support and help should be given to Africa. Accordingly, China’s armed forces are resolved to implement the consensus reached by the leaders. They have strengthened communication with relevant UN agencies, attended several sessions of the UN Peacekeeping Defense Ministerial and the UN Chiefs of Defense Conference, and actively promoted peacekeeping cooperation.

加强双多边沟通交流,增进理解互信。中国军队与俄罗斯、巴基斯坦、柬埔寨、印尼、越南、法国、德国、英国、美国等国军队在维和领域积极开展互访,加强政策沟通,规划维和合作,助推两国两军友好关系发展。2010年5月,首次中美维和事务磋商在北京举行。2015年4月,中国与越南两国国防部长在北京签署两国国防部维和领域合作备忘录;同年,中国同巴西、俄罗斯、印度、南非首次举行金砖国家维和事务磋商。2017年2月,首次中英维和事务磋商在英国举行。2018年4月,联合国军事参谋团的俄、法、英、美军事代表访华,同中方就维和行动进行广泛交流;5月,中国与巴基斯坦签署维和行动政策合作议定书;10月,德国国防部长参访中国国防部维和事务中心培训基地,中国国防部维和代表团参访德国国防军联合国中心。

China’s armed forces are committed to strengthening bilateral and multilateral communication for better understanding and mutual trust. They have carried out active peacekeeping cooperation with the militaries of countries including Russia, Pakistan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Vietnam, France, Germany, the UK, and the US. Through reciprocal visits, China’s armed forces and their foreign counterparts have strengthened communication on policies, made cooperation plans, and advanced friendly state-to-state and military-to-military relations. In May 2010, the first China-US consultation on the UNPKOs was held in Beijing. In April 2015, the defense ministers of China and Vietnam signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on peacekeeping cooperation between the two ministries in Beijing. That same year, China conducted the first BRICS consultation on the UNPKOs with Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa. In February 2017, the first China-UK dialogue on peacekeeping operations was held in the UK. In April 2018, military advisers of Russia, France, the UK and the US to the UN Military Staff Committee visited China and exchanged extensive views on the UNPKOs with the Chinese side. In May, the defense ministries of China and Pakistan signed a protocol on policy collaboration with regard to the UNPKOs. In October, the German defense minister visited the Training Base of the Peacekeeping Affairs Center of the Chinese Ministry of National Defense (MND), and a peacekeeping delegation from the Chinese MND visited the German Armed Forces United Nations Training Centre.

(二)分享经验做法,贡献中国智慧

2. Contributing Chinese Wisdom and Sharing Experience

相互学习借鉴,开展经验交流,是改进联合国维和行动的有效方式。中国军队积极开展维和领域国际交流,派出维和专业团组访问阿根廷、芬兰、德国等国军队维和培训机构。180余次接待各国和联合国、非盟等国际组织代表团参观访问。举办“中英维和研讨会”“21世纪和平行动面临的挑战国际研讨会”“中国-东盟维和研讨会”“2009北京国际维和研讨会”等10多项大型维和国际研讨活动。在马里、苏丹、南苏丹、刚果(金)、利比里亚、黎巴嫩的中国维和部队与法国、塞内加尔、西班牙等国维和部队交流分享经验做法。

Sharing experience and learning from each other is an effective approach to improving the UNPKOs. China’s armed forces have actively conducted international exchanges on peacekeeping. The PLA sent delegations to visit the peacekeeping training facilities of countries including Argentina, Finland and Germany, and received more than 180 visits from other countries and international organizations including the UN and the AU. China has hosted over ten international events on peacekeeping, including the Sino-UK Seminar on Peacekeeping Operations, the International Seminar on Challenges of Peace Operations – Into the 21st Century, the China-ASEAN Seminar on Peacekeeping Operations, and the 2009 Beijing International Symposium on UN Peacekeeping Operations. Meanwhile, Chinese peacekeeping troops in Mali, Sudan, South Sudan, the DRC, Liberia, and Lebanon have exchanged experience with their counterparts from France, Senegal and Spain.

中国军队广泛参与联合国维和专题审议和政策制定,为维和行动发展贡献智慧。积极参加联大维和特委会、出兵国自携装备会议,邀请联合国维和行动高级别评审专家组、安理会代表团访华,就联合国维和行动改革、提高维和行动效能、保障维和人员安全等建言献策;组织《联合国维和工兵分队手册》《联合国维和军事情报手册》等专家编审国际会议,派专家参加联合国维和步兵、警卫、航空、运输、卫勤、军民合作等指导手册编写修订。

China’s armed forces have participated extensively in UN peacekeeping consultations and policy-making, and provided input on the UNPKOs. They have played a dynamic role in the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations of the UN General Assembly and the TCC Contingent-Owned Equipment (COE) Working Group, invited officials from the UN High-level Independent Panel on Peace Operations and the UN Security Council to China, and offered suggestions on reforming UN peacekeeping, raising its effectiveness, and ensuring the safety and security of peacekeepers. Expert meetings have been hosted by China to draft and review documents including the United Nations Peacekeeping Missions Military Engineer Unit Manual and the Military Peacekeeping-Intelligence Handbook, and Chinese experts have been sent to participate in updating the manuals of UN peacekeeping infantry, force protection, aviation, transport, medical support units and civil-military cooperation.

(三)深化联演联训,共同提升能力

3. Extending Cooperation on Joint Exercises and Training to Build Capability

开展维和领域联演联训,是提升遂行联合国维和行动任务能力,培养储备维和人才的重要举措。中国军队通过多种形式,与联合国、有关国家和地区组织开展维和演训活动,相互借鉴,共同提高。2009年6月至7月,中国与蒙古国在北京举办“维和使命-2009”联合训练;2014年2月,派员赴菲律宾参加东盟10+8多国维和桌面推演;2015年至2019年,每年派实兵赴蒙古国参加“可汗探索”多国维和演习;2016年3月、2019年9月,分别派实兵赴印度、印尼参加东盟10+8维和与人道主义扫雷行动联合演习;2016年5月、2018年5月,两次派员赴泰国参加多国维和桌面推演;2018年4月派员赴巴西参加“维京”多国模拟指挥所推演。

Joint exercises and training are important as a means of improving the UN’s peacekeeping capability and its talent pool. To learn from each other and improve skills, China’s armed forces have conducted various peacekeeping exercises and training with the UN, and with relevant countries and regional organizations. In June and July 2009, China and Mongolia held a joint exercise codenamed Peacekeeping Mission-2009 in Beijing. In addition, China’s armed forces have sent military personnel to participate in multilateral engagements including the ADMM-Plus Experts’ Working Group Table-Top Exercise on Peacekeeping Operations in the Philippines in February 2014, the Khan Quest multinational peacekeeping exercises in Mongolia from 2015 to 2019, the ADMM-Plus Experts’ Working Group on Peacekeeping Operations and Humanitarian Mine Action field training exercises in India in March 2016 and in Indonesia in September 2019, peacekeeping table-top exercises in Thailand in May 2016 and May 2018, and the multinational computer-assisted command-post exercise Viking 18 in Brazil in April 2018.

2009年6月中国军队组建维和专业培训机构以来,举办联合国军事观察员、联合国维和参谋军官、联合国非洲法语区维和教官、联合国维和行动规划管理等各类国际培训班20余期。积极邀请联合国专家和有关国家资深教官来华授课交流,强化维和部队和维和军事专业人员部署前培训。先后派维和教官赴澳大利亚、德国、荷兰、瑞士、泰国、越南等国维和培训机构施训,派出100多名军官参加联合国及各出兵国举办的维和培训或观摩。

China’s armed forces established a specialized peacekeeping training institution in June 2009. Since then, the PLA has run over 20 international training programs for UN peacekeepers, including the UN Military Observers Course, the UN Staff Officers Course, the UN Peacekeeping Training of Trainers Course for Francophone Countries, and the UN Senior National Planners Course. The PLA has also invited UN experts and senior instructors from other countries for pre-deployment training of Chinese peacekeeping troops and military professionals, and sent instructors to assist peacekeeping training in countries including Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Thailand, and Vietnam. More than 100 PLA officers have attended courses or observed exercises hosted by the UN or other TCCs.

五、中国军队服务构建人类命运共同体

V. Contributing to Building a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind

当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,新冠肺炎疫情全球大流行使这个大变局加速变化,国际安全形势不稳定性不确定性增加,世界和平面临多元威胁。联合国维和行动受制因素日趋增多,职能任务日趋繁重,安全环境日趋复杂,面临多重挑战和考验。中国将继续发挥安理会常任理事国作用,坚定支持和参与联合国维和行动,积极响应联合国“为维和而行动”倡议,支持对联合国维和行动进行合理必要改革,为建设持久和平、普遍安全、共同繁荣、开放包容、清洁美丽的世界作出应有贡献。

The world is going through profound changes unseen in a century, and the COVID-19 pandemic is accelerating such changes. Uncertainties and destabilizing factors in the international security situation are on the rise, and there are diverse threats to world peace. The UNPKOs are faced with multiple challenges, including increasing constraints, heavier tasks, and a more complex security environment. China will continue to play its part as a permanent member of the UN Security Council, firmly support and participate in the UNPKOs, actively respond to the Action for Peacekeeping (A4P) initiative, and support reasonable and necessary reforms in the UNPKOs. China will contribute its fair share to building an open, inclusive, clean, and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security and common prosperity.

(一)秉持人类命运共同体理念,携手维护世界和平

1. Upholding the Vision of a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind and Working Together to Promote World Peace

当今世界,冲突地区人民依然饱受战乱之苦,对和平的渴望更加强烈,对联合国的期待更加殷切,对维和行动的期盼更加迫切。各国应相互尊重、平等相待,以最大诚意和耐心,坚持通过对话协商解决矛盾和问题,不能动辄诉诸武力或以武力相威胁,破坏世界和平、损害主权国家利益。各国应增强人类命运共同体意识,弘扬人道主义精神,更加坚定支持和积极参加联合国维和行动。中国将继续履行大国责任,加大对联合国维和行动的支持力度,同其他国家一道,推动联合国维和行动改革朝着健康合理方向发展。中国军队将继续加大联合国维和行动参与力度,全面提升维和能力,忠实履行使命任务,为维护世界和平作出更大贡献。

In today’s world, people in conflict-ridden areas are still suffering. They have a deep yearning for peace, higher hopes of the UN, and greater expectations of peacekeeping operations. Countries should treat each other with respect and equality. Disputes and problems should be settled through dialogue and consultation with the maximum sincerity and patience. No country should willfully resort to threat or use of force, or undermine world peace and the national interests of sovereign states. Instead, countries should commit themselves to raising the awareness that people across the world are members of a community of shared destiny. They should uphold humanitarianism, and increase support for and participation in the UNPKOs. China will continue to fulfill its responsibilities as a major country, scale up support for and involvement in the UNPKOs, and join forces with other countries to promote a sound and reasonable UN peacekeeping reform. China’s armed forces will endeavor to play a stronger role in the UNPKOs, comprehensively improve peacekeeping capability, faithfully fulfill their responsibilities, and contribute more to world peace.

(二)推动完善维和行动体系,标本兼治解决冲突根源

2. Improving the Peacekeeping System and Addressing Both the Symptoms and Root Causes of Conflict

发展和安全并重,标本兼治解决冲突根源,和平才可持续。维和行动既要同预防外交、维护和平纵向衔接,也要同政治斡旋、推进法治、民族和解、民生改善等横向配合。中国支持联合国构建更加完善的维和行动体系,在聚焦维和行动根本任务的同时,将有限的资源更多投入发展领域,充分尊重当事国政府根据国情自主选择社会制度和发展道路的权利,尊重当事国人民的生存权和发展权,使当事国能够集中力量进行发展重建,巩固和平成果,实现可持续和平。中国军队在维和行动中,将一如既往为冲突国家和地区创造安全稳定环境,积极参与医疗卫生、人道救援、环境保护、民生发展、社会重建等工作,提供更多公共服务产品,努力使当地人民享受和平发展的红利。

Only by giving equal attention to development and security and by addressing both the symptoms and root causes of conflict can sustainable peace be assured. Peacekeeping operations should be aligned with preventive diplomacy and other peace-related endeavors, and at the same time coordinated with political mediation, rule of law, national reconciliation, and improvement of living standards. China supports the UN in improving the peacekeeping system. With a focus on the primary tasks of the UNPKOs, a bigger share of limited resources should be allocated to development. China advocates that the rights of host-nation governments to independently choose social systems and development paths based on their national conditions, and local people’s rights to subsistence and development should be respected. Only then will host nations be able to focus on development and reconstruction so that peacekeeping gains and sustainable peace are secured. In the UNPKOs, China’s armed forces will, as always, contribute to a safe and stable environment for countries and regions in conflict. They will actively participate in medical support and health care, humanitarian assistance, environmental protection, improving lives, and social reconstruction, and provide more public services to enable the local people to enjoy the benefits of peaceful development.

(三)坚持共商共建优势互补,构筑新型维和伙伴关系

3. Pursuing Extensive Consultation, Joint Contribution, and Mutual Complementarity and Building a New Type of Peacekeeping Partnership

出兵国和出资国都是维和行动的重要贡献者。各国在维和领域应承担起各自应有责任,按照共商共建原则,优势互补,形成合力。中国支持联合国积极构筑维和伙伴关系,加强安理会、秘书处同出兵国和当事国在维和行动方面的协调,加强与区域和次区域组织在维和方面的分工协作。中国军队将积极响应联合国倡导的三方合作机制,在技术、装备、人员、资金等方面为其他出兵国以及区域或次区域组织维和行动提供力所能及的支持。

Both TCCs and FCCs are important contributors to the UNPKOs. In peacekeeping, all countries should shoulder their respective responsibilities, follow the principles of consultation and collaboration, and leverage each other’s strengths for greater synergy. China supports the UN’s efforts to improve peacekeeping partnerships by strengthening coordination among the Security Council, the Secretariat, TCCs and host nations, and optimizing the UN’s coordination and collaboration with regional and sub-regional organizations. China’s armed forces will actively respond to the triangular cooperation initiated by the UN, and provide all possible support to other TCCs and regional and sub-regional organizations in terms of technology, equipment, personnel and funding.

(四)支持改进安理会维和授权,全面提升维和行动效能

4. Supporting the UN Efforts to Refine Security Council Mandates and Improve Peacekeeping Effectiveness

安理会授权是维和特派团开展行动的依据和指南,是决定维和行动合法性和有效性的关键因素。制定和更新维和行动授权,要综合考虑当事国国情和实际需求,以及出兵国能力等各方面因素,并根据需求变化,不断调整各阶段优先任务和工作重点。中国支持联合国设立绩效问责机制,节约使用资源,加强高新技术运用,提高维和行动效能,确保维和行动发挥应有作用。中国支持联合国采取多种措施,帮助发展中国家加强维和维稳能力建设、提升人员素质和装备水平、增强维和部队履职能力。中国军队将继续为各国培训更多的优秀专业人才。

Security Council mandates are the basis and guidelines for UN peacekeeping missions, and a decisive factor in the legitimacy and effectiveness of the UNPKOs. When developing and renewing peacekeeping mandates, it is necessary to take into account various factors such as national conditions and the actual needs of host nations, and the capability of the TCCs. It is also important to reset the priorities and main lines of action at each phase in accordance with changing needs. China supports the establishment of an accountability mechanism for peacekeeping performance by the UN, the economic use of resources, and the employment of advanced technology with a view to improving the effectiveness of the UNPKOs and fulfilling the role they are expected to play. China is in favor of the UN measures in helping developing countries build peacekeeping and stabilization capability, improving troop and equipment capacities, and enabling peacekeeping forces to perform their duties. China’s armed forces will continue to train more excellent professionals for other countries.

(五)充分发挥能力待命机制作用,提高快速反应水平

5. Giving Full Play to the PCRS and Enhancing Rapid Response

联合国维和能力待命机制是快速应对危机冲突的重要保障。中国支持联合国推动维和能力待命机制建设,优先选择和部署符合联合国标准的待命部队。中国军队将按照相关机制建设要求,继续加强8000人规模维和待命部队建设,保持高水平待命状态,可根据需要派遣水面舰艇、快反等多种类型部队参加维和行动。

The PCRS is an important guarantee for the UN’s rapid response to crises and conflicts. China supports the UN in strengthening the PCRS and will first select and deploy the units of the standby force that meet the UN standards. China’s armed forces will follow the PCRS criteria, continue to build the 8,000-troop peacekeeping standby force and maintain a high level of preparedness. Surface ships, rapid response units and other capabilities can be provided to the UNPKOs if needed.

(六)积极应对多种风险威胁,切实保障维和人员安全

6. Proactively Addressing Risks and Threats and Ensuring the Safety and Security of Peacekeepers

维和行动环境日益恶化和复杂,只有确保维和人员自身安全,才能更有效地执行联合国安理会授权。中国主张维和行动应系统性应对日益增长的传统及非传统安全威胁,支持联合国综合施策,加强信息搜集和分享,提高预警和威胁感知能力,改善安防装备和设施,提升医疗救护水平,加强传染病防治应对,全方位保障维和人员的安全与健康。

The operational environment of the UN missions is becoming more hostile and complicated. Only by ensuring the personal safety and security of peacekeepers can the mandates of UN Security Council be effectively fulfilled. With a view to fully protecting the safety, security and health of peacekeepers, China advocates a systematic approach to addressing the increasing traditional and non-traditional security threats, and stands for comprehensive UN solutions to strengthen information collection and sharing, reinforce early warning and risk awareness, upgrade security equipment and facilities, improve medical services, and enhance the prevention and control of infectious diseases.

结束语

Closing Remarks

75年前,世界人民经过浴血奋战,付出巨大代价和牺牲,取得了反法西斯战争胜利,建立了以联合国为核心的国际体系。回顾历史,更加感受到和平的来之不易和守护和平的艰难。当前,人类正站在何去何从的十字路口,和平还是战争,合作还是对抗,进步还是倒退,是各国需要面对的重大课题。

Seventy-five years ago, people across the world won an epic victory against fascism, following a heroic struggle and huge sacrifice. A UN-centered international system was then established. Looking back through history, people are more keenly aware that peace has not come easily and to safeguard it requires great effort. At present, humanity is at a crossroads: Peace or war, cooperation or confrontation, progress or regress – these are significant choices that all countries need to make.

和平需要争取,和平需要维护。中国坚定不移走和平发展道路,也希望各国都走和平发展道路。只有各国都走和平发展道路,才能共同发展、和平相处,世界才能真正实现和平。中国军队将一如既往支持联合国维和行动,履行守护和平的庄严承诺,给冲突地区带去更多信心,让当地人民看到更大希望。中国愿同所有爱好和平的国家一道,坚定捍卫和践行多边主义,坚定维护以联合国为核心的国际体系,坚定维护以《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则为基石的国际关系基本准则,推动构建人类命运共同体,携手建设更加美好的世界。

Peace needs to be fought for and safeguarded. China is firmly committed to the path of peaceful development, and hopes that other countries will also pursue peaceful development. Only when all countries do so, can common development, peaceful coexistence, and world peace be secured. As always, China’s armed forces will continue to provide unfailing support for the UNPKOs, fulfill their commitments to safeguarding peace, and bring greater confidence and hope to conflict-ridden areas and local people. China is ready to join hands with all peace-loving nations to champion and pursue multilateralism, and uphold the international system centered on the UN and the basic norms of international relations underpinned by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. China will exert itself in building a community with a shared future for mankind, and in making the world a better place.

附录1 中国军队参加联合国维和行动大事记

Annex I Timeline of Activities in UNPKOs

1990年4月,中国军队向联合国停战监督组织派遣5名军事观察员,开启中国军队参加联合国维和行动的序幕。

In April 1990, China’s armed forces dispatched five military observers to UNTSO and embarked on a new voyage as a participant in the UNPKOs.

1992年4月,中国军队向联合国柬埔寨临时权力机构派出由400名官兵组成的维和工程兵大队,首次成建制参加联合国维和行动。

In April 1992, China’s armed forces dispatched an engineer unit of 400 troops to UNTAC. This was the first formed military unit committed by China to the UNPKOs.

2000年9月,中国国家主席江泽民出席联合国安理会首脑会议,就安理会的作用、联合国维和行动及非洲问题等发表讲话。

In September 2000, Chinese President Jiang Zemin addressed the UN Security Council summit and expanded on China’s stance on the functions of the Security Council, the UNPKOs and African issues.

2001年12月,中国国防部维和事务办公室成立,负责协调和管理军队维和工作,开展对外维和事务交流等任务。

In December 2001, the Peacekeeping Affairs Office of the MND of the PRC was established. The office took on the responsibility for coordinating and managing the peacekeeping affairs of China’s armed forces, and conducting international peacekeeping exchanges.

2002年2月,中国正式加入联合国一级维和待命安排机制,指定1个工程建筑营、1个二级医院和2个运输连为联合国待命安排部队,承诺在接到联合国派兵请求后90天内部署到维和任务区。

In February 2002, China officially joined the United Nations Standby Arrangement System (UNSAS) level 1 and specified one engineer battalion, one level-2 hospital and two transport companies as UN peacekeeping standby units. These were pledged to deploy to mission areas within 90 days of a request made by the UN.

2003年4月,中国军队向联合国刚果民主共和国特派团派出维和分队,包括1支175人工兵分队和1支43人医疗分队。

In April 2003, China’s armed forces dispatched an engineer unit of 175 troops and a medical unit of 43 troops to MONUC.

2003年12月,中国军队向联合国利比里亚特派团派出维和部队,包括1支275人工兵分队、1支240人运输分队和1支43人医疗分队。

In December 2003, China’s armed forces dispatched an engineer unit of 275 troops, a transport unit of 240 troops and a medical unit of 43 troops to UNMIL.

2006年4月,中国军队向联合国驻黎巴嫩临时部队派出1支182人工兵分队。

In April 2006, China’s armed forces dispatched an engineer unit of 182 troops to UNIFIL.

2006年5月,中国军队向联合国苏丹特派团派出维和部队,包括1支275人工兵分队、1支100人运输分队和1支60人医疗分队。

In May 2006, China’s armed forces dispatched an engineer unit of 275 troops, a transport unit of 100 troops and a medical unit of 60 troops to UNMIS.

2007年1月,中国军队向联合国驻黎巴嫩临时部队增派1支60人医疗分队,并将工兵分队扩编至275人。

In January 2007, China’s armed forces dispatched an additional medical unit of 60 troops to UNIFIL and expanded the engineer unit to 275 troops.

2007年2月,中国国家主席胡锦涛在对利比里亚进行国事访问期间,视察慰问在当地执行维和任务的中国官兵,并题词:“忠实履行使命,维护世界和平”。

In February 2007, during his state visit to Liberia, Chinese President Hu Jintao visited China’s peacekeeping troops deployed on the UN mission there, and wrote words of encouragement: “Fulfill missions faithfully and safeguard world peace.”

2007年9月,赵京民少将就任联合国西撒哈拉全民投票特派团司令,成为首位担任联合国维和部队高级指挥官的中国军人。

In September 2007, Major General Zhao Jingmin was appointed as Force Commander of MINURSO. He was the first Chinese military officer to assume a senior command position in the UN peacekeeping forces.

2007年11月,中国军队向非盟-联合国达尔富尔混合行动派出1支315人多功能工兵分队,成为第一支进驻该地区的联合国维和部队。

In November 2007, China’s armed forces dispatched a multipurpose engineer unit of 315 troops to UNAMID. The unit was the first UN peacekeeping force to enter the mission area.

2009年6月,中国国防部维和中心成立,担负中国军队维和培训、理论研究、国际合作与交流等任务。

In June 2009, the Peacekeeping Center of the MND of the PRC was established, which took over the responsibility for peacekeeping training, research and international cooperation for China’s armed forces.

2009年6月至7月,中国军队与蒙古国军队首次举行代号为“维和使命-2009”的维和联合训练,这是中国军队首次与外军开展维和联合训练。

From June to July 2009, China’s armed forces held a joint exercise codenamed Peacekeeping Mission-2009 with their Mongolian counterparts. This was China’s first joint peacekeeping exercise with a foreign force.

2010年9月,中国国防部维和事务办公室与联合国维和行动部在中国北京共同举办“联合国维和特派团高级官员国际培训班”,这是中国军队首次举办维和高级培训。

In September 2010, the Peacekeeping Affairs Office of the MND of the PRC and the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (UNDPO) co-hosted the UN Senior Mission Leaders’ Course in Beijing, China – the first senior-level peacekeeping training program held by China’s armed forces.

2011年3月,中国国防部维和事务办公室与联合国维和行动部首次共同举办“联合国维和教官国际培训班”。

In March 2011, UN Training of Trainers Course was co-hosted by the Peacekeeping Affairs Office of the MND of the PRC and the UNDPO for the first time.

2011年7月,中国赴联合国苏丹特派团维和工兵分队和维和医疗分队转隶新成立的联合国南苏丹特派团,维和运输分队完成任务回撤归国。

In July 2011, Chinese engineer and medical units committed to UNMIS were transferred to the newly-established UNMISS. The transport unit completed its tasks and returned home.

2013年6月,联合国秘书长潘基文访华期间参观访问中国国防部维和中心。

In June 2013, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon paid a visit to China, during which he visited the Peacekeeping Center of the MND of the PRC.

2013年12月,中国军队向联合国马里多层面综合稳定特派团派遣维和部队,包括1支155人工兵分队、1支170人警卫分队和1支70人医疗分队。

In December 2013, China’s armed forces dispatched an engineer unit of 155 troops, a force protection unit of 170 troops and a medical unit of 70 troops to MINUSMA.

2014年10月,中国国防部维和事务办公室、中国国际战略学会、瑞典伯纳德特学院在北京举办“和平行动挑战论坛”2014年年会,联合国和19个国家共86名代表参加。

In October 2014, the Peacekeeping Affairs Office of the MND of the PRC hosted the International Forum for the Challenges of Peace Operations 2014 in collaboration with the China Institute for International Strategic Studies and Folke Bernadotte Academy of Sweden. Eighty-six delegates from the UN and 19 countries participated in the event.

2015年1月,中国军队首次向联合国南苏丹特派团派遣1支700人维和步兵营。

In January 2015, China’s armed forces dispatched the first infantry battalion of 700 troops to UNMISS.

2015年4月,中国与越南两国国防部长在北京签署两国国防部维和领域合作备忘录。

In April 2015, the defense ministers of China and Vietnam signed an MOU on peacekeeping cooperation.

2015年5月,中国军队向联合国驻黎巴嫩临时部队增派1支200人建筑工兵分队。

In May 2015, China’s armed forces dispatched an additional construction engineer unit of 200 troops to UNIFIL.

2015年6月,中国军队首次派实兵赴蒙古国参加“可汗探索”多国维和演习。

In June 2015, China’s armed forces sent troops to participate for the first time in the Khan Quest multinational peacekeeping exercise in Mongolia.

2015年6月,中国国防部维和事务办公室与联合国妇女署共同举办保护平民国际培训班。

In June 2015, the UN Peacekeeping Operations Protection of Civilians Course was co-hosted by the Peacekeeping Affairs Office of the MND of the PRC and the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women).

2015年9月,中国国家主席习近平出席联合国维和峰会并发表讲话,提出中国支持和改进联合国维和行动的4点主张和6项承诺。

In September 2015, Chinese President Xi Jinping addressed the Leaders’ Summit on Peacekeeping at UNHQ and put forth four propositions and six measures that China would take to support and improve the UNPKOs.

2015年11月,中国军队在联合国总部举办“为和平而来——中国军队参加联合国维和行动25周年图片展”。

In November 2015, China’s armed forces held a photo exhibition entitled “In Course of Peace – Celebrating the 25th Anniversary of China’s Armed Forces in UN Peacekeeping Operations” at UNHQ.

2016年7月,联合国秘书长潘基文访华期间,参观访问中国军队首批赴苏丹达尔富尔维和直升机分队。

In July 2016, during his visit to China, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon visited the first peacekeeping helicopter unit to be dispatched to Sudan’s Darfur by China’s armed forces.

2017年1月,中国国家主席习近平在联合国日内瓦总部出席“共商共筑人类命运共同体”高级别会议,发表题为《共同构建人类命运共同体》的主旨演讲,深刻、全面、系统阐述人类命运共同体理念。

In January 2017, Chinese President Xi Jinping delivered a keynote speech entitled “Work Together to Build a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind” and provided a profound, comprehensive and systematic analysis of the vision of building a community with a shared future for mankind at the UN Office at Geneva.

2017年6月,中国军队首次向非盟-联合国达尔富尔混合行动派遣1支140人维和直升机分队。

In June 2017, China’s armed forces dispatched the first helicopter unit of 140 troops to UNAMID.

2017年9月,中国军队8000人规模维和待命部队完成在联合国注册。

In September 2017, the 8,000-strong Chinese peacekeeping standby force completed its PCRS registration.

2017年12月,中国以副主席国身份主持《联合国维和军事情报手册》编写工作。

In December 2017, as deputy chair of the expert working group, China hosted the drafting of UN Military Peacekeeping-Intelligence Handbook.

2018年5月,中国与巴基斯坦在伊斯兰堡签署维和行动政策合作议定书。

In May 2018, China and Pakistan signed a protocol on policy collaboration with regard to the UNPKOs in Islamabad.

2018年6月,中国国防部维和事务办公室改编为中国国防部维和事务中心,中国国防部维和中心改编为中国国防部维和事务中心培训基地。

In June 2018, the Peacekeeping Affairs Office was restructured into the Peacekeeping Affairs Center of the MND of the PRC, and the Peacekeeping Center into the Training Base of the Peacekeeping Affairs Center of the MND of the PRC.

2018年9月,中国维和部队官兵代表应邀出席中非合作论坛北京峰会。

In September 2018, representatives of China’s peacekeeping troops attended the 2018 Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC).

2018年10月,中国13支维和待命分队通过联合国考察评估晋升至二级待命等级。

In October 2018, 13 units of the Chinese peacekeeping standby force passed the UN assessment and were elevated to PCRS Level 2.

2018年12月,中国以副主席国身份主持《联合国维和工兵分队手册》修订工作。

In December 2018, as deputy chair of the expert working group, China hosted the updating of the United Nations Peacekeeping Missions Military Engineer Unit Manual.

2019年至2020年,中国先后有6支二级维和待命分队通过联合国审核晋升至三级待命等级。

In 2019 and 2020, six units of the Chinese peacekeeping standby force passed the UN assessment and were elevated from PCRS Level 2 to Level 3.

2019年10月,庆祝中华人民共和国成立70周年大会在北京隆重举行,维和部队方队首次在国庆阅兵中接受检阅。

In October 2019, a grand celebration was held in Beijing to mark the 70th anniversary of the founding of the PRC. The Chinese military peacekeepers were reviewed by the country and the people for the first time in a National Day military parade.

文章来源:新华网

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