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文章来源:新华网 发布时间:2020-09-22 17:27 作者:admin 点击:

新疆的劳动就业保障

Employment and Labor Rights in Xinjiang

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

2020年9月

September 2020

目录

Contents

前言

Preface

一、新疆劳动就业的基本状况

I. Employment in Xinjiang

二、大力实施积极的就业政策

II. Proactive Employment Policies

三、充分尊重劳动者的就业意愿

III. Full Respect for Workers’ Job Preferences

四、依法保障劳动者的基本权利

IV. Labor Rights Protection

五、劳动就业创造美好生活

V. Better Jobs for Better Lives

六、积极践行国际劳工和人权标准

VI. Application of International Labor and Human Rights Standards

结束语

Conclusion

前言

Preface

劳动是人的存在方式,也是人类的本质活动。劳动创造美好生活,促进人的全面发展和人类文明进步。《中华人民共和国宪法》赋予公民劳动的权利和义务。保障劳动权就是维护人的尊严,就是保障人权。

Work creates the means of existence and is an essential human activity. It creates a better life and enables all-round human development and the progress of civilization. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China provides that all citizens have the right and obligation to work. To protect the right to work is to safeguard human dignity and human rights.

中国是人口大国,也是劳动力大国。做好劳动就业保障工作,关系劳动者基本权利和生活幸福,关系经济发展、社会和谐,关系国家繁荣、民族复兴。中国坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,高度重视劳动就业保障工作,大力实施就业优先战略和积极的就业政策。充分尊重劳动者意愿,依法保障公民劳动权利,积极践行国际劳工和人权标准,努力使人人都能通过辛勤劳动创造幸福生活、实现自身发展。

China has a large population and workforce. Employment and job security are key to guaranteeing workers’ basic rights and wellbeing, and have a significant impact on economic development, social harmony, national prosperity, and the nation’s rejuvenation. China is committed to the people-centered philosophy of development, attaches great importance to job security, gives high priority to employment, and pursues a proactive set of policies on employment. It fully respects the wishes of workers, protects citizens’ right to work in accordance with the law, applies international labor and human rights standards, and strives to enable everyone to create a happy life and achieve their own development through hard work.

按照国家关于劳动就业的大政方针和打赢脱贫攻坚战的总体部署,中国新疆把促进劳动就业作为最大的民生工程、民心工程、根基工程,坚持把劳动者自主就业、市场调节就业、政府促进就业和鼓励创业相结合,多渠道增加就业,千方百计稳定就业。通过积极的劳动就业政策,新疆各族人民物质文化生活水平不断提高,各项人权得到有效保障和发展,为确保新疆各族群众同全中国人民一道迈入全面小康社会、实现新疆社会稳定和长治久安打下了坚实基础。

In accordance with the country’s major policies on employment and the overall plan for eliminating poverty, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region takes the facilitation of employment as the most fundamental project for ensuring and improving people’s wellbeing. It has made every effort to increase and stabilize employment through various channels: encouraging individual initiative, regulatory role of the market, and government policies facilitating employment, entrepreneurship, and business startups. Through its proactive labor and employment policies, Xinjiang has continuously improved the people’s material and cultural lives, and guaranteed and developed their human rights in every field. This has laid a solid foundation for ensuring that the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang have the opportunity to enjoy moderate prosperity in all respects and achieve long-term social stability together with their fellow countrymen and countrywomen in other parts of China.

一、新疆劳动就业的基本状况

I. Employment in Xinjiang

新疆地处中国西北边陲,长期以来,受历史和自然等因素的影响,发展相对滞后,贫困人口较多。特别是南疆四地州(和田地区、喀什地区、阿克苏地区、克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州)生态环境恶劣,经济基础薄弱,就业承载能力严重不足,是国家确定的深度贫困地区。加之长期以来暴力恐怖势力、民族分裂势力、宗教极端势力鼓吹“来世天定”“教法大于国法”,煽动广大群众抵制学习国家通用语言文字,排斥现代科学知识,拒绝学习掌握就业技能、改善经济条件、提升自我发展能力,导致一些群众思想观念落后,文化程度不高,就业能力不足,就业率较低,收入十分有限,生活陷入长期贫困。

Xinjiang is located in the northwest of China. For historical and a range of natural reasons, it has long lagged behind other parts of the country in development, and there is a large impoverished population. The four prefectures in southern Xinjiang, namely, Hotan, Kashgar, Aksu and Kizilsu Kirgiz, in particular have a poor eco-environment, weak economic foundations, and a serious shortfall in employment carrying capacity. They are identified as areas of extreme poverty. In addition, terrorists, separatists and religious extremists have long preached that “the afterlife is fated” and that “religious teachings are superior to state laws”, inciting the public to resist learning the standard spoken and written Chinese language, reject modern science, and refuse to improve their vocational skills, economic conditions, and the ability to better their own lives. As a result, some local people have outdated ideas; they suffer from poor education and employability, low employment rates and incomes, and have fallen into long-term poverty.

做好劳动就业工作,对于保障各族人民劳动就业权利、发展和改善民生、促进社会和谐稳定意义重大。特别是2012年中共十八大以来,新疆大力实施就业惠民工程,持续加大就业培训力度,积极拓宽就业渠道,有效扩大就业容量,就业形势持续向好,各族群众收入水平不断提升、生活质量越来越高,获得感、幸福感、安全感显著增强。

Employment and job security carries great significance for ensuring people’s right to work, improving their living standards, and promoting social harmony and stability. Especially since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in 2012, Xinjiang has vigorously implemented employment projects, enhanced vocational training, and expanded employment channels and capacity. Thanks to these efforts, the employment situation in Xinjiang has continued to improve, people’s incomes and quality of life are rising, and their sense of gain, happiness and security has significantly increased.

政策体系进一步健全。近年来,新疆贯彻落实国家稳就业促就业决策部署,顺应人民呼声并结合自身实际,制定了《新疆维吾尔自治区党委 自治区人民政府关于进一步促进就业创业工作的意见》《新疆维吾尔自治区人民政府关于做好当前和今后一段时期就业创业工作的实施意见》《新疆维吾尔自治区“十三五”促进就业规划》等文件,在经济发展、财政保障、税收优惠、金融支持和城乡、区域、群体统筹,以及支持灵活就业、帮助困难群体就业等方面,作出系统安排,为促进劳动就业、维护劳动者权益提供了坚实的制度保障。

Policies have further improved. In recent years, to implement the national policies and strategies for stabilizing and facilitating employment and respond to calls from the public and local conditions, Xinjiang has successively formulated the Opinions of the CPC Committee and the People’s Government of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Further Facilitating Employment and Business Startups, the Opinions of the People’s Government of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Facilitating Employment and Business Startups Now and in the Future, and the 13th Five-Year Plan of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region for Facilitating Employment. Systematic arrangements have been made in the areas of economic development, governmental financial guarantees, tax incentives, support from the financial sector, and overall planning of urban and rural areas, different regions, and diverse groups, as well as in supporting flexible employment and helping groups in need to find jobs. All these provide a solid institutional guarantee for facilitating employment and safeguarding the rights and interests of workers.

就业规模不断扩大。聚焦劳动就业重点群体和深度贫困地区,引导各族群众就地就近就业、有序进城就业和自主创业,扎实推进贫困劳动力转移就业。2014年至2019年,新疆的劳动就业总人数从1135.24万人增加到1330.12万人,增长17.2%;年均新增城镇就业47.12万人以上,其中,南疆地区14.8万人,占比31.4%;年均农村富余劳动力转移就业276.3万人次以上,其中,南疆地区167.8万人次,占比60%以上。

The scale of employment has expanded continuously. Xinjiang focuses on areas of extreme poverty and key groups with difficulty finding work. It guides people of all ethnic groups to find work nearby, or to locate jobs or start their own businesses in cities, and encourages the impoverished workforce to seek employment outside their hometowns. From 2014 to 2019, the total number of people employed in Xinjiang rose from 11.35 million to 13.3 million, an increase of 17.2 percent. The average annual increase in urban employment was more than 471,200 people (148,000 in southern Xinjiang, accounting for 31.4 percent); and the average annual relocation of surplus rural labor was more than 2.76 million people, of whom nearly 1.68 million, or over 60 percent, were in southern Xinjiang.

就业结构更趋合理。以推进供给侧结构性改革为主线,坚持一产上水平、二产抓重点、三产大发展,培育壮大特色优势产业和劳动密集型产业,引导劳动力向第三产业有序流动。从三次产业分布看,就业人员占比2014年为45.4∶16.0∶38.6,2019年为36.4∶14.1∶49.5,其中,第三产业就业人员占比提高了10.9个百分点,成为吸纳就业最多的产业。从城乡分布看,越来越多农村富余劳动力向城镇流动,城镇吸纳就业能力进一步增强。2014年城镇就业人数535.4万人,2019年增加至734.17万人,占全部就业人员的55.2%。

The employment structure has become more rational. Xinjiang considers supply-side structural reform as a key priority, and endeavors to raise the level of the primary industry, focus on key projects in the secondary industry, and boost the tertiary industry. It nurtures and strengthens industries with distinctive strengths and labor-intensive industries, and guides the orderly flow of labor to the tertiary industry. In terms of workforce distribution across the three industries, the ratio in 2014 was 45.4: 16.0: 38.6, which evolved to 36.4: 14.1: 49.5 in 2019. The tertiary industry saw an increase of 10.9 percentage points, making it the most job-intensive sector. In terms of workforce distribution in urban and rural areas, surplus rural labor is increasingly moving to cities and towns, and the ability of these places to absorb workforce has been strengthened. The number of people employed in cities and towns increased from 5.35 million in 2014 to 7.34 million in 2019, accounting for 55.2 percent of the total.

劳动力素质明显提升。通过实施教育惠民工程,新疆的学前教育、九年义务教育、高中阶段教育、高等教育、职业教育均达历史最高水平。2019年,普通高等教育在校生45.38万人,比2014年增加14.62万人;中等教育在校生184.36万人,比2014年增加14.76万人。通过开展就业技能培训,培养造就了一支新时代知识型、技能型、创新型劳动者大军。据统计,2014年至2019年,全疆年均培训城乡各类劳动者128.8万人次,其中,南疆地区年均培训45.14万人次。参训人员至少掌握1项就业技能,绝大多数取得了职业资格证书、职业技能等级证书或专项职业能力证书,实现稳定就业。

The quality of the workforce has improved significantly. Thanks to the government’s education projects, enrollments in preschool education, nine-year compulsory education, senior high school education, higher education and vocational education in Xinjiang have all reached the highest level in history. In 2019, there were 453,800 full-time students studying at universities and colleges (an increase of 146,200 over 2014), and 1.84 million students studying at secondary schools (an increase of 147,600 over 2014). Through vocational training, Xinjiang has built a large knowledge-based, skilled and innovative workforce that meets the requirements of the new era. Every year from 2014 to 2019 Xinjiang provided training sessions to an average of 1.29 million urban and rural workers, of which 451,400 were in southern Xinjiang. The trainees mastered at least one skill with employment potential, and the vast majority of them obtained vocational qualifications, skill level certificates, or specialized skill certificates, allowing them to go on to find stable employment.

居民和职工收入稳步增长。2014年至2019年,新疆维吾尔自治区城镇居民人均可支配收入由2.32万元增至3.47万元,年均名义增长8.6%,农村居民人均可支配收入由8724元增至1.31万元,年均名义增长8.9%;新疆生产建设兵团城镇居民人均可支配收入由2.76万元增至4.07万元,年均名义增长8.5%,连队居民人均可支配收入由1.39万元增至2.2万元,年均名义增长9.9%。全疆城镇非私营单位就业人员年均工资由5.35万元增至7.94万元,年均增长8.4%;城镇私营单位就业人员年均工资由3.62万元增至4.59万元,年均增长5.4%。2018年至2019年,南疆地区及兵团四个深度贫困团场有15.5万名建档立卡贫困家庭劳动力转移就业并实现了脱贫。

The income of residents and workers has increased steadily. From 2014 to 2019, the per capita disposable income of residents in Xinjiang increased as follows:

urban residents: from RMB23,200 to RMB34,700 (an average annual nominal growth of 8.6 percent);

rural residents: from RMB8,724 to RMB13,100 (an average annual nominal growth of 8.9 percent);

urban residents in areas under the administration of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (a special entity entrusted by the state to cultivate and guard China’s border area in Xinjiang): from RMB27,600 to RMB40,700 (an average annual nominal growth of 8.5 percent);

residents of the company residence areas of the Corps: from RMB13,900 to RMB22,000 (an average annual nominal growth of 9.9 percent);

average annual salary of employees in non-private sectors in cities and towns: from RMB53,500 to RMB79,400 (an annual growth of 8.4 percent);

average annual salary of employees in private sectors in cities and towns: from RMB36,200 to RMB45,900 (an annual growth of 5.4 percent).

From 2018 to 2019, 155,000 people from registered poor households in southern Xinjiang and in four impoverished regimental farms of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps found employment outside their hometowns and subsequently emerged from poverty.

事实说明,近年来新疆的劳动就业保障工作取得了显著成效,总体态势良好。但也要看到,还面临经济发展底子薄、农村富余劳动力人数多、就业技能水平低等困难和挑战。进一步优化产业结构、提升劳动力素质、转变思想观念,是解决新疆劳动就业的一项长期任务。

The above statistics show that, in recent years, Xinjiang has achieved remarkable results in providing employment services and job security to the residents, and the overall situation is good. However, it should be noted that Xinjiang is still faced with difficulties and challenges including a weak foundation for economic development, a large labor surplus in rural areas, and a low level of vocational skills. To solve its problem of employment in the long term, Xinjiang must further optimize the industrial structure, improve the quality of the workforce, and change people’s outdated mindset.

二、大力实施积极的就业政策

II. Implementation of Proactive Policies on Employment

近年来,新疆更加注重制定实施有利于扩大就业的经济社会发展战略,及时健全完善各项促进就业政策,努力实现劳动者稳定就业、持续就业、长期就业。

In recent years, Xinjiang has formulated and put in place economic and social development strategies conducive to expanding employment, and has improved various policies to facilitate employment, with the goal of helping local people achieve stable, continuous, and long-term employment.

优化产业结构扩充就业容量。紧紧抓住“一带一路”建设机遇,完善多元化产业体系,既注重发展资本、技术和知识密集的先进制造业和新兴产业,又大力发展纺织服装、消费电子、鞋帽箱包等劳动密集型产业,以及电子商务、文化创意、全域旅游、健康养老等现代服务业,着力拓展就业空间,扩大就业规模。2012年成立的新疆准东经济技术开发区,立足优势资源转换,大力发展新材料、新能源等六大产业,截至2019年底,已吸纳8万余人就业。2014年以来,国家大力支持新疆纺织业发展,仅2017年至2019年全疆纺织服装产业新增就业35万人。喀什地区重点发展农副产品加工、电子产品组装等产业,积极引进和培育相关企业入驻园区并向乡村生产车间延伸。截至2019年底,该地区有农副产品加工企业210家,吸纳就业1.67万人,各类园区落户工业企业1406家,吸纳就业8.41万人。阿克苏地区加强产教融合,推动纺织服装企业与职业院校联合办学,带动3.24万人就业。

Upgrading the industrial structure to increase employment. Xinjiang has seized the development opportunities brought by the Belt and Road Initiative to diversify its industrial structure, promoting capital-, technology- and knowledge-intensive advanced manufacturing industries and emerging industries, boosting labor-intensive industries such as textiles and garments, shoes and accessories, and consumer electronics, and encouraging modern service industries such as e-commerce, cultural and creative businesses, all-area-advancing tourism, health care, and elderly care, all with a view to expanding the capacity and scale of employment.

In 2012, Xinjiang Zhundong Economic and Technological Development Zone was established, utilizing competitive resources to develop six pillar industries, including new materials and new energy. By the end of 2019, the development zone was providing employment for more than 80,000 people. Since 2014, the state has given strong support to Xinjiang’s textiles industry, which created 350,000 new jobs from 2017 to 2019.

帮助重点群体实现稳定就业。对农村富余劳动力,重点实施就地就近就业政策,因地制宜建立乡村“卫星工厂”“扶贫车间”吸纳就业,扶持农村劳务合作组织带动就业,推动产业(工业)园区稳定就业,发展旅游产业促进就业。聚焦南疆地区22个深度贫困县和兵团四个深度贫困团场,实施就业扶贫三年规划,2018年至2020年6月,累计帮助22.1万名建档立卡贫困家庭劳动力转移就业。在喀什、和田两个地区,实施城乡富余劳动力转移就业三年规划,2017年至2019年,累计帮助13.5万人转移就业。在全疆对就业困难人员和零就业家庭,实行实名动态管理和分类精准帮扶,做到“出现一户,认定一户,帮扶一户,稳定一户”。2014年至2019年,累计帮助33.43万名城镇就业困难人员实现就业,确保零就业家庭24小时动态清零。对高校毕业生,实施就业创业促进计划、基层成长计划、“三支一扶”计划、青年就业启航计划等,引导和鼓励毕业生到基层就业、到企业就业和自主创业。2019年,新疆高校应届毕业生就业率达90.36%,返疆内地高校新疆籍少数民族毕业生就业率达95.08%,均创历史新高。

Prioritizing the development of agro-product processing and electronics assembly, Kashgar Prefecture has attracted related enterprises to its industrial development zones (IDZs) and helped them expand their production to rural areas. By the end of 2019, the prefecture had 210 agro-product processing enterprises providing 16,700 jobs, and 1,406 industrial enterprises located in the various IDZs providing 84,100 jobs.

Aksu Prefecture has been integrating industry and vocational education, offering joint education programs by textile and garment enterprises and vocational schools, and has facilitated employment for 32,400 people.

Assisting key groups to obtain stable employment. Xinjiang has adopted a policy to encourage surplus rural labor to work in or near their hometowns, developing “satellite factories” and “poverty alleviation workshops” in light of local conditions to create jobs, supporting rural organizations for labor service cooperation to facilitate employment, promoting IDZs to stabilize employment, and developing tourism to boost employment.

Xinjiang has launched a three-year program to intensify its poverty alleviation efforts in 22 extremely poor counties in its south and 4 extremely poor regimental farms under the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. From 2018 to June 2020, the local government helped 221,000 people from registered poor households in southern Xinjiang to find work outside their hometowns. In Kashgar and Hotan prefectures, a three-year relocation assistance program from 2017 to 2019 for both urban and rural surplus labor helped 135,000 people to find jobs outside their hometowns.

Xinjiang has provided dynamic, categorized and targeted assistance to people having difficulty finding work and to zero-employment households in the entire autonomous region – having each and every one of them identified, registered, assisted, and ensured stable employment. From 2014 to 2019, Xinjiang provided jobs for 334,300 urban residents having difficulty finding work, and ensured that zero-employment households found jobs within 24 hours once they were identified.

For university graduates, Xinjiang has implemented a number of plans to facilitate employment and the creation of new businesses, to guide them to work and grow at primary-level organizations, to encourage them to take up primary-level posts in education, agriculture, health care, and poverty alleviation in rural areas, and to help long-term unemployed youth find jobs. In 2019, the employment rate of university graduates in Xinjiang reached 90.4 percent, and the employment rate of ethnic minorities who graduated from universities in other parts of China and returned to Xinjiang reached 95.1 percent, both figures representing record highs.

支持创新创业带动就业。把创新作为扩大就业的新引擎,大力推进放管服改革,降低市场准入门槛,持续完善创业扶持政策,落实创业担保贷款及贴息、自主创业补贴、税费减免,支持有意愿、有条件的创业者创业。培育创新创业载体,加强创业服务能力建设,加快发展市场化、专业化、集成化、网络化的众创空间,为创业者提供更多的创业平台和均等化服务。目前,新疆已建设国家级创业孵化示范基地5个,自治区级(兵团级)创业孵化示范基地27个,累计孵化小微企业1412家,带动就业10121人。培育支持吸纳就业能力强的创新型创业企业和带头人,鼓励发展“互联网+创业”,切实发挥创业带动就业的倍增效应。2019年,仅和田地区发放创业担保贷款9.1亿元,帮助高校毕业生、农村劳动力、就业困难人员等1.25万人创业。昌吉市萧民等6名妇女在当地人社部门的扶持下,创办了新疆巾帼众心人力资源服务有限公司,逐步成长为集人力资源服务、劳务派遣、后勤托管、政策咨询、信息化建设等多项业务为一体的劳务产业供应链龙头企业,有各族员工4800多人,为全疆318家企事业单位提供劳务服务,累计安置失业人员、农村富余劳动力3万多人次,实现总产值1.56亿元。

Encouraging innovation and entrepreneurship to generate employment. Xinjiang promotes innovation as a new engine for creating jobs, and advances reform to streamline administration, delegate power, improve regulation and upgrade services. To encourage people who are eager and eligible to start their own businesses, the local government eases market access, improves policies in support of business startups, and sees to it that guaranteed loans, interest subsidies, allowances and tax breaks for startups are implemented. Xinjiang fosters platforms for innovation and entrepreneurship, improves capacity building for startups, and develops makerspaces which are market-oriented, professional, integrated and networked, to provide young entrepreneurs with more platforms and equal access to services.

Currently, Xinjiang has 5 business incubation demonstration bases at national level and 27 at provincial and equivalent level, which have fostered 1,412 micro and small businesses and created more than 10,000 jobs. Xinjiang supports innovation-driven startups and entrepreneurs as capable job creators, and encourages Internet plus entrepreneurship to multiply employment opportunities.

In 2019, Hotan Prefecture alone issued RMB910 million guaranteed loans for business startups, which helped 12,500 people to start businesses, including university graduates, rural workers and people having difficulty finding work. Xiao Min and five other women from Changji City, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture founded a human resources service company. It has become a leader of the local labor supply chain, integrating human resource services, dispatch of labor, logistics outsourcing, policy consultancy, and IT application. It has more than 4,800 employees from various ethnic groups and serves 318 enterprises and public institutions across the whole of Xinjiang. It has provided jobs for more than 30,000 unemployed and surplus rural laborers, and has created a total value of RMB156 million.

开展技能培训促进就业。根据劳动力市场需求,着眼提升劳动者就业能力、增强就业稳定性,通过发展高等职业技术学院、中等专业技术学校、技工院校、就业培训中心、企业职工培训中心、职业技能教育培训中心等职业教育和培训机构,积极开展基本劳动素质培训和订单、定岗、定向就业技能培训,构建了比较完整的职业教育和培训体系。以和田地区为例,2019年共有10.33万农牧民参加就业技能培训,实现就业9.83万人,就业率达95.16%。

Providing vocational training to facilitate employment. Based on the market demand for labor, Xinjiang focuses on improving employability of workers and promoting stable employment. It has developed a complete system of vocational education and training, including colleges for higher vocational and technical education, secondary technical schools, technical institutes, job placement training centers, employee training centers, and vocational education and training centers, with the goal of raising the basic quality of trainees and organizing training oriented to specific demands, jobs and employers. In 2019, Hotan Prefecture alone provided vocational training for 103,300 farmers and herders, of whom 98,300 found work, with an employment rate of over 95 percent.

发挥制度优势拓宽就业渠道。新疆充分发挥中华民族大家庭各民族平等互助、共同发展进步的制度优势,利用国家对口援疆机制,统筹疆内疆外就业岗位,为各族群众到内地省(市)就业积极创造条件。2014年以来,已有11.7万人转移至收入更高的内地省(市)就业。新疆按照“按需培训、先培训后输出”的原则,开展以国家通用语言文字、法律知识、城市生活常识、劳动技能等为主要内容的就业培训。转移就业人员到达就业所在地后,由企业安排住宿,提供被褥、洗漱品等日常生活用品,保障务工人员的住宿条件。部分省(市)企业还为务工人员提供公租房、廉租房、夫妻房。新疆及时为转移就业人员办理异地就业备案手续,解决转移就业人员在当地看病就医问题。内地省(市)及企业及时帮助转移就业人员解决子女入托、上学等问题,推动务工人员与当地群众共事共学共享共乐。

Leveraging institutional strengths to expand employment channels. China has institutional strengths that promote equality and mutual assistance among all ethnic groups towards common development and progress. It has also formed a mechanism in which better-developed provinces pair up with and provide assistance for various parts of Xinjiang. Fully leveraging these strengths and this mechanism, Xinjiang coordinates jobs in and outside the autonomous region, to create favorable conditions for its local residents to work in other parts of China.

Since 2014, 117,000 people in Xinjiang have achieved employment with higher income in other parts of the country. Following the principle of “providing training according to market demand and before dispatching workers”, Xinjiang has organized employment-oriented training on standard spoken and written Chinese, relevant legal knowledge, general knowhow of urban life, and labor skills. Recipients of relocation assistance are provided by their employers with daily necessities and proper accommodation. In some provinces, enterprises provide them with public rental housing, low-rent housing, or housing for couples. Xinjiang provides timely registration and certification services for those who find employment through relocation assistance, to facilitate their medical care in their host provinces. Employers and host provinces help guarantee their children’s access to kindergartens and schools, and help them integrate into local life and share local resources.

克服疫情困难稳就业保民生。针对新冠肺炎疫情带来的不利影响,新疆统筹推进疫情防控和经济社会发展,扎实做好稳就业、稳金融、稳外贸、稳外资、稳投资、稳预期工作,全面落实保居民就业、保基本民生、保市场主体、保粮食能源安全、保产业链供应链稳定、保基层运转任务,实行减负、稳岗、扩就业等多项措施,实施阶段性、有针对性的减税降费政策,积极推动企业复工达产,有效推进复商复市,着力提升投资和产业带动就业能力。截至2020年6月底,全疆共减免企业养老、失业、工伤三项社会保险费75.53亿元,大型企业减半征收18.95亿元,中小微企业全免56.58亿元。核准缓缴困难企业社会保险费7.06亿元,惠及1237家企业。为8.31万户企业返还失业保险费9.04亿元,惠及职工183.61万人。55.24万人享受各项就业补贴16.95亿元。实现城镇新增就业33.97万人,新增创业4.18万人、带动就业6.95万人,就业困难人员实现就业3.16万人。农村富余劳动力转移就业256.5万人次,同比增长46.1%。通过多措并举,新疆在常态化疫情防控条件下,取得了扩大就业、保障民生的重要阶段性成果。

Securing employment and public wellbeing in the face of Covid-19. In response to the impact of Covid-19, Xinjiang has coordinated epidemic prevention and control with social and economic development. It has worked hard to stabilize employment, finance, foreign trade, inbound investment, domestic investment, and market expectations, and has put in place measures to guarantee jobs, daily living needs, food and energy, industrial and supply chains, the interests of market players, and the smooth functioning of grassroots government. The local government has taken multiple measures to alleviate economic difficulties and stabilize and boost employment, and adopted policies offering periodical and targeted cuts in taxes and other employer contributions, aiming to facilitate the resumption of production and business activities, and increase employment generated by investment and industries.

Through all these measures, Xinjiang has achieved significant progress in increasing employment and ensuring public wellbeing while implementing Covid-19 control on an ongoing basis. This can be exemplified by the following statistics as of the end of June 2020:

cuts of some RMB7.6 billion to old-age insurance, unemployment insurance, and work-related injury compensation insurance paid by enterprises, which represents a 50 percent reduction of RMB1.9 billion for large enterprises, and a complete exemption of RMB5.7 billion for micro, small and medium enterprises.

approval to 1,237 enterprises in difficulties to postpone the payment of their social insurance premiums, totaling RMB706 million.

reimbursement of unemployment insurance premiums of RMB904 million to 83,100 enterprises, benefiting 1.8 million employees.

provision of various employment subsidies totaling about RMB1.7 billion to 552,400 people.

creation of 339,700 new jobs in cities and towns, 41,800 new businesses hiring 69,500 employees, and jobs for 31,600 people with difficulty finding work.

placement of 2.6 million surplus rural workers through relocation, a year-on-year increase of 46.1 percent.

三、充分尊重劳动者的就业意愿

III. Full Respect for Workers’ Job Preferences

新疆始终把尊重劳动者意愿作为制定就业政策、拓宽就业渠道、开发就业岗位、开展就业培训、提供就业服务的重要依据,确保广大劳动者能够自主自愿、心情舒畅地生产生活。

Workers’ job preferences have always served as an important reference for the local government of Xinjiang in designing its employment policies, expanding employment channels, creating jobs, organizing vocational training sessions, and providing placement services. This ensures that the people can make their own choices about work and enjoy a happy life.

全面了解劳动力资源状况。持续完善就业失业统计指标体系,实施农村劳动力资源定点监测、企业用工监测和人力资源市场供求情况监测,建立失业监测预警机制,依托乡镇(街道)劳动保障事务所、村(社区)劳动保障工作站,对辖区内劳动力数量、年龄、性别、文化程度、就业状况等基本信息进行摸底,根据监测和调查结果制定就业政策和规划。调查显示,截至2019年底,全疆有农村富余劳动力259.03万人,其中,南疆地区165.41万人,占比63.86%。

Forming a comprehensive picture of the local labor resources. The local government has constantly improved the statistical indicators for measuring employment and unemployment. It has put in place systems for monitoring labor resources in rural areas, employment in enterprises, and supply and demand on the human resource market, and has set up an unemployment monitoring and alert mechanism accordingly. Based on the labor offices at township/sub-district and village/community levels, local authorities have established basic information on the number, age, gender, education level, and employment status of the workforce in their respective jurisdiction. The monitoring and survey results serve as reference for formulating employment policies and plans. Surveys show that by the end of 2019, Xinjiang had a surplus rural workforce of 2.59 million people, among whom 1.65 million were in southern Xinjiang, accounting for almost two-thirds of the total.

及时掌握劳动者就业意愿和需求。定期开展劳动者就业意愿调查,及时掌握劳动者在就业地点、就业岗位、薪酬待遇、工作条件、生活环境、发展前景等方面的需求,以便提供更有针对性的服务,努力达到人岗精准匹配,促进长期稳定就业。据调查,2020年初,喀什地区莎车县古勒巴格镇奥依巴格村共有3540人,其中,有劳动能力的1509人中,1288人有转移就业意愿,占比85%。这些人员中,有923人愿到工厂车间工作,平均期望月薪5000元左右;365人愿到外地从事打馕、餐饮、干果经营、文艺演出等职业。2019年,和田地区和田县巴格其镇的3个村共有人口5307人,其中,有劳动能力的1699人中,1493人有转移就业意愿,占比88%;有180人愿留在当地就业,希望到乡镇企业或村办工厂、扶贫合作社工作,平均期望月薪3000元左右;另有26人希望在当地创业,经营物流运输、物业家政、建筑工程、美发、餐饮、商超等。通过掌握就业意愿,满足个性化需求,有效促进了劳动力有序流动,提升了就业稳定性和满意度。

Keeping track of the job preferences and needs of workers. The local government conducts regular surveys of the job preferences of workers, to keep track of their expectations in terms of location, position, salary, future prospects, and working and living environment. This allows the provision of more targeted services, aiming for the best possible match between employees and positions and promoting long-term stable employment. According to a survey in early 2020, with a population of 3,540, the Aybagh Village in Gulbagh Town, Shache (Yarkant) County, Kashgar Prefecture, had a workforce of 1,509 people, of whom 1,288, or 85 percent, were interested in working outside their county. Among these people, 923 wished to do factory work in the expectation of an average salary of about RMB5,000; 365 preferred to make a living by making naan bread, engage in catering or the dried fruit business, or pursue a career in the performing arts.

In 2019, a survey in three villages of Baghchi Town, Hotan County, Hotan Prefecture counted a total population of 5,307, with 1,699 people capable of work, of whom, 1,493, or 88 percent, were keen to work outside their home villages. Of the remainder, 180 preferred to work locally in township enterprises, village factories, or poverty-relief cooperatives offering an average monthly salary of RMB3,000; the other 26 wished to start businesses locally, engaging in transport and logistics, property management and household services, construction, hairdressing, catering or retail stores. These indicators give the government a clearer understanding of the job preferences of workers so it can better satisfy their individual needs, effectively promote the orderly flow of the workforce, and improve employment stability and job satisfaction.

积极搭建就业信息平台。广泛联系用人单位,收集整理岗位供求信息,依托信息化技术手段,通过人力资源市场、公共就业服务机构、公共就业服务网络平台、广播、电视、村社区宣传栏等渠道及时公开发布,为劳动者自愿就业、自由择业提供信息服务。例如,阿克苏地区以公共就业服务门户网站、微信公众号等为载体,集中发布岗位信息和求职信息,为用人单位和劳动者搭建双向选择平台。2014年以来,全地区组织各类招聘会621场次,吸引4953家企业参与,提供就业岗位14.5万余个,实现3.86万人就业。阿克苏市阿依库勒镇贫困户艾比布拉·马木提,通过招聘会了解到杭州一家电器企业的用工信息,主动应聘,录用后当年收入5.5万元,实现了脱贫。

Building employment information platforms. The local government has built an extensive contact network with employers to collect and collate job information, which is released timely with the help of information technology through the human resource market, public placement agencies, online service platforms, radio, TV, village and community bulletin boards, enabling people to look for the jobs that suit them best.

For example, the Aksu Prefecture has released job and candidate information on its public placement service portal and its WeChat account, to build two-way selection platforms for employers and employees. Since 2014, it has organized 621 job fairs, attracting 4,953 companies, providing over 145,000 job opportunities, and helping 38,600 people to find work. A poor villager named Habibulla Mamut from Aykol Town of Aksu City applied for a position with an electrical appliance company in Hangzhou at a local job fair, was offered the post, and earned RMB55,000 that year, raising himself and his family out of poverty.

不断强化公共就业服务。面向供求双方,建立覆盖全疆、层级清晰、功能互补、上下联动的五级公共就业服务体系,不断拓展政策咨询、就业失业登记、职业指导和职业介绍、技能培训、创业培训等基本公共就业服务内容。截至2019年底,全疆县级以上人力资源市场144家,团场劳动保障经办机构149个,基层劳动保障站所8668个,当年累计提供各类就业服务2172.84万余人次。

Bolstering public employment services. The local government has built a well-defined, dynamic, five-tiered public employment service system for employers and employees, which is well-coordinated at all levels and covers every part of Xinjiang. It has also expanded its services in areas such as policy advice, employment and unemployment registration, career guidance and recommendation, and skills and business startup training. By the end of 2019, there were 144 human resource markets at the county level or above, 149 job placement agencies on the farms of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, and 8,668 primary-level labor offices across Xinjiang, providing employment services to more than 21.73 million people that year.

坚决防范打击强迫劳动行为。根据《中华人民共和国刑法》《中华人民共和国劳动法》《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》《中华人民共和国治安管理处罚法》有关规定,严厉禁止以暴力、威胁或者非法限制人身自由的手段强迫劳动,以及侮辱、体罚、殴打、非法搜查和拘禁劳动者等行为,对违法行为,依法予以行政处罚;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。新疆严格遵守国家有关法律法规,大力推进法治宣传教育,不断增强用人单位和劳动者的法治意识,深入开展常态化劳动执法检查,切实把劳动关系的建立、运行、监督、调处的全过程纳入法治化轨道,坚决防范和打击一切强迫劳动行为。

Preventing and punishing any incidents of forced labor. China’s Criminal Law, Labor Law, Labor Contract Law, and Public Security Administrative Punishment Law all stipulate that the following actions are strictly forbidden and will lead to administrative punishments: forcing a person to work by means of violence, threat, or illegal limitation of personal freedom; or affronting, physically punishing, beating, illegally searching or detaining an employee. Should it be established that a crime has taken place, the perpetrator will be subjected to a criminal investigation. Xinjiang strictly observes the relevant laws and regulations of the state, providing information on the law through education campaigns, strengthening the legal awareness of employers and employees, and conducting routine inspections to ensure that labor laws are enforced. The goal is to bring the establishment, management, supervision and arbitration of labor relations under legal scrutiny, and take resolute action to prevent or punish any incidents of forced labor.

四、依法保障劳动者的基本权利

IV. Labor Rights Protection

尊重公民的劳动权利,维护劳动者合法权益,实现体面劳动,是中国政府一贯坚持的理念和目标。新疆严格遵循《中华人民共和国宪法》《中华人民共和国劳动法》《中华人民共和国劳动合同法》《中华人民共和国就业促进法》《中华人民共和国社会保险法》《中华人民共和国妇女权益保障法》《中华人民共和国残疾人保障法》等法律法规精神,结合本地区实际,制定实施《新疆维吾尔自治区实施〈中华人民共和国就业促进法〉办法》《新疆维吾尔自治区实施〈劳动保障监察条例〉办法》《新疆维吾尔自治区职工劳动权益保障条例》《新疆维吾尔自治区实施〈中华人民共和国妇女权益保障法〉办法》《新疆维吾尔自治区实施〈中华人民共和国残疾人保障法〉办法》等地方性法规规章,为公民平等享有劳动就业权利提供了坚实法治保障。

The Chinese government is committed to respecting citizens’ right to work, safeguarding their legitimate labor rights and interests, and ensuring them a decent job. Strictly following the above principles as embodied in the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China and relevant national laws, including the Labor Law, Labor Contract Law, Employment Promotion Law, Social Insurance Law, Law on the Protection of Women’s Rights and Interests, and Law on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities, Xinjiang has formulated and implemented a series of autonomous regional regulations based on local conditions, including measures for implementing the national Employment Promotion Law, Regulations on Labor and Social Security Supervision, Law on the Protection of Women’s Rights and Interests, and Law on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities, as well as the Regulations of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on the Protection of Labor Rights and Interests. These laws and regulations provide a solid legal guarantee for citizens in Xinjiang to enjoy equal rights to work.

切实保障劳动者平等就业权利。遵照平等保护公民权利的法治原则,确保劳动者不因民族、地域、性别、宗教信仰不同而受歧视,也不因城乡、行业、身份等而受限制。在保障妇女平等就业权利方面,新疆努力消除阻碍妇女平等就业的壁垒,制定实施扶持妇女自主创业政策。2019年,城镇新增就业48.09万人,其中,妇女22.81万人,占比47.43%。在保障残疾人劳动权利方面,不断加大职业技能培训力度,大力发展集中就业、辅助性就业、公益性岗位就业,积极推动残疾人按比例就业,鼓励支持残疾人通过个体就业、自主创业、灵活就业等多种形式就业。截至2019年底,全疆残疾人就业18.37万人,占就业年龄段有劳动能力残疾人总数的59.37%。

Guaranteeing workers’ equal right to employment. In accordance with the principle of equal protection of civil rights, Xinjiang ensures that there is no discrimination against workers on the basis of ethnicity, region, gender, and religious belief, and that no individuals’ rights are restricted because of their urban or rural status, profession or position. In ensuring women’s rights, Xinjiang strives to remove barriers to employment and formulates policies to support women in starting their own businesses. In 2019, 480,900 new jobs were created in cities and towns; 228,100 of these were for women, accounting for 47 percent of the total. To protect the labor rights of persons with disabilities, Xinjiang puts in more efforts on their vocational training, promotes their employment at public welfare enterprises and institutions, offers them flexible and less demanding jobs and public service positions, and advances their proportional employment. It also supports them in finding work through self-employment, starting new businesses or other flexible ways of employment. By the end of 2019, 183,700 of them were employed – almost 60 percent of the total workforce of persons with disabilities in Xinjiang.

切实保障劳动者获得报酬权利。全面落实国家关于建立企业职工工资正常增长机制的政策要求,完善企业工资指导线制度和劳动力市场工资指导价位制度。2014年至2019年,新疆每年制订并发布企业工资指导线。建立健全最低工资标准调整机制,最低工资标准由2013年的1520元/月,提高至2018年的1820元/月,增长19.74%,在全国处于较高水平。出台《新疆维吾尔自治区企业工资集体协商条例》等地方性法规,积极稳妥推进工资集体协商,并不断扩大覆盖面。健全工资支付保障制度,依法惩处拒不支付劳动报酬等违法犯罪行为,保障劳动者按时足额获得工资报酬。

Guaranteeing workers’ right to remuneration. Xinjiang fully applies the country’s policy requirements on establishing a dynamic salary growth mechanism for enterprise employees, and improves the salary guidance systems for enterprises and for the labor market respectively. Each year from 2014 to 2019, it released a salary growth guideline for enterprises. It established and improved the minimum salary adjustment mechanism, raising the minimum salary by almost 20 percent from RMB1,520 per month in 2013 to RMB1,820 per month in 2018, which was at a high level in the country. Xinjiang has issued the Regulations of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Collective Salary Negotiation of Enterprises and other regulations to promote and steadily expand the coverage of collective salary negotiation. The local government has also improved the system for guaranteeing salary payments. It punishes illegal and criminal acts of withholding labor remuneration, and thus ensures that workers receive their salaries in full and on time.

切实保障劳动者休息休假权和职业安全权。严格贯彻落实国家有关规定,实行劳动者每日工作8小时、每周工作40小时的工时制度。用人单位因生产经营需要延长工作时间,必须依法与工会和劳动者协商,并安排补休或支付相应报酬。保障劳动者依法享有春节、肉孜节、古尔邦节等法定节假日和休息日的休息权利。严格执行国家职业安全卫生规程和标准,健全安全生产和职业病防治责任体系,不断强化安全生产、职业病预防主体责任,开展劳动安全和职业健康执法检查,最大限度预防和减少各类生产安全事故发生,从根本上控制和消除职业病危害因素。

Guaranteeing workers’ right to rest and leisure and to occupational safety. Xinjiang strictly applies relevant state regulations and adopts the system of the eight-hour workday and 40-hour workweek. If an employer wishes to extend working hours for operational reasons, it must consult with the trade union and the employees in accordance with the law, and arrange for compensation in the form of additional time off or remuneration. Workers are guaranteed the right to time off on weekends and statutory holidays including the Spring Festival, Roza Festival (Eid al-Fitr) and Corban Festival (Eid al-Adha). Xinjiang also strictly applies the national occupational safety and health regulations and standards, consistently improves the responsibility system for workplace safety and occupational disease prevention, and carries out inspections over occupational health law enforcement. As a result, the autonomous region has succeeded in preventing or reducing to a minimum all kinds of workplace safety incidents, and established fundamental control over or eliminated occupational disease hazards.

切实保障劳动者参加社会保险的权利。全面实施全民参保计划,积极推动和引导中小微企业职工和进城务工人员、灵活就业人员、新业态就业人员等重点群体参加社会保险,努力实现应保尽保。截至2019年底,新疆基本养老、失业、工伤三项社会保险参保2213.33万人次。同时,各级劳动保障监察机构持续加大执法力度,及时受理对违反劳动保障法律、法规、规章行为的举报、投诉,依法纠正和查处用人单位不参加社会保险、不缴纳社会保险费等违法行为,切实维护广大劳动者合法权益。

Guaranteeing workers’ right to participate in social insurance. Xinjiang has fully implemented the national plan to ensure that everyone has access to social security and all those in need are covered. Workers in micro, small and medium-sized enterprises, and key groups including migrant workers, the self-employed, and people engaged in new forms of business are encouraged to participate in social insurance. By the end of 2019, more than 22 million people were participating in basic pension, unemployment, and work-related injury insurance. Labor and social security supervision bodies at all levels continue to step up law enforcement, address reports and complaints about violations of relevant laws, regulations, and rules in a timely manner, and investigate and correct in accordance with the law illegal acts where employers fail to register for or contribute to social insurance, resolutely safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of workers.

切实保障劳动者宗教信仰自由和使用本民族语言文字等权利。严格执行《中华人民共和国宪法》《中华人民共和国民族区域自治法》《中华人民共和国国家通用语言文字法》《宗教事务条例》等法律法规。充分尊重和保障各族劳动者宗教信仰自由权利,任何组织和个人不得干涉。在依法推广国家通用语言文字的同时,充分尊重和保障少数民族劳动者使用本民族语言文字的权利,劳动者可以自主选择使用何种语言文字进行交流。充分尊重各族劳动者风俗习惯,创造良好的工作和生活环境。克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州乌恰县的托克哈利·吐尔汗巴依是有清真饮食习惯的新疆籍少数民族,也是一位信教群众,现在广东一家制鞋厂工作。他曾担心饮食不习惯、没地方做礼拜,但工作后发现,工厂的生活环境很舒适、清真餐饮很可口,休息时间逛街购物,与家人视频聊天,还可以到附近清真寺参加宗教活动,于是很快适应了新环境。

Guaranteeing workers’ freedom of religious belief and the right to use their own spoken and written languages. Xinjiang strictly applies the Constitution and relevant national laws and regulations, including the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy, the Law on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language, and the Regulations on Religious Affairs. The local government fully respects and guarantees the right of workers of all ethnic groups to freedom of religious belief, and ensures that no organization or individual interferes with this freedom. While promoting standard spoken and written Chinese in accordance with the law, Xinjiang fully respects and protects the rights of ethnic minority workers to use their own spoken and written languages, and ensures that workers can choose which languages to use for communication. The customs of workers of all ethnic groups are fully respected and guaranteed and efforts are made to create a good working and living environment for them. Tokhali Turhanbay from Wuqia (Ulughchat) County, Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture, now works in a shoe factory in Guangdong Province. He belongs to an ethnic minority and is a religious believer who follows halal diet. Before going to work at the factory, he was concerned that he would have difficulty maintaining his eating practices, and that there would be no place to worship. But when he arrived, he found that the living environment in the factory was comfortable, and the halal food was excellent. He also found that it was convenient to go shopping and video chat with his family during his spare time, and he was able to attend religious activities at a nearby mosque. Therefore, he quickly adapted to the new environment.

切实加强劳动者权益保障和救济机制。全面推行劳动合同制度,明确用人单位和劳动者权利义务。健全政府、工会和企业组织代表协商劳动关系三方机制,研究解决劳动关系领域重大问题,积极构建和谐劳动关系。注重发挥工会在维护职工合法权益方面的作用。切实加强劳动保障监察和劳动争议调解仲裁,及时妥善处理劳动争议。对违反劳动保障法律法规的突出问题进行集中整治,对重大违法案件进行专项督办,有效保障劳动者在职业介绍、劳动合同、工作时间、休息休假、工资支付、社会保险、特殊劳动保护等方面的合法权益。

Protecting workers’ rights and interests and strengthening the relief mechanism. Xinjiang fully implements the labor contract system, which clarifies the rights and obligations of employers and workers. The autonomous region keeps improving the tripartite mechanism of consultation among representatives of the government, trade unions, and business organizations, investigates and solves major problems involving labor relations, and seeks to build harmony in the workplace. Xinjiang also encourages trade unions to play an active role in safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of workers. It reinforces labor and social security supervision as well as mediation and arbitration of labor disputes, and handles labor disputes in a timely and appropriate manner. It has taken targeted actions to rectify major violations of labor laws and regulations, and carried out special supervision over the handling of major cases. As a result, it is able to effectively protect the legitimate rights and interests of workers concerning job intermediation, labor contracts, working hours, time off and leave, salary payment, social insurance, and special labor protection.

五、劳动就业创造美好生活

V. Better Jobs for Better Lives

随着一系列就业惠民政策措施的深入实施,“家家有门路、人人有事干、月月有收入”的工作目标基本实现。新疆特别是南疆地区各族群众的生产生活、精神面貌发生了深刻变化,老百姓的“钱袋子”越来越鼓,日子越来越红火,心情越来越舒畅,笑容越来越灿烂。

With the implementation of a series of employment policies and measures, the goal that “each household has access to job opportunities, each person has work to do, and each month goes with an income” has been largely achieved. Profound changes have taken place in the life, work and mentality of the people of all the ethnic groups in Xinjiang and particularly in southern Xinjiang – their pockets are better filled, their lives are better, and they are happier.

家庭收入大幅增加。无论是在疆内还是在外省(市)就业,各族劳动者都获得了稳定的劳动报酬。据不完全统计,在外省(市)转移就业的新疆籍劳动者人均年收入约4万元,与就业所在地城镇常住居民人均可支配收入基本相当。在疆内转移就业的劳动者人均年收入约3万元,远高于在家务农收入。例如,和田地区洛浦县恰尔巴格乡的阿拉帕提·艾合麦提江,在家务农时全家年收入不足1万元,2017年到江西省南昌市一家电器企业务工,不到3年时间收入16万余元。喀什地区叶城县乌夏巴什镇的买买提依明·吐拉麦提,在家务农时年收入只有几千元,到昌吉州一家企业就业后,月收入4000元以上,生活大为改善,盖了新房,娶了新娘。阿克苏地区阿瓦提县乌鲁却勒镇的阿米娜·热合曼夫妇,属建档立卡贫困户,2018年3月看到乡劳动保障事务所发布的招聘信息后,主动应聘,被江西省九江市一家公司录用,两人月收入约9000元,目前不仅还清了贷款,还有了9万多元存款。

A marked increase in family incomes. People working either within or outside of Xinjiang all have stable incomes. The annual per capita income of workers from Xinjiang who are working in other provinces is about RMB40,000, roughly equal to the per capita disposable income of permanent urban residents in the places where they work. The local people who left their home to work elsewhere in Xinjiang have an annual per capita income of RMB30,000, much higher than earnings from farming. For example, a villager named Arapat Ahmatjan from Charbagh Township, Lop County, Hotan Prefecture earned less than RMB10,000 per year as a farmer; but when he found work in an electric appliance company in Nanchang City, Jiangxi Province in 2017, he earned more than RMB160,000 in less than three years.

Likewise, another villager named Mamtimin Turamat from Ushsharbash Town, Yecheng (Qaghilik) County, Kashgar Prefecture earned only a few thousand yuan annually as a farmer, but his monthly income rose to more than RMB4,000 after he began to work for a company in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture. His life was much better – he built a new house and got married.

Amina Rahman and her husband from a registered poor household in Ghoruchol Town, Awat County, Aksu Prefecture, applied for jobs after seeing the information released by the township’s labor and social security office in March 2018, and were then both hired by a company in Jiujiang City, Jiangxi Province. They now have a monthly income of about RMB9,000, paying off their loans and saving over RMB90,000 yuan.

生活水平明显改善。通过辛勤劳动,各族群众从吃饱到吃好,从穿暖到穿美,从毛驴车代步到现代交通工具出行,折射出生活今非昔比的变化。克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州阿克陶县玉麦乡贫困户热汗古丽·依米尔到浙江省慈溪市务工后,4年时间给家里汇款十几万元,在老家盖了新房,买了新家具,家庭面貌焕然一新。和田市玉龙喀什镇的玉山·艾山,之前以打零工为生,生活拮据,经同乡介绍,2018年7月到乌鲁木齐市一家肉类加工企业工作,从杂工干起,经过勤学苦练,很快掌握了工作技能,在他的带动下,妻子来到乌鲁木齐市一家服装店打工,也有了稳定的收入,2020年在乌鲁木齐市购置了新房。

Notable improvement in living standards. From having their basic needs met to enjoying decent lives, and from traveling by a donkey cart to traveling in modern vehicles, the people in Xinjiang have witnessed tremendous changes in their lives.

A villager called Reyhangul Imir from a poor household in Ojma Township, Akto County, Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture sent back more than RMB100,000 to her family in the four years she spent working in Cixi City, Zhejiang Province. With the money, her family upgraded their lives by building a new house equipped with new furniture in her hometown.

Yusan Hasan from Yurungqash Town, Hotan City used to make a living by taking odd jobs, and struggled to make ends meet. In July 2018, thanks to helpful acquaintances, he found a job at a meat-packing plant in Urumqi, the capital city of Xinjiang. Starting as a handyman, his hard work paid off and he soon picked up new skills. He then persuaded his wife to join him, and she found a stable job in a clothing store in Urumqi. They soon settled in the city, buying an apartment in 2020.

就业能力显著增强。通过各种形式的就业培训,各族群众劳动技能普遍提高,很多人成长为企业的岗位能手、技术骨干,一些人成为管理人员,一些人自主创业当了老板。和田地区于田县斯也克乡的阿米娜·吾布力,到乌鲁木齐市一家能源企业工作后,经过多个岗位锻炼,3年时间成为业务骨干,被企业评为“优秀员工”。和田地区皮山县的阿尔祖古丽·伊斯坎代尔,在安徽省巢湖市一家纺织企业工作,在老员工手把手帮带下,成长为企业的技术能手,当上了师傅。阿克苏地区库车市的阿迪莱·阿不来提,2018年从北京服装学院毕业后返乡创业,在政府帮扶下开办了一家服装公司,2019年实现产值200多万元,带动了40多名妇女就业。阿勒泰市的吉别克·努尔兰汗,是一名残疾人,大学毕业后回到家乡,当地人社部门安排她参加了创业培训班,并帮助她筹集10万元资金,注册了阿克依额克百货商店,主营哈萨克刺绣手工艺品,实现月收入6000多元。

Enhanced employability. Through various pre-employment training programs, the local people have greatly improved their employment skills; many have grown into master hands and technical experts, and some have become managers and even started up their own businesses.

After three years of rotating in various positions, Amina Obul from Siyak Township, Yutian (Keriya) County, Hotan Prefecture has become one of the best employees of an energy company. Arzugul Iskandar from Pishan (Guma) County, Hotan Prefecture works at a textile company in Chaohu City, Anhui Province. She has become a technical expert and a master for young workers with the help of senior colleagues.

After graduating from Beijing Institute of Fashion Technology, Adila Ablat from Kucha City, Aksu Prefecture started a garment company in 2018 in his hometown with the help of the local government. In 2019 his company achieved an output value of over RMB2 million, and created jobs for over 40 women.

A college graduate with disabilities, Jibek Nurlanhan from Altay City, Altay Prefecture, Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture returned to her hometown after graduation. The local human resources and social security department arranged for her to take a startup training class, and helped her to raise RMB100,000 to create a store selling Kazak embroidery handicrafts. She now has a monthly income of over RMB6,000.

思想观念不断转变。过去,一些群众不重视学习科学文化知识,重男轻女思想严重,就业观念落后,习惯于等靠要;如今,“美好生活靠劳动创造”“幸福是奋斗出来的”理念深入人心,各族群众劳动意识、创业愿望、奋斗精神明显增强。例如,喀什地区麦盖提县在举办就业岗位推介会时,很多群众争先恐后咨询岗位信息,积极主动报名应聘,场面十分火爆。一些群众看到同村的人外出务工回来,实实在在赚到了钱,人也变得时尚了,纷纷表示也想出去看一看、闯一闯,改变自己并让家人过上好日子。阿克苏地区拜城县康其乡的阿不力米提·克尤木,往返于新疆和其他省(市)经商,他常说:“我不会满足于现状,我要更加努力工作、学习,过上美好的现代生活。”和田市吐沙拉乡的柔孜妮萨·伊敏,2019年3月报名前往福建省晋江市工作,她用赚来的钱帮助家里发展特色养殖。在她的激励下,刚从职业高中毕业的弟弟也打算到福建就业,梦想闯出一片天地。

A change in mindset. In the past, some local people undervalued education, and valued men over women. With outdated employment ideas, some used to rely on government aid and relief for a living. But today, the belief that “only hard work can bring a better life” is widespread, and all ethnic groups here are eager to rely on their own efforts to improve their lives – full of drive, and ready to start up their own businesses. For example, at a job fair held in Makit County, Kashgar Prefecture, many candidates hurried around gathering information on available opportunities and applying for positions. It was an inspiring scene. Some villagers were motivated to find opportunities outside their villages and give their families a better life after seeing their peers had made some money and were looking more prosperous.

Ablimit Keyum from Kanchi Township, Baicheng (Bay) County, Aksu Prefecture, who is doing business in Xinjiang and other provinces, said, “I’m not satisfied with the status quo, and I want to study and work harder to make my life better.”

Rozinisa Imin from Tusalla Township, Hotan City signed up for work in Jinjiang City, Fujian Province in March 2019. The money she earned helped to support her family’s animal farming. Her brother, who has just graduated from vocational high school, sees her as his inspiration. He plans to seek work in Fujian as well, and dreams of a bright future.

人生理想得以实现。许多人经过自主选择,找到了适合自己的工作。他们从农村到城市,从田间地头到生产车间,由农民变为工人,不仅学到了技能,提高了收入,实现了脱贫致富,更重要的是开阔了视野,增长了知识才干,实现了人生价值。绝大多数人对当前的工作生活状况表示满意,对未来充满希望。和田地区和田县的买买提托合提·依明托合提一直渴望有一家自己的餐厅,2017年到乌鲁木齐市一家餐厅当学徒,很快掌握了中式面点技术,在师傅帮助下开了一家餐厅,深受顾客欢迎。克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州乌恰县膘尔托阔依乡的帕夏古丽·克热木,热心公益,乐于助人,先后带领500多名同乡前往广东务工,帮助大家实现了脱贫,获得了全国脱贫攻坚奋进奖和“全国五一劳动奖章”。

Life dreams realized. Many people find the right jobs through their own initiative. They move from rural to urban areas, and turn from farmers to workers. In this process, they learn skills, increase their incomes, and achieve prosperity; more importantly, they have broadened their horizons, acquired knowledge and greater abilities, and achieved their potential. Most people are satisfied with their current life and are optimistic about the future.

Mamattohti Imintohti from Hotan County, Hotan Prefecture longed to own his own restaurant. He began to work as an apprentice in a restaurant in Urumqi in 2017 and soon mastered the skills of a pastry cook. With the help of his teacher, he opened a restaurant which has become very popular.

Pashagul Keram from Boritokay Township, Wuqia (Ulughchat) County, Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture is public-spirited and ready to help – she has led more than 500 local residents to find work in Guangdong, and thereby helped them escape from poverty. She was awarded the national May 1st Labor Medal and the National Award for Efforts in Poverty Alleviation.

交往交流交融更加密切。各族劳动者干在一起、学在一起、生活在一起,增进了相互了解,加深了彼此感情,像兄弟姐妹一样互相关心、互相帮助,结下了深厚的友谊,谱写了民族团结互助的新篇章。江苏省一家电器企业,吸纳了来自新疆各地州16个民族近200名员工,各族员工经常在一起唱歌、跳舞、聚会、购物、旅游,工作之余一起制作抓饭、烤肉等特色美食,关系融洽,亲如一家。新疆生产建设兵团女职工尤良英,开办棉花和果品种植合作社,17次穿越数百公里的沙漠,热心帮助数千名各族群众学习先进种植技术,在实现脱贫致富的同时,增进了民族感情。十几年来,她无私帮助和田地区皮山县农民麦麦提图如普·穆萨克,麦麦提图如普·穆萨克又传递爱心、回馈社会,这一感人故事传遍天山南北。

Closer communication and bonds between all ethnic groups. Workers of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang have forged profound friendships while working, studying and living together. They care for and help each other like family, demonstrating ethnic unity and mutual assistance built on a close bond towards each other.

An electrical appliance company in Jiangsu Province took on about 200 employees from 16 ethnic groups from Xinjiang. The workers often gather together to enjoy themselves, singing, dancing, having parties, shopping, traveling, and cooking pilaf and kebabs like a family.

You Liangying, an employee of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps who set up a cotton and fruit planting cooperative, helped thousands of people from different ethnic groups to learn advanced planting skills in her 17 trips crossing deserts stretching hundreds of miles. Her efforts not only helped them out of poverty, but also fostered closer ethnic ties. Over the past decade and more, she has selflessly helped Mamatturup Musak from Pishan (Guma) County, Hotan Prefecture, who chose to repay the favor by giving back to society. Their story is well-known across Xinjiang.

六、积极践行国际劳工和人权标准

VI. Application of International Labor and Human Rights Standards

新疆大力实施积极的劳动就业政策,依法保障各族群众的劳动权益,努力让广大劳动者实现体面劳动,创造美好生活,体现了国际社会的共同价值追求,为维护社会公平正义,促进人的全面发展做出了不懈努力。

Xinjiang implements a proactive employment policy, protects the lawful labor rights and interests of people of all ethnic groups, and strives to provide decent work and a better life for all. This embodies the common values that are championed by the international community, and contributes to safeguarding social fairness and justice and promoting the all-round development of humanity.

履行国际公约义务。中国是国际劳工组织创始成员国、常任理事国,批准了包括《男女工人同工同酬公约》《准予就业最低年龄公约》《禁止和立即行动消除最恶劣形式的童工劳动公约》《消除就业和职业歧视公约》4个核心公约在内的26个国际劳工公约,同时也是联合国《经济、社会及文化权利国际公约》《消除一切形式种族歧视国际公约》《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》《儿童权利公约》《残疾人权利公约》《联合国打击跨国有组织犯罪公约关于预防、禁止和惩治贩运人口特别是妇女和儿童行为的补充议定书》等国际条约的缔约国。中国积极吸收和转化国际劳工和人权标准,通过立法、政策制定及实施,切实保障劳动者各项权利,严格禁止使用童工,反对强迫劳动,反对就业歧视,反对职场性骚扰,深入开展整治和打击非法用工等专项行动,预防和惩治劳动领域各种违法犯罪行为。新疆各级政府切实履行劳动就业保障责任,促进不同地区、不同民族、不同发展水平的群众实现充分就业和更高质量就业,推动各民族共同发展进步,成为国际劳工和人权标准在欠发达民族地区的成功实践。

Fulfilling international convention obligations. China is a founding and permanent member state of the International Labour Organization (ILO). China has ratified 26 international labor conventions, including four of the ILO’s fundamental conventions – Equal Remuneration Convention, Minimum Age Convention, Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, and Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention.

China is also a signatory state to a host of UN conventions, including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.

China applies international labor and human rights standards in its legislation, policymaking and policy implementation, to effectively safeguard workers’ rights. China prohibits child labor, opposes forced labor, employment discrimination, and workplace sexual harassment, takes targeted actions to combat illegal employment, and prevents and punishes all kinds of violations and crimes concerning employment. In fulfilling their responsibilities to secure employment, local governments at all levels in Xinjiang promote full and high-quality employment for people in different areas, of different ethnic groups, and with different economic conditions, to achieve common development and progress among all ethnic groups. Xinjiang has thus become a successful example of practicing international labor and human rights standards in underdeveloped areas with large populations of ethnic minorities.

探索消除贫困路径。消除贫困是人类梦寐以求的理想,也是保障人权的重要内容。联合国2030年可持续发展议程把“在全世界消除一切形式的贫困”确定为可持续发展的首要目标,表达了国际社会对消除贫困的迫切期待。中国积极落实联合国议程,坚持全面小康是全体中国人民的小康,一个民族都不能掉队。新疆始终坚持以发展促人权,以教育培训、能力建设、劳动就业促脱贫,在有效预防和打击恐怖主义、极端主义的同时,实现社会稳定和民生改善,贫困人口大幅减少,贫困发生率显著下降。2013年至2019年底,新疆共有25个贫困县摘帽、3107个贫困村退出,贫困发生率由19.4%降至1.24%。2014年至2019年底,累计实现73.76万户、292.32万人脱贫,2020年底可实现全部脱贫。新疆探索出了破解反恐、去极端化与人权保障,脱贫与可持续发展等世界性难题的新路子。

Finding new approaches to eradicating poverty. Ending poverty has been a lasting goal of humanity and a major component of human rights protection. In the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, “ending poverty in all its forms everywhere” tops all other development goals, expressing a pressing demand by the international community to this end. In implementing the 2030 Agenda, China makes it clear that the goal of achieving moderate prosperity in all respects is for its entire people, and that not a single ethnic group is allowed to be lagged behind. Xinjiang protects human rights through development, and strives to eradicate poverty through education and training, capacity building and employment. It effectively prevents and strikes out at terrorism and extremism, and at the same time maintains social stability and improves people’s lives, with its impoverished population and poverty incidence markedly reduced. From 2013 to the end of 2019, Xinjiang wiped out poverty in 25 poor counties and 3,107 poor villages, and the poverty incidence dropped from 19.4 percent to 1.24 percent. From 2014 to the end of 2019, a total of 2.92 million people from 737,600 households shook off poverty. By the end of 2020, poverty will be completely eliminated in Xinjiang. Xinjiang has worked out a new approach to addressing some of the global challenges: protecting human rights while combating terrorism and extremism, and pursuing sustainable development while eliminating poverty.

响应体面劳动倡议。让所有劳动者体面劳动,进而实现人的全面发展,是国际劳工组织的重要倡议,也是尊重和保障人权的应有之义,反映了国际社会的共识和追求。中国政府始终坚持以人为本,积极响应国际劳工组织倡议,认真落实《中国体面劳动国别计划(2016-2020)》,将体面劳动理念融入国家政策和发展规划。新疆严格执行国家有关政策措施,着力在尊重劳动者意愿、保护劳动者权益、改善劳动环境和条件、体现劳动者价值上下功夫,保障各族劳动者在自由、平等、安全和有尊严的条件下工作,有力促进了广大劳动者体面就业。严格依据《中华人民共和国宪法》《中华人民共和国劳动法》《中华人民共和国就业促进法》等法律规定和要求,立足本地区实际,推出了一系列有力政策措施,千方百计帮助各族劳动者实现稳定就业。近年来,新疆城镇登记失业率保持在3.5%以下,最大限度保障了各族群众充分享有劳动权,为在更高层次和更广泛意义上实现生存权和发展权奠定了坚实基础。

Responding to the ILO’s Decent Work Agenda. The ILO has launched an agenda to promote decent work for all, aiming to achieve all-round human development. The agenda, which is integral to respecting and protecting human rights, embodies the consensus of the international community. The Chinese government always puts people first and has actively responded to the ILO’s agenda by implementing the Decent Work Country Program for China (2016-2020) and incorporating the concept of decent work into national policies and development plans. Xinjiang has put into practice relevant policy measures of the national government, focusing in particular on respecting workers’ choices, protecting their rights and interests, improving their workplace environment and working conditions, and recognizing their contributions. This ensures that people from all ethnic groups work in a decent environment with freedom, equality, safety, and dignity. Conforming to the Constitution, the Labor Law, and the Employment Promotion Law of the country, and respecting local conditions, Xinjiang has launched a package of effective policy measures to ensure stable employment for all residents. In recent years, Xinjiang’s registered urban unemployment rate has remained below 3.5 percent. This enables the local people enjoy the right to work to the greatest extent possible, and has laid a solid foundation for raising the human rights to life and development to a higher level across a broader sphere.

结束语

Conclusion

中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平强调,“就业是最大的民生”。国际劳工组织通过的《全球就业议程》提出,“就业是消除贫困的核心”。实现体面劳动,对保障劳动者生存发展、家庭和谐幸福、社会长治久安至关重要。新疆实施积极的劳动就业保障政策,有力维护了各族群众劳动就业基本权利,显著改善了各族群众的生产生活条件,极大满足了各族群众创造美好生活的愿望。

Chinese President Xi Jinping, also general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and chairman of the Central Military Commission, has emphasized that employment is pivotal to people’s wellbeing. The Global Employment Agenda adopted by the ILO states that employment is central to poverty reduction. Having decent work is of vital importance to one’s survival and growth, a harmonious and happy family life, and the long-term stability of society. The proactive polices to ensure employment and job security adopted by the local government of Xinjiang have effectively protected all ethnic groups’ basic labor rights, greatly improved their living and working conditions, and fully satisfied their aspirations to create a better life.

一段时间以来,国际上一些势力出于意识形态偏见和反华需要,无视新疆为保障人权所做的巨大努力,搞人权双重标准。他们罔顾事实,颠倒黑白,肆意炒作所谓新疆“强迫劳动”问题,抹黑新疆的劳动就业保障工作,妄图剥夺新疆各族群众的劳动权,使其永远生活在自我隔绝、封闭落后的贫困状态,这是对新疆各族人民追求美好幸福生活的反动,理应遭到一切爱好正义进步的人们的坚决反对。

For years, certain international forces, guilty of ideological bias and prejudiced against China, have been applying double standards in Xinjiang, criticizing “breaches of human rights” while ignoring the tremendous efforts Xinjiang has made to protect human rights. They have fabricated facts to support their false claims of “forced labor” in Xinjiang, and smeared the local government’s work on employment and job security. Their acts amount to a denial of the fact that the local people in Xinjiang enjoy the right to work, aspire to move out of poverty and backwardness and are working towards that goal. Such groundless allegation would be strongly opposed by everyone who values justice and progress.

尊重和保障人权是中国的宪法原则,中国共产党和中国政府始终重视保障公民的劳动就业权利,坚决预防和消除任何形式的强迫劳动。新疆的劳动就业保障政策及其实践,符合中国宪法法律,符合国际劳工和人权标准,契合新疆各族人民过上美好生活的强烈愿望,惠民生,顺民意,得民心。

Respecting and protecting human rights are principles enshrined in the Constitution of China. The CPC and the Chinese government have always prioritized the protection of the citizens’ rights to work and employment; we have taken a resolute stance against forced labor and eradicated it in any form. Xinjiang’s policies and practices concerning employment and job security comply with China’s Constitution and relevant laws, conform to international labor and human rights standards, and support the will of all ethnic groups to live a better life. They have served to meet the people’s needs, improve their wellbeing, and win their support.

劳动改变生活,劳动创造幸福。展望未来,新疆将坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,坚持就业是民生之本的理念,继续实施就业优先战略和更加积极的就业政策,大力促进劳动就业,为实现更加充分、更高质量的就业,不断满足各族人民日益增长的美好生活需要而不懈努力。

Work helps to make a difference and create happiness. Looking forward, Xinjiang will continue its commitment to the people-centered philosophy of development, adhere to the principle that employment is of paramount importance to people’s wellbeing, implement the strategy of giving priority to employment, and introduce more proactive policies to boost employment. With tireless efforts it will strive to grow employment in volume and quality, to meet the growing expectation of all ethnic groups for a better life.

文章来源:新华网

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