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双语:《抗击新冠肺炎疫情的中国实践》报告
文章来源:中国日报 发布时间:2020-04-24 15:02 作者:中国日报 点击:

《抗击新冠肺炎疫情的中国实践》报告全文

Report: China's fight against COVID-19 (full text)

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Editor's Note:

本报告通过广泛采集征询专家学者意见,基于权威文献资料梳理,由媒体联合科研机构进行共同研究,以期以调研报告形式客观反映中国抗击疫情的做法和举措。

This report, the result of an extensive collection of experts' and scholars' opinions as well as a meticulous compilation of authoritative documents, is a public research project by the joint efforts of media groups and scientific research institutions for the express purpose of objective reflection of China's practices and measures to combat the COVID-19 outbreak.

受水平和时间限制,研究不够深入全面系统,特别是随着疫情形势变化和抗疫工作取得新的进展,尚需不断更新充实完善。

Due to time and authorial limits, the research is not perfect and will need continuous updates and improvements, particularly given the rapid changes in the pandemic situation and new progress in the fight against it.

作为较早总结中国抗击新冠肺炎疫情实践的一种尝试,望能起到“抛砖引玉”之效,以尊重科学、遵从规律、尊崇实践的精神,不断总结好人类战胜重大传染性疾病的经验。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

It is best viewed as an early attempt to summarize China's practices in combating the COVID-19 pandemic, a trailblazer in the hope of clearing the path for better ones later, to continue — in the spirit of respecting science, universal rules and common practices — the chronicling of our experience as human beings in overcoming this major infectious disease.

《抗击新冠肺炎疫情的中国实践》联合课题组
2020年4月21日

Editorial Team of "China's Fight Against COVID-19"

April 21, 2020

摘  要

 Abstract

新冠肺炎疫情发生后,以习近平同志为核心的党中央高度重视,始终把人民群众生命安全和身体健康放在第一位,习近平总书记亲自领导、亲自指挥、亲自部署,领导全党、全军和全国人民打响疫情防控的“人民战争”,以“准战时”的领导指挥体系和因时因势制定的战略策略,为中国抗击疫情提供了坚强领导、根本遵循和科学指引。

After the outbreak of COVID-19, the Chinese government gave top priority to the fight against the virus and put the people's lives and health before everything. President Xi Jinping has led the whole nation in a people's war of prevention and control against the virus. The "wartime-like" command mechanism and the strategies formulated in accordance with the ground reality offered strong leadership.

中国坚持紧紧依靠人民群众,把公众知情作为构建政府与公众之间良性沟通互动和形成强大共识的重要前提,公众基于社会责任感和对政府的信任感积极参与抗击疫情,形成“万众一心、众志成城”的局面。灵活人性化社会管控以及以传统隔离方式为主的非医疗干预成为遏制疫情蔓延的关键因素;以流行病学调查为核心的排查、检测和监测,成为切断病毒传播链条和对患者实施及时救治的关键环节;以分级设置医院和按病情分类分流救治轻、中、重症患者,坚持中西医结合,大幅度降低了感染率、病亡率,提升了治愈率。同时,发挥制度优势,在全国范围内高效配置资源,打响后勤保障战,举全国之力打赢“湖北保卫战”、“武汉保卫战”,取得了疫情防控阶段性重要成效。中国从国情实际出发,边实践边总结边完善,努力在控制疫情和救治病患等方面探索出一套行之有效的“中国实践”和“中国方法”。公众号:高斋CATTI

The Chinese government has upheld the principle of relying on the people and considered keeping them well informed as a key element to build consensus between the government and the public. Thanks to their social responsibility and trust in the government, the people took an active part in fighting the epidemic with a united will. The flexible and humanized social management and non-medical intervention featured by standard quarantine measures became key factors for containing the spread of the virus. The screening, test and supervision measures and epidemiological investigation proved to be crucial in cutting off the chain of virus transmission. By assorting hospitals based on utility, differentiating patients and the treatments they received based on their conditions, and integrating traditional Chinese medicine into therapy, China sharply decreased the infection rate and fatality rate, and at the same time raised the recovery rate. Meanwhile, China made full use of the advantage of its social system, allocated resources with high efficiency across the country and secured much-needed logistics support. With the whole natione's efforts to fight the battle of protecting Hubei and Wuhan, China has made initial achievements in prevention and control of the virus. Based on its own national situation, China has explored a set of practices and methods in the prevention and control of disease as well as the treatment of patients.

抗击新冠肺炎疫情的中国实践

China's Fight Against COVID-19

新冠肺炎疫情这一近百年来传播速度最快、感染范围最广、防控难度最大的突发公共卫生事件发生后,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,中国坚持以人民为中心,采取最全面、最严格、最彻底的防控举措,以巨大勇气和强大力量,坚决阻断全国本土疫情传播,取得了疫情防控阶段性重要成效。

COVID-19, which has spread rapidly and enveloped most of the world, is a global public health crisis the likes of which we have not seen in a century. After the outbreak, the Chinese government adopted the most comprehensive, stringent and thorough prevention and control measures in an attempt to bring the virus under control. With great courage and will, the spread of the virus has almost been tamed, marking an initial triumph for the country.

如何有效应对百年不遇的全球大流行疫情,目前仍是有待国际社会共同破解的世界难题,中国从国情实际出发,遵循传染病防控客观规律,边实践边总结边完善,并不断应对新的挑战,努力在控制疫情和救治病患等方面探索出一套行之有效的“中国实践”和“中国方法”。@微博:高斋翻硕

As most of the world struggles to cope, China — by analyzing its experiences and summarizing its achievements — has been searching for an optimal approach. The country has been trying to explore a set of practices and approaches that can be effective in curbing the spread of the virus and curing the infected.

中国日报社中国观察智库,在采访征询60余位公共卫生专家和中外学者意见基础上,联合清华大学国情研究院、北京协和医学院卫生健康管理政策学院共同研究,初步梳理总结中国抗击疫情的经验和做法,形成本报告。

China Watch Institute, a China Daily think tank, interviewed more than 60 Chinese and international public health experts and scholars in other fields to compile this report in collaboration with the Institute of Contemporary China Studies at Tsinghua University and the School of Health Policy and Management at Peking Union Medical College. This report presents a preliminary summary of what China has achieved in its fight against the virus.

一、社会共识和全民动员

I. Universal consensus and public mobilization

应对新冠肺炎这样的重大疫情,及早在全社会形成正确认知和推动公民自觉行动至关重要。

To deal with such a pandemic, it is essential to fully understand the situation and mobilize the general public to do whatever is required of them.

一方面,坚持实事求是,本着公开、透明、负责任的态度及时发布疫情信息,向公众提供持续、清晰、重要的信息,让人民群众及时全面了解政府应对疫情的方针政策和战略举措,把“公众充分知情”作为构建政府与公众之间良性沟通互动和形成强大社会共识的重要前提;

On the one hand, Chinese authorities released timely data in an open, transparent and responsible manner to provide people with dynamic, clear and important information so that they could fully understand the government's policies, strategies and measures to deal with the epidemic. Making sure "the public is fully informed" is key to establishing strong social consensus.

另一方面,公众基于社会责任感和对政府的信任感,积极投入到对疫情的全民抗击之中,形成“万众一心、众志成城”的“人民战争”局面。紧紧依靠人民,是中国抗击疫情的重要经验。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读   

On the other hand, with a strong sense of social responsibility and trust in the government, people actively participated in the nationwide fight against the virus: a "people's war" powered by a united will. Relying strongly on people is a key component in "winning the war".    

1、及时全面公开透明发布疫情信息

1. Timely release of information

——建立日常新闻发布机制,第一时间公布疫情信息。在两个多月时间中,国务院新闻办、相关部门以国务院联防联控工作机制名义及疫情最严重的湖北省,共举行近200场发布会,此外北京市等其他省区市也召开当地的新闻发布会数百场。这些现场直播的发布会全面通报疫情及抗疫工作最新进展,充分回应国内外舆论关切。

— A daily news release mechanism was established to publish vital information. In the two months after the outbreak, the Information Office of the State Council, Hubei province, the hardest hit area in the country, and other departments held nearly 200 press conferences; other provinces and municipalities have also done the same. The live broadcasts updated the public with the latest developments and addressed public concerns at home and abroad.

——启动疫情数据日报制度,及时全面提供精准分类信息。国家卫健委在官方网站等政务平台每日通报前一日各地新增确诊病例、新增治愈出院病例、当日解除医学观察的密切接触者、新增重症病例、新增死亡病例、新增疑似病例、隔离治疗、重症病例、累计报告确诊病例、累计治愈出院、累计死亡病例、现有疑似病例、累计追踪到密切接触者、尚在医学观察的密切接触者和后期增加发布的无症状感染者相关情况,以及累计收到港澳台地区通报确诊病例等各种相关数据。

— A daily report system was launched to provide accurate and comprehensive data. The National Health Commission announced on its websites and other platforms the numbers of new confirmed, suspected, recovered, discharged cases and deaths, the number of people who have had close contact with confirmed cases and under medical observation, and the updated number of asymptomatic cases, as well as similar data in Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan.

——坚持对历史负责,依法适时订正病例数据。在疫情得到控制后,为确保信息公开透明、数据准确,针对疫情早期因收治能力不足患者在家中病亡、信息登记不全等原因,客观上存在迟报、漏报、重报、误报现象,根据相关法律规定,组织涉疫大数据与流行病学调查,武汉市对确诊和病死病例进行订正,其中确诊病例的死亡数核增1290例,累计为3869例。

— The revision of COVID-19 statistics was made in accordance with law. In the early stages of the outbreak, due to unverified deaths at home as a result of the lack of hospital capacity and incomplete registration, there were late, repetitive, erroneous and missing reports. After the outbreak was basically brought under control, Wuhan organized an epidemiological investigation with the help of big data technology and based on that, the city revised the numbers of confirmed cases and deaths. The number of deaths added was 1,290, bringing the total number to 3,869 in the city.

——创新使用和实时更新“疫情地图”,通告应急响应信息。各地利用大数据技术公布的“疫情地图”,通过社区名称、地址和位置,标明疫情传播具体地点、距离、人数等,并视情况不断调整应急响应和防控警报机制,及时公布交通管制等措施,以便于公众更有效防范传染,遏制病毒扩散。

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— The "epidemic map" was updated in real time to display figures on infections and deaths. All regions could refer to the map, which is supported by big data technology, for the precise location and number of infection cases in a specific community to respond in quick time and promptly formulate traffic control and other measures.

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2、普及防控科学知识

2. Dissemination of knowledge about prevention and control

——充分发挥“意见领袖”的舆论影响力,增强全社会的科学防治意识。组织科学家和科研机构在扎实研究基础上,通过各类发布会、接受媒体采访和互联网不断发布科学防治的权威观点和专业意见建议,提高公众科学认知水平,指导科学防治,倡导科学消杀,特别是推动全面普及戴口罩、勤洗手、常通风等最简单、最有效的大众防护措施,大力提升公众自我防护能力。公众号:高斋CATTI

— Key opinion leaders played a major role in raising public awareness of scientific prevention and control. Scientists and research institutions regularly released professional opinions and suggestions via press conferences, interviews and the internet and widely promoted simple but effective self-protection measures such as wearing face masks, washing hands regularly and ventilating rooms.

——发布操作性强的“防控指南”,有针对性地对公众进行具体指导。国家卫健委发布通用、旅行、家庭、公共场所、公共交通工具、居家医学观察等6份公众预防指南,以及专门针对农村地区的《农村居民防控新冠肺炎问答手册》;中国疾病预防控制中心公布《新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎公众防护指南》,从个人与家庭防护、居家医学观察、理性就医、心理疏导等方面解疑释惑,让公众有效掌握防护技巧和防护手段。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

— Practical and feasible prevention and control guidelines were also issued. The National Health Commission published six public prevention guidelines for general occasions, travel, family, public places, public transport and medical observation at home, as well as a question-and-answer manual specifically for rural residents. The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention published a "Guideline for Public Prevention of Pneumonia caused by Novel Coronavirus" which helped the public understand prevention methods and answered their questions about individual and family preventive measures, medical observation at home, medical treatment and psychological counseling.

——及时开展心理干预,引导民众正确面对。国家卫健委发布《新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情紧急心理危机干预指导原则》,实施分类干预;国务院联防联控机制印发《关于设立应对疫情心理援助热线的通知》,各地在原有心理援助热线基础上设立应对疫情心理援助热线;高校开通疫情心理支持热线和网络辅导服务,互联网医院及相关企业、机构提供网络在线、电话热线等社会心理服务。

— Psychological intervention was also used to guide the public to get through the trying times. The National Health Commission issued "Guiding Principles for Emergency Psychological Intervention for Pneumonia caused by the Novel Coronavirus" and a notice on psychological assistance requiring all localities to establish a hotline specifically to offer psychological help. Universities, online hospitals and related companies also opened psychological support hotlines and online counseling services.

3、主流媒体加强舆论引导提供舆论支持

3. Public opinion guidance and support by mainstream media

——新闻媒体深入宣传党中央重大方针决策部署,充分体现党中央坚决打赢疫情防控阻击战的决心和信心。同时,充分报道各地区各部门联防联控措施成效,让民众始终了解党和政府正在做什么、还要做什么,充分反映广大党员干部和人民群众抗击疫情特别是一线医务人员、社区工作者、志愿者以及公安干警和“下沉干部”的生动事迹,凝聚抗击疫情的精神力量,努力推动形成全国上下全面动员、全面部署、全面加强疫情防控的局面。公众号:高斋CATTI

— The news media gave full publicity to the government's major policies and decisions. The mainstream media reported on the achievements in the fight against the virus and updated the public on what was to be done. They covered moving stories of frontline medical workers, community workers, volunteers, police officers and other officials. These stories inspired an increasing number of citizens from all walks of life to participate in prevention and control efforts across the country.

——大众传播和网络媒体加强针对性引导,着力化解民众存在的焦虑、恐惧心理。除多层次高密度发布权威信息,全面反映抗疫救援、物资保障、疫苗研制、社会捐助等公众关心的重大问题,也正视存在的问题,不回避矛盾,通过舆论监督推动问题解决;在各类平台上设立专区解读疫情、分析数据、研判趋势并及时辟谣,以可信事实和翔实数据澄清是非,引导公众正确理性看待疫情,增强自我防范意识,依法行动、依法行事。

— Mass communication and digital media used their strengths to allay people's anxiety and fear. In addition to releasing a large amount of authoritative information on multiple channels, they also revealed existing problems, helped find solutions and answered major public concerns in terms of anti-epidemic work, logistic support, development of vaccines and public donations. Many set up special columns on their platforms to interpret the situation, analyze data and research, predict trends and promptly debunk rumors with credible facts and detailed data.

4、全民参与形成社会合力

4. Universal participation with social cohesion

——人民群众积极响应配合政府的防控部署与号召,较快形成“全民参与、群防群控”的有利局面。基于对防疫形势的理解和集体主义精神的民族文化价值,结合2003年抗击SARS的经历,人民群众以切身感受和实际行动自觉推动形成包括政府机构、企业、社会组织、基层社区、志愿者群体以及家庭和个人为一体的全民抗疫大局。@微博:高斋翻硕

— The people's active response to the government's call and their cooperation resulted in the entire society participating in efforts by government organs and social organizations. With solidarity and the experience of fighting the severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, in 2003, government institutions, enterprises, social organizations, communities, volunteer groups, families and individuals all united as one.

——公民高度自律并自觉作出自我牺牲,使社会防控部署措施得以全面顺利落实。无论是重点地区的长时间“封城”、全国普遍施行的社区准入管理还是全民居家隔离、特定情况下的“14天”自我隔离,以及家庭和个人卫生习惯、社会交往限制,都得到全体民众的严格执行,为有效降低病毒传染率奠定了强大的社会基础。公众号:高斋CATTI

— Citizens' self-discipline and their willingness to sacrifice facilitated the smooth implementation of prevention and control measures. Be it lockdowns of key areas, tight management of communities, home isolation or self-quarantine, family and personal hygiene habits or social distancing requirements, people laid a solid foundation for effectively reducing the rate of infection.

——社区建设体现重要作用,“网格化管理”是遏制疫情扩散的关键因素。社区网络作为一种“兜底”的社会管理机制,全国400万名城乡社区工作人员在志愿者配合下,对65万个城乡社区深入走访,宣讲防疫知识,进行心理疏导、收接快递、代购生活必需品等工作,实现了疫情防控“纵向到底、横向到边”,确保排查救治“一户不漏、一人不落”,使消毒消杀和环境整治“不留死角、没有缝隙”,同时让对人民群众的支持保障服务直接进入数亿家庭。

— Community-based management has been a key factor for curbing the spread of the virus. As an extension of governance for social management, 4 million community workers, together with volunteers, visited 650,000 urban and rural communities across the country to communicate epidemic prevention knowledge, offered psychological counseling and helped households receive daily necessities. They helped provide dragnet screening of potential virus carriers, made sure every corner was disinfected and helped millions of households with difficulties in making a living.

二、社会隔离和交通管控

II. Social isolation and traffic control

中国是一个超大规模人口流动社会。在没有疫苗和特效药的情况下,以传统隔离方式为主的非医疗干预是阻断重大疫情蔓延的最基本和最有效手段。面对新冠疫情的暴发,中国实施史无前例的大规模公共卫生应对举措,“上游堵截”,切断疫情严重地区的传染源;其他区域进行“全面防控”。超常规的社会隔离措施和灵活、人性化的社会管控,阻断了病毒的大面积扩散,成为遏制疫情在全国蔓延的最关键因素。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

China has huge people flows. In the absence of vaccines or treatment protocols, self-isolation, as a standard quarantine measure, proved to be the most effective non-medical means to stop the spread of the virus. China mobilized an unprecedented large-scale public health response, with "upstream interception" in areas with severe outbreaks to cut off the source of infection and "full prevention and control" in other areas. The exceptional measures of social isolation and the discretionary and humane approach to social control stalled the spread of the virus and proved to be the most critical factor throughout the country.

1、“重灾区”实施“封城”和“停运”

1. City lockdown and transport freeze in hardest-hit areas

——对离汉离鄂通道实施封闭和管控,最大限度切断病毒传播途径。暂停武汉及湖北多地轮渡、长途客运、机场、火车站运营,全国暂停入汉道路水路客运班线发班。在高速公路收费站口、国省市县村道口建立交通管控卡口1501个,其中武汉市51个,其他市州1450个,阻断病毒向全国以及省内卫生基础设施薄弱的农村地区扩散。从1月23日开始对武汉这座有1100万常住人口的超大型城市实施历时76天“封城”。

— Outbound travel was suspended and tight restrictions were imposed in Wuhan and Hubei province to cut off the virus' transmission as much as possible. Ferry, long-distance passenger transport, air and rail links were suspended in Wuhan and Hubei, and all passenger transport to Hubei stopped. A total of 1,501 traffic checkpoints were established in Hubei province, at highway toll gates and road crossings in cities, counties and villages, including 51 in Wuhan and 1,450 in other cities and prefectures, to stop the virus from spreading to the rest of the country and rural areas with relatively poor health infrastructure within the province. Starting January 23, the citywide lockdown of Wuhan, a metropolis of 11 million permanent residents, lasted 76 days.

——武汉市及湖北省多地暂停市内公共交通,有效遏制病毒传染面源。武汉全市城市公交、地铁、轮渡、长途客车暂停运营,除抗疫车辆、运输生活必需品车辆以及消防、抢险、环卫、警车等特种车辆外,其他车辆一律禁止通行,湖北其他地区也实现疫情防控和交通保障统筹兼顾,大幅减少市内人员流动和由此可能产生的病毒传播。

— Intra-city public transport in Wuhan and many other cities in Hubei was suspended. Wuhan suspended the operation of buses, subways, ferries and long-distance buses. Except for anti-epidemic vehicles, vehicles for transporting daily necessities, and special vehicles used for firefighting, emergency rescue, sanitation and police patrol, all other vehicles were barred from the road. Other areas in Hubei also carried out similar measures depending upon conditions.

2、非疫情严重地区实施分级交通管制

2. Differentiated traffic controls in less severe areas

——对湖北以外地区实施差异化交通管控,防止湖北省疫情外溢蔓延。湖北周边省份筑牢环鄂交通管控“隔离带”,防止重灾区疫情向周边传播。全国其他地区根据辖区内低风险、中风险、高风险县(市、区、旗)名单,实行分区分级精准防控,对道路客运、城市公共交通(含城市轨道交通)和出租汽车(含网约车)等城乡道路运输服务进行动态管控。公众号:高斋CATTI

— Differentiated traffic controls were implemented in areas outside Hubei to prevent the outbreak from spilling over. The provinces abutting Hubei built traffic control "isolation zones" around it. Based on risk levels, from low to medium to high, the rest of the country implemented differentiated and region-specific measures of prevention and control within their jurisdictions to manage local transport services, urban public transport (including rail transit), and taxies (including e-hailing service).

3、以多种手段避免人员聚集和交叉感染

3. Tactics to prevent social gathering and cross-infections

——关闭娱乐休闲性公共场所,加强公共服务设施防控。关闭影院、剧院、网吧以及健身房等场所,对车站、机场、码头、农贸市场、商场、超市、餐馆、酒店、宾馆等必须开放的公共服务类场所,以及汽车、火车、飞机等密闭交通工具,落实环境卫生整治、消毒、通风、“进出检”、限流等措施,进入人员必须测体温、戴口罩,避免交叉感染。@微博:高斋翻硕

— Public places for entertainment and leisure such as cinemas, theaters, internet cafes and gyms were closed. At public places that had to be open — including stations, airports, docks, agricultural markets, shopping malls, supermarkets, restaurants and hotels, and in transport such as cars, trains and airplanes, measures like sanitation, disinfection, ventilation, inspections and crowd limits were in place. People had to wear face masks and have their temperature checked before entering these facilities.

——推行在家办公,实行远程教学。取消或延缓各种公众聚集性活动,政府机关和企事业单位落实用工单位防控,按照“少接触、少聚集”原则,采取线上办公、错峰上班、轮流到岗等弹性工作方式;各地根据疫情实际推迟开学时间,暂停培训机构所有线下课程,以线上教学替代课堂教学,有效控制全国总计3亿在校人员的流动和聚集。

— Working from home and distance education were promoted. Public gatherings were either canceled or postponed. Government agencies, public institutions and enterprises implemented prevention and control measures to manage employees, adopted more flexibility such as working online, staggered hours and staff rotation. Schools postponed reopening according to the local conditions while training institutions suspended all offline courses and replaced them with online teaching, effectively curbing the flow of 300 million school-related people across the country.

4、把社区隔离作为阻断病毒的基础性防线

4. Community isolation basic line of defense

——普遍实行社区封闭式管理,消除防疫死角和盲区。社区连接千家万户和所有居民,是切断病毒传播的“第一层面”和“最后一公里”。湖北武汉采取社区硬性隔离,全面实施24小时封闭管理,除就医和防疫相关活动外,一律禁止出入,由社区承担居民生活保障工作。全国各地对城市社区、农村村落均实施封闭式管理,设立检查登记制度,进出人员双向测体温。对监管场所、养老机构、福利院、精神卫生医疗机构等特殊场所,实行重点防控,杜绝输入性疫情。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

— Strict management of residential communities was universally adopted. Wuhan adopted a rigid regimen of community isolation. Entry and exit were forbidden except for medical treatment and epidemic prevention-related activities, while community workers took the responsibility to provide essential goods. Checkpoints were established to screen and register access and temperatures were taken on both entry and exit. Enhanced prevention and control measures were taken in places such as nursing homes, welfare institutions and mental health institutions.

——全民居家,自觉落实隔离要求。人民群众积极响应落实各级政府关于社会隔离的部署安排,除按各地不同要求,实行规定时间的居家隔离、在家办公学习等,还普遍严格执行跨地区旅行后的14天居家隔离政策,隔离期结束后仍减少一切不必要的外出,为斩断病毒传染链做出重要贡献。

— People across China stayed at home, following the call for self-isolation. On top of different local requirements like home isolation at the designated time, working from home and online learning, the 14-day home isolation after cross-regional travel was strictly implemented. Non-essential travel was denied even after the end of the isolation period, making an important contribution to cutting off the virus transmission chain.

三、排查检测和动态监测

III. Screening, testing and dynamic monitoring

基于病毒“人传人”的传染病规律认识,以流行病学调查为核心的排查、检测和监测,对切断病毒传播链条和对患者实施及时救治,是一个关键环节。

Screening, testing and monitoring with epidemiological investigation at the core became a key approach to cut virus transmission and provide timely treatment to infected patients.

中国高度重视“源头防控”,实行“早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗”和“应检尽检、应收尽收、应隔尽隔、应治尽治”的疫情防治方针,把“早发现、早报告”和“应检尽检、应隔尽隔”作为首要,对降低传染率、病亡率起到重要作用。@微博:高斋翻硕

China laid great stress on epidemic control and prevention at the source, and implemented policies of "early detection, early reporting, early isolation and early treatment" and "testing all who need to be tested, hospitalization of all who need to be hospitalized, isolating and treating all who need to be isolated and treated". Of the policies, "early detection and early reporting" and "testing and isolating all in need" were a priority, which played an important role in reducing transmission and fatality rates.

1、以社区为单位全面排查

1. Thorough screening at communities

——武汉展开两轮集中拉网式排查,以“不落一户、不漏一人”标准实现“存量清零”。针对疫情80%以上为社区传播的问题,出动8万余名干群,通过入户、电话、网络等手段,对全市400多万户居民,进行“清底大排查”,排查出所有确诊和疑似患者及密切接触者,从而确保没有新的潜在感染源发生。

— Considering that more than 80 percent of all infections occurred in communities, authorities in Wuhan dispatched more than 80,000 government employees to conduct a thorough survey of all households in the city, which number more than 4 million. Various means such as personal visits, telephone calls and the internet were used. As a result, all confirmed and suspected cases, and those who had close contact with confirmed cases in communities were identified and transferred to hospitals or other designated places, which helped ensure the elimination of potential sources of infection in communities.

——普遍实行“群防群控”,在全国范围展开摸排工作。各省区市以社区网格为基础单元,采取上门排查与自查自报相结合的方式展开地毯式排查。对确诊患者、疑似患者、不能排除感染可能的发热患者和确诊患者的密切接触者以及从重点疫情地区返回人员进行登记汇总,除对患者及时送医救治,对发热人员和与患者密切接触人员分别安排在定点医院和经征用作为定点隔离点的酒店、旅馆等处隔离,后期对入境人员全部实行集中隔离观察。公众号:高斋CATTI

— Nationwide, comprehensive screening in communities was done in all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, and door-to-door visits were combined with voluntary checks and reporting by residents. All confirmed and suspected cases, suspected cases with fever, those who had close contact with confirmed cases and residents who returned from badly-hit epidemic areas were registered. All confirmed cases were hospitalized, and those displaying fever symptoms were sent to designated venues for isolation and medical observation, while those who had close contact with confirmed patients were sent to designated quarantine sites such as hotels for medical observation. Later, all people coming from overseas were subject to isolation at designated quarantine sites.

2、提高检测水平

2. Improving virus testing

——在增强试剂盒供应能力基础上,确保“应检尽检”、“即收即检”。检测产品生产企业提高产能,在最短时间内扭转试剂盒供不应求局面。同时扩充检测机构,允许具备“二级生物安全实验室”和能够进行“反转录-聚合酶链式反应(反转录-PCR)”条件的三甲医院、疾控中心和专业检测机构进行核酸检测,实现疑似病例全面检测。湖北武汉日检测量由最初的300人份提升到2万人份以上,提供7×24小时不间断检测服务。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

— Testing was done on all people in need as soon as possible with improved supply of testing kits. With increased production of testing kits, the initial short supply was overcome in the shortest period of time. Authorities expanded the list of institutes certified to conduct such tests by allowing P2 biosafety labs, qualified major hospitals, centers for disease control and prevention and professional testing institutes that could carry out reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to provide nucleic acid tests so that all suspected cases could be tested. As a result, the daily testing capacity in Hubei province increased from 300 samples at the beginning of the outbreak to more than 20,000, with certified institutes providing round-the-clock testing services.

——缩短检测周期,确保检测质量。

— Shortening testing cycle and ensuring quality

针对核酸检测慢导致诊断难、收治难的问题,优化检测流程,下放检测权和确诊权,除聚集性病例外的大部分病例无需再送中国疾病预防控制中心进行复核,缩短确诊病例的报告结果时间,检测周期从之前的6天缩短到4至6小时以及后来更短的时间,并日清日结。公众号:高斋CATTI

Initially, slow nucleic acid testing led to difficulties in patients being diagnosed and admitted to hospitals. Testing procedures were streamlined and more institutes authorized to give such tests. As a result, cases did not have to be reviewed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention for confirmation, except cluster cases, to reduce the time needed to confirm infections. Therefore, the test cycle of the virus reduced from six days at the beginning of the outbreak to between four and six hours, and even shorter, later.

同时,各地以高标准加快核酸检测实验室建设,加强对一线检测人员和管理人员的专业培训,建立健全质量控制体系,全面提升检测能力和水平,确保检测精准度和检测报告的有效性。

Across the rest of the country too, nucleic acid test labs were set up, training for testing workers and managerial staff was stepped up, and improved quality control systems were set in place to improve virus testing ability and ensure precise results.

针对疑似病例具有肺炎影像学特征的情况,增加“临床诊断病例”,以使患者及早按确诊病例相关要求接受治疗,进一步提高了救治成功率,降低了病亡率。

As most suspected cases display pneumonia-like computed tomography images, clinically diagnosed cases were temporarily considered as confirmed so that they could receive treatment. The measure raised the cure rate of infected patients and reduced the mortality rate.

3、建立动态管理体系

3. Establishing a dynamic management system

——分区域施策,增强排查防控针对性。全国推行分区分级精准施策防控策略,以县域为单位,依据人口、发病情况综合研判,划分低、中、高疫情风险等级。低风险区严防输入,适时恢复生产生活秩序;中风险区外防输入、内防扩散,有序复工复产;高风险区内防扩散、外防输出,集中精力抓疫情防控。

— China promoted an epidemic control and prevention strategy with tailored measures for different areas, and all county-level areas were categorized as low-risk, medium-risk or high-risk based on their population and degree of epidemic prevalence. Low-risk areas took strict measures to prevent imported cases, while getting ready to resume normal life and economic activity. In medium-risk areas, measures were taken to both prevent imported cases and spread of the virus, with resumption of work and production proceeding in an orderly manner. High-risk areas focused their efforts on control and prevention, preventing cases from being exported to other areas and halting the spread of the virus within its own area.

——阶段性调整防控重点,及时应对新挑战。随着疫情形势变化,将防控重点调整为“外防输入、内防反弹”,实行“第一入境点”机制,组织民航、海关、公安、卫健、外事、边检、机场等部门联勤联动,从源头上切断输入性病例。随着无症状感染者增多,决定对发现的无症状感染者采取14天集中隔离医学观察,连续两次标本核酸检测阴性方可解除隔离。

— The focus of epidemic control and prevention was constantly adjusted to meet new challenges such as preventing imported cases and domestic re-infections. A joint-work mechanism comprising different departments such as aviation, customs, public security, health, foreign affairs, border inspection and airports was established to prevent transmission of the virus at the point of first entry. With an increasing number of asymptomatic cases, it was decided to place all such cases under medical observation in isolation for 14 days at designated sites, and allow them to be discharged only after they test negative twice consecutively.

——推出“健康码”模式,确保“绿色出行”。个人通过政府服务网络平台在手机上下载“健康码”,作为出行、复工复产复学、日常生活及出入公共场所的凭证,根据“健康码”绿黄红三种颜色进行管控通行和分类处置,实现疫情管控数据的精准采集和统计分析,根据人员流动,实现分区分级的精准识别、精准施策和精准防控,让安全风险“透明化”,公众出行更放心。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

— Health QR codes were promoted to ensure convenience for residents. Individuals could download health QR codes from government service network platforms to serve as permits for making trips, going to school or work, daily life and accessing public venues. The codes are in three colors — green, yellow and red — and so restrictions could be imposed accordingly. This way, data on epidemic control could be collected precisely.

4、深入进行流调工作

4. Intensifying epidemiological investigation

——组建流行病学调查团队,精准追踪和切断病毒传播途径。依托大数据和信息化系统,提高流调精准度和效率,把对密切接触者的追踪作为一个重要环节,实现病例发现早、快、全,对无症状感染者和密切接触者进行医学观察,降低感染风险。在疫情高峰期,武汉组建5人一组的1800个流调小组,全面调查确诊和密切接触者轨迹,开展传染源的溯源排查。

— Epidemiological teams were set up to precisely trace and cut off transmission channels. Big data technology and digitalized systems were used to improve preciseness and efficiency of epidemiological investigations. Tracing those who had close contact with confirmed patients was key so that all cases were detected as early and quickly as possible. All asymptomatic cases and those who had close contact with confirmed cases were put under medical observation. During the peak of the epidemic, 1,800 epidemiological groups were set up with five members in each team to thoroughly investigate the movement history of confirmed cases and their close contacts.

——根据不同阶段情况,针对重点人群和区域深入进行流调。把各级各类医疗机构和社区、家庭发现的确诊病例、疑似病例和无症状感染者及聚集性疫情,企业复工复产、学校和托幼机构复学复园过程中发现的异常情况,养老机构、残障人员福利机构、监管场所等发生的异常情况,以及后期入境人员中的确诊病例、疑似病例、有发热症状的人群以及密切接触者,作为流调重点,进行深入摸排。公众号:高斋CATTI

— Surveys were conducted among focus groups of people and in key areas, confirmed cases, suspected cases, asymptomatic cases and cluster cases that were identified at various medical institutions, communities and households could be traced and investigated. Abnormal cases found at enterprises that had resumed production and at schools and kindergartens that reopened as well as in nursing homes for elderly people and facilities for the disabled could also be traced and investigated. During the later stages of the epidemic, confirmed cases and their close contacts, suspected cases and people from overseas displaying symptoms of fever were also traced and investigated.

——因应新需要,不断充实流调内容。加强针对无症状感染者的流调,防范疫情反弹。组织在武汉市、湖北省和其他部分省份,开展侧重点不同的无症状感染流行病学调查,在24小时内完成所发现无症状感染者的流调,对无症状感染者的传染性进行科学评估,并公开调查结果;后期,启动血清流行病学调查,为提高防控水平提供科学依据。

— Tailored epidemiological investigations were organized to target asymptomatic cases in Hubei province, including its capital Wuhan, and some other provinces. Epidemiological surveys were completed within 24 hours for every asymptomatic case identified. Evaluation was made on whether asymptomatic cases would transmit the virus to other people and the result was made public; in the latter period of the outbreak, a serum antibody epidemiological survey was initiated to provide scientific evidence for targeted control.

5、甄别四类人员进行分类处理

5. Handling four groups for specific treatment

按照“四集中”原则和“四应四尽”要求,对四类人员进行集中隔离和收治。

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——确诊患者分级早收治。对于确诊的患者、重症患者送定点医院入院治疗,轻症患者无法全部进入定点医院治疗的,安排到指定区域(包括“方舱医院”)进行隔离治疗。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

— Confirmed patients were hospitalized for treatment based on their conditions as early as possible. Serious patients were sent to designated hospitals for treatment, while those with mild symptoms were sent to designated facilities, including makeshift hospitals, for treatment under isolation.

——疑似患者分类治疗和集中隔离观察。对于疑似的患者,重症患者入院治疗,轻症患者无法入院隔离的到指定地点进行隔离。检测结果为“双阴”,但临床症状符合新型冠状病毒感染肺炎的患者,仍按照疑似患者进行管理。公众号:高斋CATTI

— Suspected cases were given treatment based on their condition or placed under observation in quarantine. Suspected cases were sent to hospitals for treatment if they were in serious condition, while those with mild symptoms were sent to designated places for isolation if they could not be admitted to hospitals. Cases that tested negative for the virus twice but exhibited clinical symptoms were treated as suspected cases.

——发热患者集中隔离观察。对于无法明确排除新型冠状病毒感染肺炎可能的发热患者,参照疑似患者进行集中隔离观察,但与疑似患者分开隔离,防止交叉感染。@微博:高斋翻硕

— Those with fever were placed under observation in isolation. Fever patients who could not be ruled out to be COVID-19 cases were treated as suspected cases and put under observation in isolation at designated places, but were separated from suspected cases to prevent possible cross-infection.

——密切接触者集中隔离观察。对于确诊患者的密切接触者,因一些病毒携带者虽然不发病但仍具有传染性,一些病例在尚无症状的潜伏期就已具有传染性,所以,已确诊患者的密切接触者参照发热病人实行集中隔离观察。

— Close contacts of confirmed cases were put under observation in isolation at designated places. Some of them may have been asymptomatic but infected so they were put under observation in isolation at designated places.

四、诊疗方案和救治能力

IV. Treatment plans and scientific research

疫情骤然集中暴发导致医疗资源严重挤兑,患者不能得到及时救治,不仅导致病毒扩散也直接造成高病亡率,这是抗击疫情初期的最大挑战。按照中国领导人提出的“把医疗救治工作摆在第一位”的要求,中国在抗击疫情一开始就“把救治作为重中之重”,坚持“生命至上”,特别是明确了“应收尽收”、“早诊早治”、“集中收治”和“中西医结合”的方针,分级设置医院和按病情分级分类分流救治轻、中、重症患者,同时实施免费治疗解除患者后顾之忧,避免因看不起病而导致病重病亡和扩大传染源,大幅度降低感染率、病亡率,提升治愈率。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

The sudden outbreak of the epidemic put an overwhelming burden on medical resources and led to treatment delays. The unchecked virus triggered a high mortality rate, posing the biggest challenge in the early fight against the epidemic. In line with the instructions of Chinese leaders to prioritize medical treatment, great efforts were made in Wuhan and the rest of the country to ensure all confirmed cases were hospitalized, early diagnosis made and early treatment provided, concentrated hospitalization implemented and a combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine used. Hospitals were classified by grades and patients were admitted according to different conditions and symptoms. Treatment was provided free to relieve financial burden, lest the infected who could not afford treatment led to the spread of the virus.

1、确立控制传染源与提高救治面相统一双重目标

1. Dual goals of containing the source of infection and extension of treatment

——“集中收治”与“床位扩容”相结合,使起初无法就医患者全部收治。在疫情重灾区武汉,一方面,参照抗击SARS疫情北京建造“小汤山医院”的模式,以短短10天左右时间先后完成“火神山”、“雷神山”两座各可容纳1000多张床位的传染病专科医院建设并投入使用,陆续新建一批“方舱医院”,改扩建一批定点医院,改造一批综合医院,短期内新增床位10多万张,实现了“人等床”到“床等人”的重大转变,在短时间内解决了大规模收治难题。另一方面,从全国抽调近200辆负压救护车,集中力量组成转运队,较快实现新增病例收治日清日结,从而使原来往返于社区和医院而无法有效就医的大量感染者从“居家隔离”转为“集中收治”,既有效剪除了社区传播这个最大的传染途径,也极大地提高了救治率。

— Concentrated hospitalization of patients and increase of hospital beds ensured treatment for all patients who could not be admitted at the beginning of the outbreak. In Wuhan, two hospitals — Huoshenshan and Leishenshan — modeled after the Beijing Xiaotangshan SARS Hospital and each with a capacity of more than 1,000 beds, were constructed in 10 days. Through the construction of makeshift hospitals, the expansion of designated hospitals and the conversion of general hospitals, more than 100,000 beds were added in a short time, and as a result, beds were no longer in short supply. Furthermore, 200 negative pressure ambulances were brought from all over the country to ensure that newly-discovered cases could be treated without delay. All this enabled a large number of patients to be hospitalized and the cure rate was raised.

——区分轻重症患者,构建由“方舱医院”和“定点医院”构成的分级分类分流救治体系。针对前期轻重症混治的问题,实行关口前移、分类救治。首先,指定定点医院集中救治重症危重症患者。武汉市共指定46家定点收治医院,增配人工膜肺、呼吸机等设备,改造供氧管道,提升救治能力,降低病亡率。同时,以依托会展中心、体育馆等设施改建形成的“方舱医院”收治轻症患者,实现大规模隔离救治,在武汉由一共15座“方舱医院”收治的这类患者约占当地新冠肺炎患者的四分之一以上,计1.2万余名。作为应对重大传染病的重要创新模式,“方舱医院”将早期居家隔离的轻症患者进行统一集中收治隔离,使“应收尽收”原则变成现实,最大限度减少或杜绝了更大面积的社区传染。公众号:高斋CATTI

— Patients with serious and mild symptoms were separated, and a diverse treatment network of makeshift hospitals and designated hospitals was established. Patients with mild and serious symptoms were earlier treated in the same hospitals but later sent to different hospitals for different treatments. Those in serious, or critical, condition were treated in designated hospitals. ECMOs, ventilators and other equipment were supplied to 46 such designated hospitals. At the same time, exhibition centers, gymnasiums and other facilities were converted into makeshift hospitals for patients with mild symptoms. The 16 makeshift hospitals in Wuhan admitted up to 12,000 patients with mild symptoms, accounting for more than a quarter of the infected patients. Through centralized isolation and treatment for patients with mild symptoms, the makeshift hospitals, an important measure designed to cope with infectious diseases, not only facilitated the hospitalization of all confirmed patients but also reduced the chances of cross-infection in communities to a large extent.

2、完善治疗方案,优化治疗手段

2. Better treatment plan and better treatment method

——加强精细管理,优化治疗方案。根据症状轻重采取个性化治疗方案。建立“院士团队巡查制度”,定期组织院士专家团队对武汉市定点医院重症患者救治进行巡诊,评估患者病情和治疗方案。轻症患者统一集中收治到方舱医院,明确抗病毒、吸氧、中医中药等综合治疗措施,防止轻症转重症;针对超过80%的重症患者合并严重基础性疾病情况,实行“一人一策”, 建立感染、呼吸、重症、心脏、肾脏等多学科会诊制度,并制定重症、危重症护理规范,推出高流量吸氧、无创和有创机械通气、俯卧位通气等措施,重视死亡病例讨论制度,确保科学救治,有效降低致死率,提高治愈率。

— Treatment plans were tailored according to the severity of symptoms. Inspection teams consisting of academicians and experts were organized to regularly inspect designated hospitals. The experts discussed and evaluated treatment plans for critically ill patients in Wuhan's designated hospitals. Patients with mild conditions were admitted to the makeshift hospitals for comprehensive treatment such as antiviral therapy, oxygen inhalation, and traditional Chinese herbal medication to prevent their condition turning worse. For the more than 80% of severe cases with serious complications, a case-by-case treatment was prescribed after consultation with a multidisciplinary team consisting of experts on infections, respiratory, intensive care, heart, and kidneys and others. In addition, an array of standards was formulated for nursing patients in critical condition, and such measures as inhalation of large amount of oxygen, non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation, and prone posture for better ventilation as well as review of death cases, were adopted to ensure scientific treatment so that the fatality rate was reduced and the cure rate increased.

——边治疗边研究边总结,不断完善诊疗方案。在对前期医疗救治工作不断分析研判总结的基础上,先后制定2版轻症管理规范、3版重型危重型病例诊疗方案,推出第五、六、七版全国新冠肺炎诊疗方案。

— Learning from treatment and constantly improving methods for diagnosis and treatment characterized the fight against the virus. On the basis of detailed analysis of preliminary treatment, the second edition of a manual for the management of cases with mild conditions, the third edition of a manual for the diagnosis and treatment of patients in severe and critical condition were formulated, and the fifth, sixth and seventh editions of the protocol for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 were published.

其中,第七版修订方案增加了病理改变内容,对临床表现、诊断标准、治疗方法和出院标准等进行增补和调整,有利于根据不同人群的疾病特点,更加精准地开展诊疗和救治,并把无症状感染者可能具有感染性、康复者血浆治疗等新发现补充写入。目前,第七版诊疗方案已被多个国家借鉴和采用。公众号:高斋CATTI

Among them, a chapter on pathological changes was added to the revised version of the seventh edition, supplementing revision to clinical symptoms, diagnostic standards, treatment methods, and discharge standards. Such revisions were conducive to more accurate diagnosis and treatment according to the symptoms of different patients. At the same time, the latest edition added that asymptomatic cases may also be infectious and that recovered patients' plasma could be used in treatment. The seventh edition of the protocol for diagnosis and treatment has been adopted by many countries.

——坚持临床和科研相结合,加强药物筛选和疫苗研发。积极推动科技攻关,筛选有效药方,及时反馈疗效,测试、研究、推广法匹拉韦、磷酸氯喹、恢复期血浆等,特别是针对没有特效药可用的现实情况,以救治需求为导向,筛选出中药“三药三方”(金花清感颗粒、连花清瘟胶囊和颗粒、血必净注射液、清肺排毒汤、化湿败毒方、宣肺败毒方)等临床有效药物,推动重组新冠疫苗和新冠灭活疫苗启动临床试验,血浆治疗、干细胞治疗等技术实现突破进展,不断完善诊疗方案,显著降低了由轻症转为重症的比例,患者治愈率从初期的14%提升到93%。

— Clinical treatment and scientific research were combined to strengthen the selection of effective drugs and the research and development of vaccines. Such drugs as favipiravir, chloroquine phosphate and plasma from those who recovered from infections went into clinical trials and timely feedback was obtained. Given there is no effective medicine yet, selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines (including Jinhua Qinggan Granule, Lianhua Qingwen Capsule, Xuebijing Injection, Qingfei Paidu Decoction, Huashi Baidu Decoction, Xuanfei Baidu Decoction) proved to be effective. Breakthroughs were made in the clinical trials of vaccines for COVID-19, plasma therapy and stem cell therapy. The improved treatment plan has significantly reduced the proportion of cases with mild symptoms developing into serious ones, and raised the recovery from 14 to 93 percent.

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3、中医药以“治未病”、“辨证施治”、“多靶点干预”优势全程参与

3. The positive role of TCM in treatment through preemptive prevention, differentiated medication and multi-target intervention

——中医院、中医团队参与救治,中医药早期介入、全程参与,开展分类救治。中医医疗队整建制接管定点医院若干重症病区和方舱医院,其他方舱医院均派驻中医专家。对轻症患者实施中医药早介入早使用;对重症和危重症患者实行中西医结合,中医医师全程参与救治方案制定等治疗过程;医学观察发热病人和密切接触者服用中药提高免疫力;对出院患者实施中医康复方案。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

— The participation of TCM hospitals and teams paved the way for early intervention with traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Some designated and makeshift hospitals were holistically run by TCM teams. TCM doctors were also sent to other makeshift hospitals to help with treatment. Early use of traditional Chinese medicines for patients with mild symptoms was promoted; traditional Chinese and Western medicines were both used in patients with severe symptoms. TCM physicians participated in the holistic process of treatment and prescribed traditional medicines for those who had fever and those who had close contact with confirmed cases to improve their immunity. TCM medicines were also used for those who had recovered to strengthen their constitution.

——高使用率和高有效率的中西医结合救治系统方案成为中国抗击新冠肺炎疫情临床治疗的一大特色。据统计,全国和湖北全省新冠肺炎确诊病例中中医药使用率和总有效率都超过90%。临床疗效观察显示,中医药能有效缓解症状,减少轻型、普通型向重型发展,提高治愈率、降低病亡率,促进恢复期人群机体康复。

— The wide use and effectiveness of the combination of TCM and Western medicine has proved to be a major feature of China's clinical treatment. Statistics show that the rate of TCM use and effectiveness in treating patients both in Hubei and the rest of the country was more than 90 percent. Clinical observation indicated that traditional Chinese medicine can effectively relieve symptoms, prevent mild and moderate cases from getting worse, improve the cure rate, reduce the mortality rate and speed up recovery.

五、资源调配和物资保障

V. Allocation of resources and guarantee of supplies

中国发挥“集中力量办大事”的制度优势,建立抗击疫情举国体制,一方面,弘扬“一方有难、八方支援”的民族精神,集全国之力支持疫情重灾区,把全国支援湖北和武汉抗击疫情作为打赢“湖北保卫战”、“武汉保卫战”的关键,统筹调配全国全军资源为“主战场”提供及时可靠保障;@微博:高斋翻硕

China leveraged its institutional strength of mobilizing resources for major undertakings, establishing a nationwide mechanism against the pandemic. On the one hand, it promoted the national spirit of "When disasters strike, help comes from all sides", harnessed the strength of the whole country to support severely affected areas, prioritized the national effort to aid Hubei province and its capital Wuhan to win the "war to safeguard Hubei" and "war to safeguard Wuhan", coordinated and pooled resources from the country and the army to ensure timely and reliable supply to "the main battlefield".

另一方面,在全国范围内高效配置资源,优化组织生产,加强医用物资和生活必需品应急保供,严厉查处各类哄抬物价和制假售假的违法行为,打赢后勤保障战,为抗击疫情奠定重要的物质基础。

On the other hand, China effectively allocated domestic resources, streamlined organizational structures and manufacturing, enhanced the emergency-response provision of medical supplies and daily necessities, strictly investigated and severely punished illegal acts such as price gouging and making and selling of fake products, ensured logistics support and laid a solid foundation for fighting the pandemic.

1、全国医疗人员驰援湖北

1. Hubei gets national health workforce support

——展开新中国成立以来规模最大的医疗力量调遣,以紧急“输血式”支援缓解重灾区医疗资源枯竭困境和压力。全国医护人员积极参与疫情救援工作,30个省区市和新疆生产建设兵团和中国人民解放军等共调派340多支医疗队、42000多名医务人员驰援湖北,与湖北当地医务人员一起开展医疗救治,这是提高疫情重灾区治愈率、降低病亡率的关键步骤。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

— The largest allocation of medical resources since the founding of New China was made. Professional medical workers from across the nation were dispatched to alleviate the stress and adversity caused by depletion of medical resources in severely affected areas. More than 42,000 health workers in 340 medical aid teams gathered from across the country, including 30 provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities, the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, and the People's Liberation Army (PLA), treating patients along with local colleagues. This was a key measure to increase the cure rate and reduce the mortality rate in severely affected areas.

——复制“汶川地震经验”,进行“对口支援”和“军队支援”的成功实践。集中全国资源全力支持武汉,协调全国各地资源以“一省包一市”的方式,对口支援湖北各地市,以“省包院”、“院包科”、“整建制接管定点医院重症病区”的格局,有效解决当地医疗资源和救治需求之间的突出矛盾。中国人民解放军以多种方式组织医疗支援,除派出4000多名医护人员驰援武汉、空军出动运输机紧急运送支援物资,还承担武汉新建的专科医院之一火神山医院的医疗救治任务;全军63所定点收治医院、1万余名医护人员投入一线救治。

— The experience from relief efforts during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake was duplicated, among which were "pairing assistance" and "military assistance". All-out support to Wuhan was provided by coordinating the country's resources, which were allocated to cities in Hubei, in the organizational pattern of "a province paired to a city" to aid prefectural-level cities of Hubei province. Specific organizational patterns including "province/autonomous region/municipality paired to a designated hospital", "hospital paired to a designated department", and "taking over special wards (for patients with severe symptoms) of designated hospitals with a complete structural system" were implemented. All these measures effectively resolved the local imbalance between medical supplies and treatment requirements. The PLA, apart from sending over 4,000 medical staff to Wuhan, also dispatched cargo aircraft to urgently deliver support goods. In addition, the PLA undertook medical treatment in Huoshenshan Hospital — one of the newly-built special facilities in Wuhan. More than 10,000 medical personnel from 63 designated hospitals in the army were sent to frontline.

——集中全国专家资源,对防控、诊疗、救治进行全链条指导。全国顶级呼吸病学和重症医学专家会聚武汉,在疫情初期即介入诊疗工作。在中央指导组协调下,由权威院士带队的专家团队第一时间赴汉,在定点医院开展巡诊巡查,规范诊疗流程,协助湖北武汉及全国加强复杂危重症的会诊和救治,同时积极探索新药物、新疗法,及时将行之有效的治疗方法纳入到诊疗方案,推广到全国救治工作中。派出国家医院感染管理专家组,在湖北、武汉直接指导医疗机构,加强医院感染预防与控制,开展岗前防护培训,增强医护防护安全。@微博:高斋翻硕

— National experts were pooled to give comprehensive instructions on prevention and control, diagnosis and treatment. The nation's top experts in respiratory diseases and critical care medicine gathered in Wuhan, and intervened in the diagnosis and treatment at the early stages of the outbreak. Under the coordination of the guidance group sent by the central government, expert teams led by leading scientists arrived in Wuhan, conducted epidemiological inspections in designated hospitals, prescribed diagnosis and treatment procedures, assisted Hubei province including Wuhan and the nation at large to improve consultation and treatment of complex and critical cases. The experts also worked on new drugs and therapies, and included efficacious remedies in the protocol for nationwide promotion. A national expert group in nosocomial infection control was sent to guide prevention and control, conduct training, and enhance the safety of medical workers.

2、大力加强医疗物资生产供应和医疗支持服务

2. Tremendous efforts made in medical supplies manufacturing

——推动“复产”和“转产”,日产能产量迅速达到高峰。依托完备的工业生产体系,医疗企业克服工人返岗不足等困难,以最快速度恢复医疗用品生产,最大限度扩大产能。有条件的企业迅速调整转产,生产口罩、防护服、消毒液、测温仪、医疗器械等物资,有效扩大了疫情防控物资的生产供应。在较短时间内,包括一次性医用口罩、医用外科口罩、医用KN95口罩在内,全国口罩日产能产量超过1.1亿只;一次性医用防护服日产能超过150万件;手持式红外测温仪日产能达40万台;试剂盒日供应量在3月初达到近35万人份。同时,畅通供应链条和物流渠道,建立联保联供协作机制,源源不断地把各地支援物资运到湖北。在一个月时间内,医用防护服日调度供应量从2.1万件增加到27万件,KN95口罩日调度供应量从7.2万只增加到56.2万只。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

— The production capacity of medical supplies and equipment rose rapidly with the promotion of "production resumption" and "switch of production" models. Thanks to the comprehensive industrial production system, enterprises in medical equipment and materials, overcame difficulties including shortage of manpower, resumed production rapidly and vastly expanded production scale. Other enterprises with flexibility promptly changed their lines of production to produce medical materials. Thousands of them switched to produce medical supplies, including face masks, protective suits, disinfectants, digital thermometers and medical instruments, and expanded the manufacturing and provision of essential supplies. Within a short time, the daily production capacity of face masks — including disposable masks, surgical masks and medical protective masks (KN95) — exceeded 110 million; more than 1.5 million disposable medical protective suits were made, and 400,000 hand-held infrared thermometers manufactured. The daily supply of test kits reached nearly 350,000 by the beginning of March. Meanwhile, the supply chains and logistic conduits were smooth. Supplies from every corner of the country were continuously delivered to Hubei. In just a month, the daily allocation of medical protective suits jumped from 21,000 to 270,000, and KN95 masks from 72,000 to 562,000.

——增强技术手段支持,在服务公众同时减少医院交叉感染。普遍开展远程问诊、专家直播、医疗培训等服务,充分运用远程可视医疗系统和基于5G网络的AI辅助手术设备,既部分解决了疫情期间公众其他疾病的就医需求问题,同时也最大限度地防止了医院交叉感染。国家卫健委下发系列技术文件及相关要求,规范防护用品使用方式和防护流程,落实医院区域设置、呼吸道疾病“三区两通道”等原则,大幅降低医务人员感染率,实现4万多名援鄂医务人员“零感染”。公众号:高斋CATTI

— Technological support was strengthened to provide services to the public. Services including online consultation, live streaming of expert lectures, and medical training were provided. Making full use of the remote visual medical treatment system and widely adopting AI-assisted surgical equipment based on the 5G network not only partially met medical care needs of other patients amid the COVID-19 pandemic, but also prevented hospital-acquired infections. The National Health Commission issued a series of technical guidance and regulations to standardize the use of protective equipment and protective procedures to significantly minimize the infection rate among medical personnel. Finally, a zero-infection rate was achieved for more than 40,000 medical staff aiding Hubei.

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3、统筹协调生活物资保障

3. Coordinated allocation of daily necessities

——中央政府联动协调,确保重要生活物资供应充足。国务院多个部委统筹,保障全国特别是湖北生活必需品的生产、存储及价格稳定。依托省际联保联供协作机制保障货源,开辟“绿色通道”;投放中央冻猪肉储备和扩容“特价蔬菜包”;紧盯“南菜北运”生产大省,增加“菜篮子”产品生产;启动“保价格、保质量、保供应”系列行动,组织紧急物资运输队伍,使得湖北省、武汉市长时间居家隔离措施得以顺利实施。

— The central government's coordination and joint efforts ensured ample supplies of major daily necessities. Various departments of the State Council worked together to ensure the production, storage and stable prices of daily necessities in the whole country, especially Hubei province. Frozen pork was released from the central reserve and a "special-offer vegetable package" was made available. Major agricultural provinces transported vegetables from the south to the north of the country, while production of "vegetable basket" items was increased. The action plan of "ensuring price, quality and supply" was launched, and emergency delivery teams were formed to ease the long-term homebound isolation measures in Wuhan and the rest of Hubei province.

——物资配送纳入社区服务,保障生活用品安全及时送到居民家中。武汉市社区采用网格化管理,打通生活物资配送从商超到小区的“最后一公里”,直接送货入户,保障日常生活补给,通过无接触配送方式,将经过检疫、符合防疫标准的蔬菜直送社区,解除了隔离中居民的生活保障和防疫安全之忧。@微博:高斋翻硕

— Supply delivery was integrated into residential community services to ensure safe and timely delivery of daily necessities to people's homes. Wuhan adopted a grid-pattern management of residential communities, through which the "last mile" of daily supply delivery from supermarkets to residential communities was opened up. Goods were directly distributed to households and contactless distribution and delivery enabled vegetables and meat that had met pandemic prevention standards to reach residential communities, relieving residents' worries while they were under home isolation.

——充分运用互联网技术,全面普及“无接触消费”。先进的互联网+物流配送、电子商务平台保障了疫情期间全国物资订购配送支付的全部环节,民众通过手机完成线上购买、线下收货,物流快递通过物业托管、固定点交接、自提柜寄件等方式配送,避免了去超市、商场、农贸市场人群聚集带来感染风险,货源、资金、运输、交付等整个产业链在互联网基础设施下如同齿轮般运作,实现商品销售无现金支付、物流配送零接触交付。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

— Internet technologies to extensively popularize "contactless consumption" were made full use of. Advanced "internet + logistics" distribution and e-commerce platforms ensured the entire process from order placement and distribution to payments nationwide. Parcels were delivered through various ways including being deposited at the property management service provider, dropped off at an agreed location or stored in delivery lockers. Potential risks of infection at supermarkets, shops and farmers' markets were thus minimized. The complete industrial supply chain of funds, transportation and delivery operated smoothly.

六、指挥体系和战略方针

VI. Command system and strategic policies

新冠肺炎疫情发生后,以习近平同志为核心的党中央高度重视,始终把人民群众生命安全和身体健康放在第一位,习近平总书记亲自领导、亲自指挥、亲自部署,领导全党、全军和全国人民打响疫情防控的“人民战争”,展开“阻击战”、“总体战”,以集中统一高效的“准战时”领导指挥体系和因时因势制定的战略策略,为中国抗击疫情提供了坚强领导、根本遵循和科学指引。

Immediately after the COVID-19 outbreak, the central authorities led by President Xi Jinping put people's life and health first. Under Xi's personal leadership, command and deployment, the whole Party, armed forces and all Chinese people launched a "people's war" of disease prevention and control and fought to block the spread of the virus. With a centralized, unified and efficient "wartime pandemic command system" as well as strategies formulated in accordance with the situation, the top leadership offered key instructions and scientific guidance.

1. 最高领导决策机制和根本战略方针

1. The top decision-making mechanism and fundamental strategies and policies

——最高领导人统帅,加强对抗击疫情的集中统一领导。抗击疫情作为“头等大事”摆上党、国家和军队最高领导人最重要工作议程。在两个多月时间里,中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平连续主持10次中央政治局常委会会议、3次中央政治局会议以及中央全面依法治国委员会、网络安全和信息化委员会、全面深化改革委员会、外事工作委员会等会议,从不同角度对做好疫情防控工作提出明确要求;成立由国务院总理李克强任组长的中央应对疫情工作领导小组并在中央政治局常务委员会领导下开展工作,向疫情严重地区派出中央指导组,以“战疫体制”全面加强疫情防控工作的统一领导、统一指挥、统一行动。习近平听取中央应对疫情工作领导小组和中央指导组汇报,主持召开视频会议直接面向全国十几万干部进行动员部署,在北京就医疗救治、防疫科研攻关等进行考察,亲临武汉一线视察指导,时刻跟踪疫情动态和防控进展,就抗击疫情及时果断作出重大决策,每天都作出重要指示,进行全面系统的战略部署。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

— Under the command of the top leader, China strengthened the centralized and unified leadership for the fight against the pandemic, which was put on top of the agenda for the Party, the country and the armed forces. In the course of more than two months, Xi, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, president of China, and chairman of the Central Military Commission, presided over 10 meetings of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, three meetings of the Political Bureau and many other meetings at the central leadership level. The president gave clear instructions on pandemic prevention and control from different perspectives. China established the Leading Group for Novel Coronavirus Prevention and Control led by Premier Li Keqiang, working under the top Party leadership. A central government team was sent to guide epidemic control work in severely-hit regions. Xi was briefed by the Leading Group and the Guiding Group, and presided over a video conference to give direct instructions to more than 100,000 officials nationwide. He also inspected medical treatment and scientific research efforts in Beijing, traveled to Wuhan to inspect and instruct those at the forefront, made major decisions and gave instructions every day for comprehensive, systematic and strategic deployment.

——设立总要求总目标,确立抗击疫情总体战略格局。疫情初始,党中央审时度势、综合研判,及时提出“坚定信心、同舟共济、科学防治、精准施策”的总要求,明确了坚决遏制疫情蔓延势头、坚决打赢疫情防控阻击战的总目标,把坚持全国一盘棋、统筹各方面力量支持疫情防控作为重要保障,把控制传染源、切断传播途径作为关键着力点,把武汉和湖北作为“全国主战场”,对其他省份分类指导,严守“四道防线”,确立打赢疫情防控“人民战争”、“总体战”、“阻击战”,形成全面动员、全面部署、全面加强疫情防控的战略格局。同时,把疫情作为对国家治理体系和治理能力的一次大考,针对短板不足,彻底排查整治,健全国家公共卫生应急管理体系。公众号:高斋CATTI

— By defining overall principles and setting the general goal, China set up a strategic mechanism. The top leadership made a comprehensive judgment of the situation and put forward the overall principles of shoring up confidence, strengthening unity, ensuring science-based control and treatment, and implementing targeted measures. It set the general goal of stemming the spread of the virus and securing a victory. Taking the situation in the whole country into account and making overall plan, it focused on controlling the source of infection and cutting off the routes of transmission, set Wuhan city and Hubei province as the main battlefield of the country and gave differentiated instructions to other areas to secure victory in the people's war. A strategic framework was set up to mobilize, deploy and strengthen prevention and control work in a comprehensive manner. At the same time, the leadership regarded the control of epidemic as a major test for the country's government system and governance capacity. By sorting out and overcoming shortcomings, the state's public health emergency management system would be improved.

——跟踪分析、准确把握疫情防控新挑战,在每个关键点提出适应阶段性变化的针对性指示。在抗击疫情之初,果断决定湖北对人员外流实施全面严格管控,最大程度遏制疫情扩散,把湖北和武汉作为疫情防控的“重中之重”和打赢疫情防控阻击战的“决胜之地”,确保“内防扩散、外防输出”,指出“武汉胜则湖北胜,湖北胜则全国胜”,要“早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗”,“集中患者、集中专家、集中资源、集中救治”,对确诊者应收尽收、对疑似患者应检尽检、对密切接触者应隔尽隔,“与时间赛跑、与病魔较量”,把医疗救治工作摆在第一位,在科学精准救治上下功夫,尽最大努力防止更多群众感染,尽最大可能挽救更多生命。把提高收治率和治愈率、降低感染率和病亡率作为突出任务来抓;指出抗击疫情有“医院救死扶伤”和“社区防控”两个阵地,要紧紧扭住社区防控和患者救治“两个关键”;

— By tracking and analyzing the situation, the top leadership identified new challenges and gave targeted instructions at each critical point. At the beginning of the outbreak, it made a resolute decision to impose strict restrictions on the flow of people from Hubei province to halt the spread of the virus as much as possible. Preventing the virus from spreading within Wuhan and Hubei, and elsewhere, were the goal of the battle. It was pointed out that "Hubei will not win unless Wuhan prevails, and China will not prevail unless Hubei wins". Early detection, early reporting, early quarantine and early treatment were emphasized. And so were the concentration of the infected, the concentration of experts, the concentration of resources and concentration of treatment. All confirmed patients were required to be hospitalized, all suspected cases were required to be tested and all cases of close contact to be quarantined in a timely manner. Racing against the time was imperative. Medical treatment was the top priority, and efforts were focused on targeted therapies to save as many lives as possible. Painstaking efforts were required to prevent the virus from being transmitted to as many people as possible. Hospitalization and the cure rate were required to be raised and the infection and fatality rate reduced substantially. Hospitals and residential communities were considered the two battlefields — both were critical for the fight against the epidemic.

要求防控疫情斗争“疫情防控”和“科研和物资生产”两条战线要相互配合、并肩作战,把新冠肺炎防控科研攻关作为一项重大而紧迫的任务,“向科学要答案、要方法”。随着疫情形势变化,指出要保持头脑清醒、慎终如始、善作善成,不麻痹、不厌战、不松劲;公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

Coordinated efforts are required for both the prevention and control, and scientific research and material production. Scientific research was set as a major and urgent task and solutions were sought from science. As the control and prevention situation changed, strong efforts are required to continue the painstaking efforts for the final triumph.

针对境外疫情加速扩散蔓延,逐渐把重点放在“外防输入、内防反弹”上来,抓紧抓实抓细常态化防控,不让来之不易的持续向好形势发生逆转。

Facing the rapid spread of the virus overseas, the focus should shift to guarding against imported cases and preventing a resurgence of another outbreak at home so that the hard-won positive trend will not be reverted.

2. 高效执行机制和全面应对措施。

2. Efficient execution mechanisms and comprehensive countermeasures

——国务院联防联控机制认真贯彻党中央和习近平总书记重要指示,全面落实中央应对疫情工作领导小组疫情防控要求,协调解决疫情防控工作中的紧迫问题,进行及时全面的具体安排。一方面,统筹32个政府机构,协调防疫、经济和民生三者关系,调集全国各类资源支援重灾区,包括财政支出、基本建设、医疗人力资源、科技人员、医疗防护设备物资、交通运输保障、供电供气、医院污染物处理、城市食品日用品供给等。@微博:高斋翻硕

— The joint prevention and control mechanism of the State Council fully implemented the instructions of the CPC Central Committee and General Secretary Xi. Having followed the instructions of the Leading Group of the CPC Central Committee for Novel Coronavirus Prevention and Control, it made coordinated efforts to resolve urgent problems and timely, overall and detailed arrangements were made. On the one hand, it administered 32 government departments and coordinated the complex relationship among epidemic control and prevention, economic development and people's lives. It pooled the country's resources to support the seriously-hit region, involving expenditure, infrastructure, medical human resources, scientists, protective equipment and materials, transportation, electricity and natural gas supply, disposal of medical waste and the supply of food and daily necessities in urban areas.

另一方面,统筹其他地区防控工作,启动公共卫生事件一级响应,对人口流动大省大市加强指导支持,提前部署延迟开学、灵活复工、错峰出行、扩产增能,以具体措施落实“外防输入、内防扩散”,并适时推动企业复工复产。同时,鼓励群众通过国务院“互联网+督查”平台反映抗疫问题线索,及时核查督办、改进工作,要求不得瞒报、漏报、迟报疫情信息。公众号:高斋CATTI

On the other hand, it coordinated prevention and control in other regions, initiated the first-level response to public health events, and strengthened support to provinces with a heavy flow of people. It postponed the new semester for schools, allowed flexible resumption of work, staggered work hours, and expanded production capacity. Concrete measures were adopted to "guard against imported cases from abroad and prevent the spread of virus at home" and resumption of work and production was encouraged with strict safeguards. At the same time, people were encouraged to provide suggestions on problems in control and prevention through the State Council's "Internet + Supervision" platform so that problems could be resolved in a timely manner. Any covering-up of epidemic information was investigated and punished.

——中央指导组作为“前方指挥部”,直接指导督导疫情重灾区抗疫工作。由中央政治局委员、国务院副总理孙春兰任组长,由11位部级领导干部和多位院士及专家组成的中央指导组,1月27日赴武汉,以战时指挥方式和争分夺秒的战时状态加强防控一线工作,针对初期底数不清、收治缓慢、管控不力等问题多次明察暗访,35次就医疗救治进行专题研究,23次到医院实地考察,提出“注重关口前移、统筹重症轻症、科学精准施治”的总体思路,着力“源头防控、患者救治、物资保障”“三个工作重点”,打好“拉网排查、集中收治、清底排查”“三场攻坚战”,确立定点医院、方舱医院、隔离点梯次布局的应急防治网络,确保隔离、收治、转运及物资配送、后勤保障等各个环节有序衔接,批转社会反映的2万多条问题线索至省市核实解决,就医疗救治和疫情防控措施落实情况进行检查督导,有效整合医疗等各方面资源,提高联合工作效率,增强一线抗疫力度和信心。

— The central government guiding group supervised epidemic control work in Wuhan and Hubei province. The group is headed by Sun Chunlan, a member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and vice-premier of the State Council. Consisting of 11 ministerial-level officials as well as academicians and experts, the group arrived in Wuhan on January 27. The group conducted investigations on the lack of information, foot-dragging in hospitalization of the infected and slack management which bogged down prevention and control in the initial stages. The group organized 35 themed studies on therapies for treatment, and made 23 fact-finding trips to hospitals. Based on its investigations, the group put forward the concept of "control and prevention measures being shifted further to the immediate source of infections, coordinating the treatment of the infected with severe and mild conditions, and scientific and targeted treatment". The group proposed that efforts be made in the prevention of the virus from the very source, treatment of the infected and adequate supply of necessary materials. The group emphasized the importance of full-coverage screening, hospitalization of all the infected for treatment and a final round of screening. The group made the decision to establish a network of designated hospitals, makeshift hospitals and quarantine venues to ensure quarantine, hospitalization, transfer of the infected, material transport and logistics services. The group forwarded more than 20,000 pointers to the provincial and city level governments for further investigation and solutions. The group made appropriate allocation of medical resources to raise work efficiency and boosted the confidence and solidarity of those working at the frontline.

——各地成立由党政主要负责人挂帅的领导小组,确保中央部署全面落实到位。各地党委政府把抗击疫情作为头等大事,落实“反对形式主义、官僚主义”的要求,坚持守土有责、守土担责、守土尽责,根据当地疫情具体实际,确定并发布和调整疫情防控应急响应等级,履行属地管理责任,组织地方防控救治和排查检测,对途经疫情严重地区进入本地人员严格落实居家隔离或集中隔离观察要求,加强信息登记和健康管理,准确统计疫情数据信息并及时上报协调机制汇总。同时,落实“米袋子”省长负责制,“菜篮子”市长负责制,抓好生活必需品生产供应。@微博:高斋翻硕

— Local governments set up their own leading groups headed by leading officials to ensure the full implementation of the central government's arrangements. They set and adjusted the level of emergency response in accordance with local developments. They organized specific measures to have people from severely-hit regions quarantined at home or in designated venues. They collected the necessary information and statistics, and forwarded them to higher level authorities. Meanwhile, the provincial governors and city mayors were obliged to ensure the production and supply of daily necessities.

习近平主席指出,事实再次证明,人类是休戚与共的命运共同体;国际社会要坚定信心、齐心协力、团结应对,携手赢得这场人类同重大传染性疾病的斗争。新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,中国始终秉持人类命运共同体理念,本着公开、透明、负责任的态度,及时发布疫情信息,从1月初即开始向世界卫生组织、美国等有关国家和地区组织以及中国港澳台地区通报疫情信息和防控举措,毫无保留地与世卫组织和国际社会分享防控救治经验,加强联合科研攻关,并尽力提供对外援助,与有关国家建立双边联防联控合作机制,积极推进疫情防控国际交流合作,为维护全球公共卫生安全尽责,并通过做好本国抗击疫情为阻止病毒蔓延作出贡献。中国和世界卫生组织联合专家考察组以及世卫组织总干事和首席科学家等人士均认为,中国采取的“历史上前所未有”、也是“最勇敢、最灵活、最积极”的公共卫生应对措施,在阻断病毒人际传播方面取得明显成果,为国际科学界和国际社会共同抗击新冠肺炎疫情积累了宝贵的经验。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

President Xi pointed that the facts have once again proved that mankind is a community with a shared future, and the international community should boost confidence and make joint efforts to win the fight against the pandemic. Since the COVID-19 outbreak, China has always upheld the concept of building a community with a shared future for mankind and released information about the virus in an open, transparent and responsible manner. From early January, China started to report information about the epidemic, and prevention and control measures to the World Health Organization, the United States and other countries as well as China's Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions. China shared its experience without reservation with the World Health Organization and the international community, strengthened scientific research, and offered assistance to other countries. China has set up bilateral joint prevention and control mechanisms with other countries, pushed forward international cooperation, worked together with the international community, fulfilled its duty to safeguard global public health security and made contributions to preventing the spread of the virus worldwide by doing a good job in its own prevention and control of the virus at home. According to the joint research group of China and the World Health Organization, the WHO director-general, the WHO chief scientist, and many others, the unprecedented "most ambitious, agile and aggressive" measures taken by China in response to this public health event achieved a great deal in blocking the transmission of the virus among humans and provided useful experience for the scientific world and the international community.

专家意见摘要

 Experts' view

在党中央的领导下,我们疫情防控策略是很正确的。早期实施上游堵截,把武汉传染源截断,在全国开展群防群治,后来上升为联防联控。什么叫联防联控?我自己的理解就是“四早”:早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗,这在中国是成功的。在重视医疗的同时,也注意总结规律,比如它有哪些临床特点,哪些药可能有效,这些对全世界都有很好的指导作用。经过艰苦努力,现在我国疫情防控取得阶段性重要成效,这非常不容易。@微博:高斋翻硕

China has carried out effective prevention and control measures against COVID-19. In the early stage of the outbreak, we locked down Wuhan to control the epidemic, and mobilized the public to prevent and contain the spread of the virus, an arrangement that was later turned into a joint prevention and control mechanism. It can be summarized as "four early's" — early detection, early reporting, early isolation and early treatment, which proves successful. While treating patients, Chinese health workers also paid attention to summarizing their experiences such as the clinical features of the disease and the medicines found effective in treating it, which can help the rest of the world in its fight against the virus. And thanks to its arduous efforts, China has now largely brought the epidemic under control, which is a hard-won achievement.

——  钟南山 中国工程院院士、呼吸病学专家

Zhong Nanshan, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and an expert in respiratory diseases

各部门联防联控、各省区市启动一级响应机制;按照甲类传染病管理新冠肺炎,有效发现、控制并隔离传染源,切断传播途径。武汉封城是党中央的英明的决策,防止了疫情在全国其它省份的大规模蔓延。动员全国4万多医务人员去武汉和湖北参与病人救治,是前所未有的大调动。通过联防联控机制,在医疗的设备、耗材、试剂、药物等方面给予了保障。这次中国为世界树立了联防联控、集中救治的典范。

A joint prevention and control system involving different government departments was launched and first-level emergency response initiated at the provincial level to curb the spread of the virus. The novel coronavirus pneumonia has been controlled as a category-A infectious disease, and virus transmission routes more or less cut off. The decision to lock down Wuhan was wise, as it prevented the disease from spreading rapidly to other parts of the country. In an unprecedented move, the central authorities sent more than 40,000 medics from across the country to Wuhan and its parent province of Hubei to treat COVID-19 patients, which helped contain the outbreak. The joint prevention and control mechanism ensured the supply of medical equipment, materials, reagent test kits and medicines. Thus, China has set an example in collective prevention and control, and centralized treatment of patients.

—— 李兰娟  中国工程院院士、传染病学专家

Li Lanjuan, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and an expert in infectious diseases

第一批方舱医院三两天的时间就提供了4000多张床位,后来很快增加到1万多张床位,这样就把之前收不进来的病人全收进来了。另外方舱医院只收轻症病人,他们不再去挤占正规医院的床位了,一下子把轻症病人的隔离问题解决,同时把危重病人的救治问题解决了。公众号:高斋CATTI

The first batch of makeshift hospitals, known as fangcang shelter hospitals, provided more than 4,000 beds in a couple of days, which later increased to over 10,000, admitting all those COVID-19 patients who could not be hospitalized initially. The shelter hospitals admitted only patients with mild symptoms, which, apart from quarantining the patients, also created room for regular hospitals to treat severely ill patients.

—— 王辰 中国工程院院士、呼吸病学专家、中国医科院院长

Wang Chen, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Engineering, an expert in respiratory diseases, and president of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences

武汉封城,避免了疫情向外扩散。全国性的严格的社区管控和居家隔离措施,也避免了疫情的进一步扩散。全社会在这种特殊情况下的社会治理是很成功的,包括公安的治理、交通的管制、生活物资的保障等。

The lockdown of Wuhan curbed the spread of COVID-19. The strict community control and home quarantine measures nationwide prevented the epidemic from spreading. The social governance mechanism, including public security, transport restrictions, and supply of daily necessities, has successfully responded to the health emergency.

—— 董家鸿  中国工程院院士、清华大学临床医学院院长

Dong Jiahong, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and the president of the Clinical Medicine School of Tsinghua University

近年来中国的基础研究实力不断增强,为这次疫情的防控作出了特别大的贡献。基础研究的增强,保证了疫情暴发初期就能迅速获得病毒信息、启动试剂盒的生产,并在第一时间把试剂盒和病毒的相关信息分享给全世界,帮助其它国家尽早应对疫情,这也是中国对世界的最大贡献之一。

China's growing strength in basic scientific research in recent years has contributed greatly to the prevention and control of COVID-19. The robust basic research capacity enabled China to rapidly identify the virus at the initial stage of the outbreak, start manufacturing testing kits, and share information about the virus and the testing kits with the rest of the world to help other countries prepare for the epidemic.

—— 陈建国  华中科技大学副校长、同济医学院院长

Chen Jianguo, vice-president of the Huazhong University of Science and Technology, and president of Tongji Medical College

信息的及时分享至关重要。透明、公开是最好的抗疫良药!所以,我们坚持最大程度的公开:不仅湖北每天都有一场发布会,国新办和联防联控在北京还各有一场发布会。也许我们不一定能立刻打败所有的谣言,但必须一直保留这样公开的“窗户”,那就是官方的、权威的、每天滚动召开的新闻发布会。大家都战斗在阻隔和救治的一线,还要兼顾持续的信息公开,其实并不容易。但是,再难也要坚持开发布会,再不容易也要开好发布会,让真相传播、让群众放心、让世界共享,这些都是中国的始终不懈努力。

Transparency of information is crucial. Transparency and openness are among the best tools to fight the epidemic. Every day, we held one news conference on the epidemic situation in Hubei province and one on the national joint prevention and control response. The regular news conferences may not have helped scotch all the rumors immediately, but we must continue the daily news briefings to counter rumors and speculations. We insist on holding the news conference regardless of the difficulties we meet with.

—— 董关鹏  国家卫健委新冠肺炎专家组成员、中国传媒大学政府与公共事务学院院长

Dong Guanpeng, a member of the National Health Commission's expert panel investigating on COVID-19, and dean of the School of Government and Public Affairs at the Communication University of China

第一时间建立了准战时的最高决策领导工作体制。由中央政治局及常委会会议作出重大决策,成立应对疫情工作领导小组,在中央政治局常务委员会领导下开展工作。向湖北等疫情严重地区派出指导组,负责推动湖北省全面加强防控一线工作。

China established a quasi-wartime work mechanism led by the country's top leader after the epidemic broke out. The Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee decided to establish a leading group for epidemic response. And a guiding working group was dispatched to Hubei province, the hardest-hit area in China, to guide epidemic control work, which played a key role in containing the virus.

—— 胡鞍钢  清华大学国情研究院院长

Hu Angang, president of the Institute of Contemporary China Studies at Tsinghua University

通过一套高效的垂直系统有效地施行“隔离”与“封城”的策略是取得成功的关键。在疫苗出来以前,“隔离是唯一有效的抗疫措施”,民众对这一点基本已经形成共识。公众号:高斋CATTI

Isolation and lockdown implemented through a vertical management system is pivotal to China's battle against COVID-19. It has become a public consensus that isolation is the most effective measure to prevent the spread of the virus before a vaccine is developed.

—— 黄益平  北京大学国家发展研究院副院长

Huang Yiping, deputy dean of the National School of Development at Peking University

“四应四尽”的措施起了决定性的作用。加速建设一批方舱医院和征收改建一批定点新冠肺炎重症救治医院,改变了以前“人等床”的现象,实现了“床等人”的目标,做到了“应收尽收”,有力控制了传染源。

It is critical to implement the policy to admit, treat and isolate every infected person, and test every suspected one. Thanks to the construction of a batch of fangcang shelter hospitals for patients with mild symptoms, and existing hospitals designated or re-purposed to treat the severely ill in a short time, the shortage of beds in Wuhan was addressed, and all the patients needing treatment were admitted to these hospitals, cutting the sources of infection.

—— 唐洲平  华中科技大学同济医学院附属同济医院(光谷院区)副院长

Tang Zhouping, vice-president of the Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College (Guanggu) at Huazhong University of Science and Technology

在这次新冠肺炎治疗的过程中,中医药发挥了巨大的作用,经过方舱医院和定点医院的实践发现,中医药加西药的综合治疗能有效加快患者的康复,减少轻症向重症的转化,加快核酸的转阴速度,价廉效优。

Traditional Chinese medicine has played a big role in treating COVID-19 patients. The combination of TCM and Western medicine speeded up the recovery of patients, reduced the number of patients turning into severe cases, and shortened the time for the patients to be declared free of the virus after undergoing the nucleic acid test. The combined treatment proved to be both economical and effective.

—— 汪洋  中南大学湘雅二医院国家紧急医学救援队队长

Wang Yang, head of the national emergency medical team at the Second Xiangya Hospital of the Central South University

对确诊危重症病例及时救治,我们开展了各类高风险、高危治疗技术。比如实施了气管切开术、ECMO建立、转运ECMO危重患者、床旁CRRT等,有效降低了致死率。针对无症状患者、轻症患者和普通型症状患者个性化设计治疗方案,医疗队建立医嘱、病历、诊断一体化的业务平台,与同济总部专家等进行远程会诊,支撑患者分级、精准治疗有序开展。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

We offered special treatment to critically ill patients, such as tracheotomy, ECMO support, transfer of critically ill patients relying on ECMO and CRRT, which reduced the mortality rate of the patients. Targeted therapies were designed for asymptomatic patients, patients with mild or moderate symptoms, and a platform integrating information including doctor's advice, case history, and diagnosis and treatment of patients was set up. The medical team also conducted remote consultation with experts at the headquarters to promote tiered and targeted treatment.

—— 王燕森  中日友好医院国家紧急医学救援队领队

Wang Yansen, head of the national emergency medical team at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital

应急科普发挥了重要的作用,围绕“防疫病、防恐慌”,科普专业平台,各大主流媒体和商业新闻平台面向全国公众开展了大量提高科学认知、科学防治的科普宣传。钟南山、李兰娟、张文宏等一线权威专家积极发声,用事实、用细节、用科学说话,分析疫情形势,让真相“跑赢”谣言,有力增强了整个社会对疫情的防控意识,以提高公众科学素质为基础,倡导加强科学消杀,戴口罩、勤洗手、常通风,提升每个人的防控能力。

Dissemination of scientific knowledge about COVID-19 has played a key role in the fight against the disease. Professional science popularization platforms, mainstream media outlets and commercial news organizations have done a lot in raising public awareness about the disease and ease public panic. Experts such as Zhong Nanshan, Li Lanjuan and Zhang Wenhong analyzed in detail the epidemic situation to dispel rumors and raise public awareness about how to prevent and control the virus. People have learned that they can protect themselves by maintaining good hygiene habits, such as wearing a face mask, frequently washing their hands, and airing their rooms.

—— 王挺  中国科普研究所所长、中国科普作家协会副理事长

Wang Ting, director of the China Research Institute for Science Popularization and vice-president of the China Science Writers Association

发挥了社会组织的积极作用,尤其是社会组织领导者、志愿者、社会工作者等社会力量全力支持政府共同遏制新冠肺炎疫情的扩散。主流媒体的及时报道也有效确保信息公开透明,稳民心,增信心。公众号:高斋CATTI

Social organizations have played a positive role in combating the infectious disease. Leaders of social organizations, volunteers, and social workers have all supported the government in curbing the spread of the disease. And mainstream media outlets have released epidemic-related information in a transparent and open manner, alleviating people's anxiety and boosting their confidence.

—— 黄浩明  深圳国际公益学院代理院长

Huang Haoming, acting dean and professor at the China Global Philanthropy Institute

中国的治理具有很强的社会动员能力,在党中央的坚强领导下,全民居家抗疫,每个人都为抗疫做出了贡献,被国际社会高度赞扬。

China has a strong social mobilization capacity. Under the strong leadership of the Communist Party of China, residents stayed at home to prevent the spread of the virus, and won acclaim from the international community.

—— 赖先进  国家行政学院教授

 Lai Xianjin, a professor with the Department of Public Management at the National Academy of Governance

中国政府的快速动员能力很强大,关键时刻发挥了政府“看得见的手”的作用,特别是在疫情期间对抗疫物资的生产上。政府积极组织协调企业生产,根据公共安全风险进行调配,很好地避免了单纯市场化哄抬防疫物资价格的投机行为。

The Chinese government quickly mobilized national resources and played the role of the "visible hand", including marshalling enterprises to manufacture products needed to contain the epidemic. The government organized and coordinated the production of enterprises, and distributed goods based on different public security risk levels, thus preventing hoarding and speculation of goods.

—— 李义平  中国人民大学经济学院教授

Li Yiping, a professor with the School of Economics at the Renmin University of China

中国近几年的社区建设成果在此次抗疫中起到了极为重要的作用,是防控的第一线。部分地区在过去社区建设成就的基础上,进行了不少创新。由此形成的优秀防控经验成功推广到了全国各地,其中包括绿码、社区互动等。

China's efforts to improve community management in recent years have paid off, as communities were on the front line of the fight against the novel coronavirus. Some regions built on their past successes in community management and made innovations in their measures to fight the virus. Also, successful experiences, such as a green health code and community interaction, have been promoted across the country.

—— 刘金龙  中国人民大学农业与农村发展学院教授、博士生导师

Liu Jinlong, a professor of agriculture and rural area development at Renmin University of China

我们的统计分析发现,中国快速采取坚决措施阻止病毒蔓延是非常重要的。中国如果不采取封城措施,其感染人数有可能超过现在的10倍。在没有新冠病毒有效预防手段和治疗技术的时候,坚决并尽快切断感染源是首要措施。所以,封城措施是各种可能有效的手段中,首先应当选择的措施。公众号:高斋CATTI

According to the findings of our study, it is vital to stop the spread of a virus within one month. If China had not imposed the lockdown on Wuhan and some other cities, the number of infections might have been 10 times bigger. Considering the lack of effective treatment method for COVID-19, therefore, cutting off the source of infection by locking down Wuhan and some other cities as soon as possible was the right measure.

—— 周玮生  日本立命馆大学政策科学部教授

Zhou Weisheng, a professor with the College of Policy Science at Ritsumeikan University in Japan

(国家)有强大的制造业基础为支撑,能够及时做出调整,多个行业都集中投入到抗疫所急需的重要医疗物资的生产中,特别是口罩、消毒液、呼吸机、防护服、面罩等。中国所拥有的世界上最齐备的制造业全门类生产链条,在关键时刻起到了关键作用。

China boasts a strong manufacturing industry, which allows it to make timely adjustments and mobilize various sectors to produce urgently needed medical equipment, particularly face masks and shields, sanitizers, ventilators, and personal protective equipment. China has the most complete industrial structure in the world, which has played a key role in the emergency response.

——  王磊 北京师范大学政府管理学院副教授、金砖国家合作研究中心主任

Wang Lei, an associate professor with the School of Government and director of the research center for BRICS cooperation at the Beijing Normal University

针对疫情,早检测、早发现和封闭管理是中国最行之有效的措施。

China's early identification and effective lockdown of its epicenter stands out as the most effective part of China's response.

—— Swaran Singh  印度新德里尼赫鲁大学教授、北京察哈尔学会高级研究员

Swaran Singh, a professor at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, and adjunct senior fellow at the Charhar Institute, Beijing

对中国来说,最重要的三个步骤是继续广泛监测局势;利用大数据、人工智能和信息技术,包括二维码,来预判哪些地区容易增加感染案例;向公众提供简单清晰的指示,让人们在危机得到控制之前清楚应该如何行动。公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

Three important steps have been taken: to continue monitoring the situation extensively; use big data, artificial intelligence and information technology, including QR codes, to determine where infections may be occurring; and provide simple and clear instructions to the public as to how they should act until the crisis is under control.

—— Asit K. Biswas  英国格拉斯哥大学客座教授

Asit K. Biswas, an academician and visiting professor at University of Glasgow in the UK

中国抗疫成功的核心是每个家庭承诺待在家里进行隔离,并养成良好的个人卫生习惯。

I believe at the core of this success was every household's commitment to stay at home, to isolate and to practice personal hygiene habits with greater self-awareness.

—— Mario Cavolo  意大利裔美国自由撰稿人和评论员

Mario Cavolo, an Italian-American freelance writer and commentator

中国应对疫情最具决定性的因素是决定将其提升为一项国家协调机制的政策。这确保了所有指令如隔离能够被统一执行和贯彻。此外,出台的其他政策也有效地将公众恐慌和经济损失降到了最低。@微博:高斋翻硕

The most decisive aspect of China's epidemic response was the decision to elevate it to a coordinated national-level policy. This ensured directives like quarantine were uniformly executed and followed, and other aspects of the policy were integrated to minimize panic and economic damage.

—— Thomas DuBois  北京师范大学人文学院教授、复旦大学发展研究院特邀研究员

Thomas DuBois, professor of humanities at Beijing Normal University and invited researcher of Fudan Development Institute

中国政府对公众进行了疫情的广泛科普传播,人民也勇敢地承担起了社会责任,拯救了自己、切断了病毒的传播。

The Chinese government disseminated public awareness and people stood up to the task to be socially responsible to save themselves and halt the spread of COVID-19.

—— Yasir Masood  中巴经济走廊卓越中心媒体总监、伊斯兰堡国际关系分析师

Yasir Masood, an international relations analyst working as director of media at the CPEC-Centre of Excellence, Islamabad

非洲人民和中国人民都知道,团结和国际合作是战胜疫情的最强大武器。

Africa and China know solidarity and international cooperation are the most powerful weapons to overcome COVID-19.

—— Gert Grobler  浙江师范大学非洲研究院高级研究员、南非前驻日本大使

Gert Grobler, former ambassador of South Africa to Japan, currently a senior research fellow at the Institute of African Studies at Zhejiang Normal University

文章来源:中国日报

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