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双语:《新时代的中国与世界》白皮书
文章来源:国新办 发布时间:2019-10-09 15:27 作者:国新办 点击:

双语:《新时代的中国与世界》白皮书

国务院新闻办公室9月27日发布《新时代的中国与世界》白皮书

新时代的中国与世界

China and the World in the New Era

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

2019年9月

September 2019

目录

Contents

前言

Preface

一、中国走出一条符合国情的发展道路

I. China Has Found a Development Path Suited to Its Actual Conditions

二、中国的发展是世界的机遇

II. China’s Development Is an Opportunity for the World

三、建设繁荣美好世界是各国人民的共同梦想

III. A Prosperous and Beautiful World Is the Common Aspiration of All Peoples

四、中国为建设更加美好的世界贡献力量

IV. China Contributes to a Better World

结束语

Conclusion

前言

Preface

今年是中华人民共和国成立70周年。

The year 2019 marks the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC).

70年来,在中国共产党领导下,中国发生了翻天覆地的变化,创造了人类历史上前所未有的发展奇迹。中国用几十年时间走完了发达国家几百年走过的发展历程,经济总量跃居世界第二,近14亿人民摆脱了物质短缺,总体达到小康水平,享有前所未有的尊严和权利。这不仅是中国的巨大变化,也是人类社会的巨大进步,更是中国对世界和平与发展的巨大贡献。

Over the past 70 years, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), the PRC has witnessed profound changes and achieved a miracle of development unprecedented in human history. In just a few decades, China has completed a course that took developed countries several hundred years. China has now become the world’s second largest economy, taken care of the material needs of its nearly 1.4 billion people, and achieved moderate all-round prosperity. Its people enjoy dignity and rights previously unknown to them. This has brought tremendous change to China. It also represents remarkable progress for human society, and above all, a significant contribution on China’s part to world peace and development.

中国仍然是世界上最大的发展中国家,人口多、底子薄的基本国情没有变,中国仍然面临一系列严峻挑战,中国人民还需要继续艰苦奋斗。

China remains the world’s largest developing country, with a large population and foundations that need to be further strengthened. Some of the fundamentals in China remain unchanged, and therefore China is still facing a raft of severe challenges. The Chinese people still have work to do.

当今世界正处于百年未有之大变局,人类社会既充满希望,又充满挑战。世界多极化、经济全球化、文化多样化、社会信息化深入发展,和平与发展仍是时代主题,同时,全球深层次矛盾突出,不稳定性不确定性增多。构建人类命运共同体,建设更加美好的世界,是各国人民的共同愿望。

Today’s world is undergoing a level of profound change that has not been seen in a hundred years. Human society is full of both hope and challenges. Multipolarity, economic globalization, cultural diversity and information technology are extending their reach. Peace and development remain the themes of the times. At the same time, deep-seated problems are apparent throughout the world, with increasing instability and uncertainties. Building a global community of shared future and building a better world are the common aspirations of all peoples.

中国发展进入了新时代。中国对世界的影响,从未像今天这样全面、深刻、长远;世界对中国的关注,也从未像今天这样广泛、深切、聚焦。中国从哪里来、向哪里去?中国推动建设什么样的世界?发展起来的中国如何与世界相处?为回应外界关切,增进国际社会对中国发展的了解和理解,值此中华人民共和国成立70周年之际,中国政府发布此白皮书。

China has entered a new era of development. China now has an impact on the world that is ever more comprehensive, profound and long-lasting, and the world is paying ever greater attention to China. What path did China take? Where is China going? What are China’s goals in shaping the world? How will the developing China interact with the rest of the world? On the occasion of this 70th anniversary of the founding of the PRC, the Chinese government is publishing this white paper to respond to the world’s questions about China, and to help the international community better understand China’s development.

一、中国走出一条符合国情的发展道路

I. China Has Found a Development Path Suited to Its Actual Conditions

中国是有着5000多年文明史的大国,历史上曾长期走在世界前列。近代以后,中国陷入积贫积弱、内忧外患甚至亡国亡种的危险境地。中国人民始终不屈不挠、奋力抗争,始终梦想实现国家富强、民族复兴、人民幸福。在中国共产党领导下,中国人民经过艰苦卓绝的斗争,在半殖民地半封建社会基础上建立起新中国,实现了民族独立和人民解放,中华民族进入了发展新纪元。70年来,中国人民艰辛探索、砥砺前行,在中华民族5000多年历史文化的传承中,在总结社会主义500年、近代以来中华民族由衰到盛170多年的经验教训基础上,在中国革命、建设和改革的伟大实践中,成功开辟了中国特色社会主义道路,取得了举世瞩目的发展成就。

China is a large country with a 5,000-year-old civilization. Over a long period of history, it ranked among the most advanced countries in the world. In modern times, China was reduced to poverty and weakness, threatened by domestic strife and foreign aggression, and even confronted with complete demise. Through unrelenting struggle, the Chinese dream of prosperity and rejuvenation for their country, and happiness for the people. In 1949, under the CPC’s leadership, they founded the PRC, turning a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society into a completely new one, and achieving national independence and the liberation of the people. China then entered a new epoch of development. Over the past 70 years it has been moving forward against all odds, and exploring its path to development. Based on the 5,000-year-old Chinese culture, the experience and lessons from the birth of socialism, the fall-to-rise turnaround of the Chinese nation in 170 years, and the history of revolution, construction and reform, the Chinese people have opened up the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and achieved remarkable outcomes.

(一)中国发展靠的是自力更生、艰苦奋斗

1. China’s development lies in self-reliance and hard work

新中国成立之初,面对的是一个经历100多年战乱、满目疮痍的烂摊子,国家一穷二白,人民生活极端贫困,工农业基础十分薄弱,国民经济几近崩溃。中国人民求生存、谋发展,难度之大超出想象。70年来,中国人民白手起家、自力更生、艰苦奋斗,干出了一片新天地。

In the early days of the PRC, following a century of war and chaos, the country and the people were in dire poverty, the industrial and agricultural foundations were weak, and the economy was on the verge of collapse. The people faced unimaginable difficulties in seeking survival and development. Over the seven decades that followed, through self-reliance and hard work they rebuilt the country from nothing, and have opened up new horizons.

经济实力显著增强。从1952年至2018年,中国工业增加值从120亿元增加到305160亿元,按不变价格计算增长970倍,年均增长11%;国内生产总值从679亿元增加到90万亿元,按不变价计算增长174倍,年均增长8.1%;人均国内生产总值从119元增加到2018年的64644元,按不变价计算增长70倍。根据世界银行数据,按市场汇率计算,2018年中国经济规模为13.6万亿美元,仅次于美国的20.5万亿美元。目前,中国是世界上唯一拥有联合国产业分类目录中所有工业门类的国家,多项工业品产量居世界第一。科技发展成就显著,“两弹一星”、载人航天、超级杂交水稻、高性能计算机、人工合成牛胰岛素、青蒿素、高速铁路等重大科技成果,为经济社会发展提供了有力支撑。对外贸易持续增加,2009年中国成为全球最大货物出口国、第二大货物进口国,2013年成为全球货物贸易第一大国。改革开放以来,中国引进外资大幅增加,日益成为吸引全球投资热土。中国已经成为世界第二大经济体、制造业第一大国、货物贸易第一大国、商品消费第二大国、外资流入第二大国、外汇储备第一大国(表1)。

China’s economic strength has greatly increased. From 1952 to 2018, China’s industrial added value increased from RMB12 billion to RMB30.5 trillion, up 970 times at constant prices, with an average annual growth rate of 11 percent. GDP increased from RMB67.9 billion to RMB90 trillion, up 174 times at constant prices, with an average annual growth rate of 8.1 percent, and per capita GDP increased from RMB119 to RMB64,644, up 70 times at constant prices. According to World Bank statistics, at market exchange rates China’s economy in 2018 was worth US$13.6 trillion, second only to the US economy which was worth US$20.5 trillion. Currently, China is the only country that possesses all the sections in the United Nations’ International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), with the output of many industrial products ranking first in the world.

China has made remarkable progress in technology. Significant achievements such as nuclear bombs, ballistic missiles, manmade satellites, manned spaceflight, super hybrid rice, supercomputers, synthetic bovine insulin, artemisinin, and high-speed rail, have provided strong support for social and economic development.

China’s foreign trade has been increasing constantly. In 2009, China became the world’s largest exporter of goods and second largest importer of goods; in 2013, China became the world’s largest trader in goods. Since reform and opening up in 1978, foreign investment in China has seen a substantial increase, and China has become very attractive to global investment. China has become the world’s second largest economy, largest manufacturer, largest trader in goods, second largest consumer of commodities, second largest recipient of foreign direct investment (FDI), and largest holder of foreign exchange reserves (see Table 1).

人民生活极大改善。经过长期努力,中国人民从饥寒交迫、解决温饱到实现总体小康,正在迈向全面小康(表2)。按照现行农村贫困标准计算,中国农村贫困人口从1978年的7.7亿人,下降到2018年的1660万人,农村贫困发生率从97.5%下降到1.7%,下降了95.8个百分点(图1),创造了人类减贫史上的奇迹(专栏1)。中国初步构建起世界上规模最大、覆盖人口最多,包括养老、医疗、低保、住房、教育等民生领域的社会保障体系。2018年末,全国参加城镇职工基本养老保险人数41902万人,参加失业保险人数19643万人,参加工伤保险人数23874万人,基本养老保险覆盖超过9亿人,基本医疗保险覆盖超过13亿人,基本实现全民医保。70年前,中国人均预期寿命35岁,2018年达到77岁,远高于世界平均预期寿命72岁。70年来,中国人民的精神面貌发生深刻变化,中华民族优秀传统文化充分弘扬,当代中国价值观念广泛传播,中国人民的精神生活更加丰富、更加活跃。美国波士顿咨询公司发布的全球民生福祉报告显示,过去10年中,中国排名上升25位,在受调查的152个国家中进步最快。(注1)

The Chinese people’s lives have been greatly improved. A persevering effort has provided the Chinese people with adequate food and clothing, and made it possible for them to live decent lives and move towards a moderately prosperous society in all respects (see Table 2). China’s rural population living under the current poverty line decreased from 770 million in 1978 to 16.6 million in 2018, and China’s rural poverty incidence dropped from 97.5 percent to 1.7 percent, down by 95.8 percentage points (see Figure 1). This is an outstanding achievement in the history of poverty reduction (see Box 1).

China has established a preliminary social security system covering elderly care, medical care, minimum subsistence, housing, and education – the largest in scale and covering the largest population in the world. By the end of 2018:

Participants in urban workers’ basic elderly care insurance numbered 419 million;

Participants in unemployment insurance numbered 196 million;

Participants in work injury compensation insurance numbered 239 million;

Basic elderly care insurance covered more than 900 million people;

Basic medical insurance covered more than 1.3 billion people, almost everyone in the country.

Over the past 70 years, China’s life expectancy has increased from 35 in 1949 to 77 in 2018, higher than the world’s average of 72. Over the past 70 years, the Chinese people have witnessed profound changes in their mindset. They have carried forward fine traditional Chinese culture, spread modern Chinese values, and enriched and invigorated their cultural life. According to a global wellbeing report released by the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) in 2018, in the past decade, China’s ranking rose by 25 places, the fastest rate among the 152 countries covered.1

国际地位和国际影响力显著提升。1971年,中国恢复在联合国的合法席位,以更加积极的姿态在国际事务中发挥作用。1980年4月和5月,中国先后恢复了在国际货币基金组织和世界银行的合法席位。2001年,中国加入世界贸易组织,更加广泛深入地参与国际经贸交流与合作。中国在国际社会广交朋友,已与179个国家建立外交关系,建立了110对各种形式的伙伴关系。中共十八大以来,中国提出推动构建人类命运共同体、共建“一带一路”的倡议,载入联合国多项决议,得到国际社会广泛认同和积极响应。

China’s international position and influence have greatly improved. In 1971, China recovered its legitimate seat in the United Nations and began to play a more active role in international affairs. In April and May 1980, China recovered its legitimate seats in the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. In 2001, China joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) and began to participate more extensively and deeply in international economic and trade exchanges and cooperation. China has been making friends in the international community, having established diplomatic relations with 179 countries, and 110 partnerships of various types. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, China has proposed a global community of shared future and the Belt and Road Initiative, which have been written into many UN resolutions and have won extensive recognition and a warm response from the international community.

中国的发展成就是辛辛苦苦干出来的。对于中国这样一个有着近14亿人口的大国,好日子等不来、要不来,唯有奋斗,别无他路。中国的发展,靠的是“8亿件衬衫换一架波音”的实干精神,几代人驰而不息、接续奋斗,付出别人难以想象的辛劳和汗水;靠的是“自己的担子自己扛”的担当精神,无论顺境还是逆境,不输出问题,不转嫁矛盾,不通过强买强卖、掠夺别国发展自己;靠的是“摸着石头过河”的探索精神,不走帝国主义、殖民主义老路,不照搬西方国家发展模式,而是结合中国实际、总结经验教训、借鉴人类文明,敢闯敢试,走出一条自己的路。

China’s successes have been achieved through hard work. A large country with a nearly 1.4 billion population, China cannot achieve prosperity by asking for assistance and waiting. The only option is hard work. China relied on the solid and unremitting efforts of generations of Chinese people, which is represented in the typical case of “800 million shirts in exchange for a Boeing airplane”. China relied on fulfilling its own responsibility in good times and in adversity, without exporting or shifting problems elsewhere, and without seeking development by trading under coercion or exploiting other countries. China relied on a pioneering spirit, like crossing the river by feeling for stones, neither retracing the steps of imperialism and colonialism, nor copying the development model of Western countries, but blazing its own path with bold experiments, based on its own conditions, experience and lessons as well as the achievements of other civilizations.

(二)中国在与世界的联系互动中发展

2. China is developing through interaction with the world

中国是世界的中国,中国的发展与世界紧密相连。新中国成立初期,努力打破外部封锁,积极开展经贸、文化等领域对外交流。改革开放以来,中国积极顺应全球化潮流,坚持对外开放基本国策,打开国门搞建设,拥抱世界、学习世界、贡献世界,与世界良好互动、共同发展。

China is a part of the world, and China’s development is closely related to the rest of the world. In the early days after the founding of the PRC, China made great efforts to break an external blockade, actively conducting economic, trade and cultural exchanges with other countries. Since reform and opening up in 1978, following the trend of globalization and promoting opening up as a fundamental state policy, China has been seeking development with its door open. China has embraced the world, learned from the world, and contributed to the world, through positive interaction and shared development.

大规模“请进来”。打开大门的中国充满生机与活力,国际社会看好中国发展,越来越多的国家与中国开展合作,越来越多的外国企业来中国投资兴业,越来越多的外国人士来中国学习工作、观光旅游。1978年至2018年,中国累计吸引非金融类外商直接投资20343亿美元,累计设立近100万家外商投资企业。2018年,有49.2万余名外国留学人员来华学习。加入世界贸易组织后,中国参与经济全球化提质增速(专栏2)。2001年至2018年,中国货物贸易进口额从2436亿美元增至21358亿美元,年均增长13.6%,高于全球平均水平6.8个百分点;服务贸易进口额从393亿美元增至5250亿美元,年均增长16.5%,占全球服务贸易进口总额的9.4%。

“Bringing in” on a large scale. Its door open, China is full of vigor. The international community takes an optimistic view of China. More and more countries are establishing cooperation with China; more and more foreign enterprises are injecting investments and starting businesses in China; more and more foreigners are coming to study, work and travel in China. From 1978 to 2018, China attracted a total of more than US$2 trillion in non-financial FDI, and nearly 1 million foreign-invested enterprises were set up in the country. In 2018, almost half a million foreign students came to study in China. Since its accession to the WTO in 2001, China’s participation in economic globalization has delivered more substantial and speedy outcomes (see Box 2). From 2001 to 2018, China’s imports of goods increased from US$244 billion to US$2.1 trillion. The rise was 13.6 percent per annum on average, 6.8 percentage points higher than the global average. China’s imports of services increased from US$39.3 billion to US$525 billion, up by a yearly average of 16.5 percent and accounting for 9.4 percent of the global total.

大踏步“走出去”。从经贸投资到人文交流,从官方到民间,中国以前所未有的速度、广度和深度走向世界,开展全方位、宽领域、多层次的对外交流合作。对外投资合作持续健康发展,投资层次和水平不断提升,2018年,中国对外直接投资1430.4亿美元,是2002年的53倍,年均增长28.2%。对外贸易逐年增长,从1978年至2018年,中国对外贸易累计达到521921.1亿美元;2018年,货物贸易和服务贸易出口额分别达到24867亿美元、2668亿美元。近年来,中国连续保持世界第一大出境旅游客源国地位,2018年,中国公民出境旅游近1.5亿人次。

“Going out” in great strides. From economic and trade investment to cultural exchanges, from government cooperation to people-to-people exchanges, China has been conducting all-dimensional, wide-ranging and multi-level exchanges and cooperation with other countries, going global faster, further, and more extensively than ever before. China’s foreign investment and cooperation has seen sound and sustained improvement in quality and scale. In 2018, China’s overseas investment reached US$143 billion, up by a factor of 53 since 2002, a yearly average growth of 28.2 percent. China’s foreign trade has been growing year by year. From 1978 to 2018, China’s foreign trade amounted to US$52.2 trillion; in 2018, China’s exports of goods were US$2.5 trillion and its exports of services US$267 billion. In recent years, China has maintained its position as the world’s largest source of overseas tourists; in 2018, Chinese outbound tourists numbered nearly 150 million.

发展自己、造福世界。对外开放为中国带来了资金、先进技术和管理经验,转变了中国人民的思想观念,激发了中国人民的创造热情,显著提升了中国的现代化建设水平。同时,中国的开放发展,为其他国家提供了广阔市场。中国开放投资与服务贸易,促进了当地经济增长和就业。中国积极参与国际分工,推动全球资源配置更加合理。中国出口产品品质优良,满足了国际市场需求,减少了民众支出,降低了通胀压力。中国人足迹遍及全球,极大促进了中外交流互鉴。

Developing the country while benefiting the world. Opening up has brought funds, advanced technologies and managerial experience to China, changed the mindset of the Chinese people and boosted their creativity, and helped China to modernize. At the same time, China’s opening up has provided a broad market for other countries. The opening of China’s investment and service trade has facilitated local economic growth and employment in the countries concerned. China has been an active participant in the international division of labor, resulting in more rational global resource allocation. China’s high-quality exports have met international market demand, reduced living costs in recipient countries, and relieved their inflationary pressure. The Chinese people now travel all over the world, which has greatly enriched cultural exchanges and mutual learning between China and other countries.

(三)中国发展为世界和平与发展注入了正能量

3. China has injected positive energy into world peace and development

中国道路既有鲜明的中国特色,又有宽广高远的世界眼光和深厚博大的人类情怀。70年来,中国人民自力更生、艰苦奋斗,在实现自我发展的同时,为世界和平作出了贡献,为各国共同发展注入了动力。

China’s development path has unique Chinese characteristics, and a broad and farsighted global vision. It is dedicated to the interests of all of humanity. Over the past 70 years, while working hard to realize their own development, the Chinese people have contributed to world peace and added momentum to the common development of all countries.

中国为世界和平与发展贡献智慧。新中国成立之初,确立了独立自主的和平外交政策,为战后国际格局注入了和平能量。20世纪50年代,中国同印度、缅甸共同倡导的互相尊重主权和领土完整、互不侵犯、互不干涉内政、平等互利、和平共处五项原则,成为国际关系基本准则和国际法基本原则,有力维护了广大发展中国家权益,为推动建立公正合理的国际政治经济秩序发挥了重要作用。近年来,中国着眼国际形势发展变化,提出推动构建人类命运共同体、推动构建新型国际关系、共建“一带一路”、正确义利观、新安全观、全球治理观、文明观等一系列重要理念、重要倡议,为维护世界和平、促进共同发展贡献了中国智慧和中国方案。

China contributes solutions to world peace and development. In the early days of the PRC, China established its independent foreign policy of peace, which contributed to global peace after World War II. In the 1950s, China, India and Myanmar jointly proposed the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence (mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence). These have become basic norms for international relations and fundamental principles of international law. China has safeguarded the interests of developing countries, playing an important role in building a fair and equitable international political and economic order. In recent years, China has proposed a raft of significant international concepts and initiatives, including a global community of shared future, a new model of international relations, the Belt and Road Initiative, the principle of upholding the greater good and pursuing shared interests, a vision of common, comprehensive, cooperative, and sustainable security, the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits in global governance, and the principles of equality, mutual learning, dialogue and inclusiveness between civilizations. These proposals have contributed Chinese wisdom and solutions to protecting world peace and promoting common development.

中国以实际行动维护世界和平。70年来,中国没有主动挑起过任何一场战争和冲突,没有侵占过别国一寸土地。改革开放以来,中国主动裁减军队员额400余万。中国积极参与国际军控、裁军和防扩散进程,反对军备竞赛,维护全球战略平衡与稳定。中国签署或加入《不扩散核武器条约》等20个多边军控、裁军和防扩散条约。中国已成为联合国第二大维和预算摊款国和经常性预算会费国,是安理会常任理事国第一大出兵国(专栏3)。2015年起,中国宣布设立为期10年、总额10亿美元的中国-联合国和平与发展基金,并于2016年正式投入运行。中国始终致力于通过谈判、协商方式处理领土问题和海洋划界争端,同14个邻国中的12个国家彻底解决了陆地边界问题,划定了中越北部湾海上界线,为和平解决国家间历史遗留问题以及国际争端开辟了崭新道路。中国积极参与重大国际和地区热点问题解决,发挥了建设性作用。

China safeguards world peace through real actions. Over the past 70 years, China has not provoked a single war or conflict, nor invaded a single square of foreign land. Since reform and opening up in 1978, China has cut its armed forces by over 4 million. China has been an active participant of international arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation, opposing any arms race and safeguarding global strategic balance and stability. China has signed or joined more than 20 treaties on multilateral arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation, including the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. China has become the second largest contributor to both the regular and peacekeeping budgets of the UN, and the largest troop contributor among the permanent members of the UN Security Council (see Box 3). In 2015, China announced that it would set up a ten-year, US$1 billion China-UN Peace and Development Fund, which was officially put it into operation in 2016. China has always been dedicated to resolving territorial and maritime delimitation disputes through negotiation and consultation. China has achieved full resolution of land border delimitation problems with 12 of its 14 neighboring countries, and delineated the China-Vietnam maritime boundary in the Beibu Gulf. This has broken new ground for settling inter-country issues carried over from history as well as other international disputes. China has played a constructive role in settling major international and regional issues.

中国积极促进全球共同发展。作为世界上最大的发展中国家,中国一直是全球减贫与发展事业的倡导者、推动者和践行者。在致力于实现自身发展、消除贫困的同时,积极开展南南合作,向其他发展中国家提供不附加任何政治条件的援助,支持和帮助广大发展中国家特别是最不发达国家消除贫困。中国开展对外援助60多年来,共向166个国家和国际组织提供近4000亿元人民币援助,派遣60多万名援助人员,700多人为他国发展献出了宝贵生命。先后7次宣布无条件免除重债穷国和最不发达国家对华到期政府无息贷款债务。中国积极向亚洲、非洲、拉丁美洲和加勒比地区、大洋洲的69个国家提供医疗援助,先后为120多个发展中国家落实联合国千年发展目标提供帮助。积极参与联合国2030年可持续发展议程磋商,全面做好国内落实工作,率先发布落实议程的国别方案和进展报告,在多个领域实现早期收获。在南南合作框架下,为其他发展中国家落实议程提供帮助。中国-联合国和平与发展基金2030年可持续发展议程子基金3年来成功实施27个项目,惠及49个亚非拉国家,为全球落实议程注入强大动力。2015年,中国宣布设立南南合作援助基金,截至2018年,已在亚洲、非洲、美洲等地区30多个国家实施了200余个有关救灾、卫生、妇幼、难民、环保等领域的发展合作项目。

China promotes common development worldwide. As the world’s largest developing country, China has always been an advocate, practitioner and promoter of global poverty reduction and development. In pursuit of these goals, China conducts South-South cooperation, providing to other developing countries assistance with no political conditions attached, and supporting and helping them, particularly the least developed countries (LDCs), in eliminating poverty.

Over the six decades since China began to provide foreign assistance in the early 1950s, it has provided 166 countries and international organizations with nearly RMB400 billion in aid, and dispatched over 600,000 aid workers, of whom more than 700 sacrificed their lives for the development of other countries. On seven occasions, China has canceled debt from interest-free government loans to heavily indebted poor countries and the LDCs. China has provided medical aid to 69 countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean and Oceania, and provided aid to more than 120 developing countries for implementing the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

China has been actively engaged in the consultations on the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, ensuring its full implementation of the agenda. It was the first country to issue a national plan and a progress report on implementation, and has achieved early outcomes in many fields. Within the framework of South-South cooperation, China has provided assistance to other developing countries for their implementation of the 2030 Agenda. Over the three years since the China-UN Peace and Development Fund went into operation in 2016, China has put in place 27 programs under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Sub-Fund, which have benefited 49 Asian, African and Latin American countries and added a powerful engine for the global implementation of the 2030 Agenda. In 2015, China announced that it would set up the South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund (SSCAF). By 2018, in more than 30 Asian, African and American countries, China had launched over 200 development cooperation programs under the SSCAF on disaster relief, healthcare, protection of women and children, refugee relief, and environmental protection.

(四)中国道路符合中国国情、适应时代要求

4. China’s development path conforms to reality and the requirements of the times

道路决定命运,发展道路的选择对一个国家的兴衰成败至关重要。一个有着近14亿人口的大国实现现代化,在人类历史上没有先例可循,中国必须走一条属于自己的道路。70年来,中国发展取得巨大成功,根本原因就是找到了中国特色社会主义这条正确发展道路并且沿着这条道路坚定不移地走下去。

The choice of path is critical to the successful development of a country. As a vast country with a nearly 1.4 billion population, China has no experience of modernization to borrow from in history, but has to blaze its own path. Over the past 70 years, China has achieved great success. The ultimate reason is that China has found and will continue on the right path – socialism with Chinese characteristics.

这是一条从本国国情出发确立的道路。中国立足自身国情和实践,从中华文明中汲取智慧,博采东西方各家之长,坚守但不僵化,借鉴但不照搬,在不断探索中形成了自己的发展道路。

It is a path based on China’s actual conditions. Reflecting on its reality and history, and through experimentation, China has drawn wisdom from its own culture and learned from the strengths of other cultures, both Eastern and Western. China sticks to its choice of path, but is never rigidly opposed to change; China borrows experience, but never copies unthinkingly.

这是一条把人民利益放在首位的道路。在新中国,人民真正当家做了主人。70年来,中国秉持以人民为中心的发展思想,把人民对美好生活的向往作为奋斗目标,把改善人民生活、增进人民福祉、保障人民民主权利作为出发点和落脚点,在人民中寻找发展动力、依靠人民推动发展、使发展造福人民。

It is a path prioritizing the people’s interests. In the PRC, the people run the country in the real sense. For 70 years, China has upheld a philosophy of people-centered development, directing all its undertakings towards fulfilling the people’s aspiration for a better life and protecting their democratic rights. China seeks driving forces among the people, promoting development relying on the people, and benefiting the people through development.

这是一条改革创新的道路。中国的发展没有现成模式可以套用,没有现成道路可以借鉴。中国人民拼搏进取、敢闯敢试,通过改革创新破解前进中遇到的困难和挑战,破除妨碍发展的体制机制障碍,不断解放和发展社会生产力,不断解放和增强社会活力,不断完善和发展中国特色社会主义制度、推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化。

It is a path of reform and innovation. There is no ready-made solution to the development issues facing China. Working diligently and exploring boldly, the Chinese people have resolved difficulties and challenges through reform and innovation, and removing institutional obstacles hindering development. The purpose is to unleash and develop productivity and social vitality, to improve and develop Chinese socialism, and to modernize China’s system and capacity for governance.

这是一条在开放中谋求共同发展的道路。中国坚持对外开放基本国策,奉行互利共赢的开放战略,不断提升发展的内外联动性,在实现自身发展的同时更多惠及其他国家和人民,实现了从封闭半封闭到全方位开放的伟大历史转折,参与和推进了经济全球化进程,促进了人类和平与发展的崇高事业。

It is a path of seeking common development through opening up. China upholds the fundamental state policy of opening up, and pursues a mutually beneficial strategy of opening up. China has promoted interconnected development. While developing itself, China has shared its fruit with other countries and peoples. It has realized a historic evolutionary process from being completely closed, through being semi-closed, to being comprehensively open. China is an active participant and promoter of economic globalization, facilitating peace and development for humanity.

这是一条全面依法治国的道路。中国把依法治国作为国家治理的基本方略,坚持依法治国、依法执政、依法行政共同推进,坚持法治国家、法治政府、法治社会一体建设,为国家发展提供根本性、全局性、长期性的制度保障,确保国家在深刻变革中既生机勃勃又井然有序,确保国家长治久安。

It is a path of law-based governance. China practices the rule of law as a fundamental principle in governing the country. China pursues coordinated progress in law-based governance of the country, law-based exercise of state power and law-based administration in the government. Rule of law is a fundamental, overall and long-lasting institutional guarantee for China’s development. Rule of law ensures a vigorous and orderly society in times of profound change, and ensures lasting peace and stability.

70年来,中国发展之所以成功,最根本在于中国共产党的领导。中国体量巨大、国情复杂,治理难度世所罕见,没有集中统一、坚强有力的领导力量,中国将走向分裂和解体,给世界带来灾难。中国共产党成为中国的核心领导力量长期执政并得到人民拥护,在于立党初心不为一党之私,而是为中国人民谋幸福、为中华民族谋复兴、为人类谋和平与发展并长期坚守;在于不断加强自身建设,有坚强领导核心,有科学理论引领,有严明纪律规矩,有选贤任能机制,保持了党的稳定性、先进性、纯洁性;在于既有国家长远发展的战略规划能力,又有具体政策的强大执行能力;在于与时俱进、开明开放,既不忘本来又吸收外来,具有强大的凝聚力、组织力和号召力。

Over the past 70 years, China’s success boils down to the CPC’s leadership. Due to China’s vast territory and complicated national conditions, the governance of China is uniquely difficult. Without centralized, unified and firm leadership, China would have tended towards division and disintegration and caused widespread chaos beyond its own borders. The CPC is China’s core leadership, ruling the country for long and supported by the people. The reason lies in its founding mission of pursuing happiness for the people, realizing the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and promoting peace and development for humanity, rather than seeking its own interests. The reason lies in its capacity for self-improvement, and in its firm leadership core, effective theories, strict discipline and improved mechanisms for selecting upright and competent officials, which have ensured that the Party remains stable, progressive and clean. The reason lies in its strategic planning for the long-term development of the country and its competence in implementing specific policies. The reason lies in its open-minded ability to adapt to changing times, carrying forward its own heritage while absorbing the strengths of others, and in its ability to unite, organize and inspire the people.

70年来,中国战胜了各种风险和挑战,创造了一个又一个举世瞩目的中国奇迹。特别是中共十八大以来,中国发展取得历史性成就、发生历史性变革,中华民族迎来了从站起来、富起来到强起来的伟大飞跃,比历史上任何时候都更接近民族复兴的伟大目标。中国的这条发展道路,将随着时代前进越来越显示出光明的发展前景(专栏4)。

Over the past 70 years, China has defused many risks and overcome many challenges, and marched forward step after step. In particular, since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, China has witnessed historic achievements and changes. The Chinese nation has risen and become prosperous, and is becoming strong, closer to the goal of national rejuvenation than ever before. China’s development path will look on brighter and brighter prospects as time moves on (see Box 4).

经过70年发展,中国取得了巨大成就,但中国仍处于并将长期处于社会主义初级阶段的基本国情没有变,中国是世界上最大发展中国家的国际地位没有变。解决好人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾,让近14亿人民都过上富裕的日子,仍然有很长的路要走,仍然需要付出长期艰苦的努力。

Through 70 years of development, China has achieved remarkable progress. However, the basic dimension of the Chinese context – that China is still and will long remain in the primary stage of socialism – has not changed. China’s status as the world’s largest developing country has not changed. If it is to relieve the strain between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people’s ever-growing needs for a better life, and ensure that its nearly 1.4 billion people enjoy a decent level of prosperity, China still has a long road to travel.

二、中国的发展是世界的机遇

II. China’s Development Is an Opportunity for the World

随着中国综合国力和国际影响力快速提升,国际上有些人担心中国会走“国强必霸”的路子,一些人提出了所谓的“中国威胁论”。这既有认知上的误读,有根深蒂固的偏见,也有力量消长带来的心理失衡,还有出于维护自身既得利益的刻意歪曲。实现国家富强、民族振兴、人民幸福,既是中国人民的梦想,也是各国人民的共同梦想。中国的发展对世界是机遇,不是威胁和挑战。

With the rapid increase of China’s comprehensive national strength and international influence, some people worry that China will fulfill the outdated expectation that a country will invariably seek hegemony when it grows strong, so they have created what they call the “China threat” theory. The causes of this theory include cognitive misunderstanding, deep-rooted prejudice, a psychological imbalance brought about by the prospect of falling power, and deliberate distortions by vested interests. To realize national prosperity, rejuvenation, and people’s happiness is a dream shared by the Chinese with peoples of other countries. Rather than a threat or challenge, China’s development is an opportunity for the world.

(一)中国是世界经济增长的主要稳定器和动力源

1. China is the main stabilizing force and power source of the world economy

1979年至2018年,中国经济以年均9.4%的速度快速发展,成为全球经济增长的重要引擎。2008年,全球遭遇严重金融危机,世界经济受到重创,中国采取一系列有效措施成功应对危机,经济迅速回升向好,并持续保持中高速增长,成为世界经济增长的主要稳定器和动力源。

From 1979 to 2018 China’s economy grew rapidly at an average annual rate of 9.4 percent, and became an important engine of global economic growth. In 2008, the world suffered a serious financial crisis and the world economy was hit hard. Through a series of effective measures to deal with the crisis, China’s economy recovered rapidly and continued to maintain a medium- and high-speed growth. As a result, China became the main stabilizing force and power source of the world economy.

中国是世界经济增长的最大贡献者。中共十八大以来,中国贯彻创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,适应、把握、引领经济发展新常态,加强供给侧结构性改革,经济保持持续健康发展,质量和效益不断提升。近三年,中国经济总量连续跨越70万、80万和90万亿元大关,占世界经济的比重接近16%。2013-2018年,中国对世界经济增长的平均贡献率超过28.1%。有关测算结果表明,2013-2016年,如果没有中国因素,世界经济年均增速将放缓0.6个百分点,波动强度将提高5.2%。麦肯锡全球研究院发布报告认为,2000-2017年,世界对中国经济的综合依存度指数从0.4逐步上升至1.2,中国贡献了全球制造业总产出的35%。(注2)

China is the biggest contributor to world economic growth. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, China has implemented the concepts of innovative, coordinated, green, open and inclusive development. It has adapted to, steered, and led the new normal of economic development, strengthened supply-side structural reform, and maintained a sustainable and healthy economic development with increasing quality and efficiency. In the past three years, China’s economic aggregate has exceeded RMB70, 80, and 90 trillion successively, accounting for nearly 16 percent of the world economy. From 2013 to 2018, China contributed more than 28 percent of world economic growth on average. Estimates show that without China, the average annual growth rate of the world economy from 2013 to 2016 would have slowed by 0.6 percentage point and the intensity of fluctuation would have increased by 5.2 percent. According to a report released by the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI), the aggregate index of the world’s exposure to China’s economy gradually rose from 0.4 to 1.2 between 2000 and 2017, with China accounting for 35 percent of global manufacturing output.5

中国科技创新为世界经济增长注入新动能。近年来,中国科技领域投入不断增加,重大科技创新成果不断涌现。2018年,中国研发支出占GDP的比重为2.19%。世界知识产权组织等发布的全球创新指数显示,2019年,中国国家创新能力排名升至全球第14位,比2018年前进3名(专栏5),成为唯一进入前20名的中等收入经济体。(注3)在高科技领域,中国正在实现赶超,量子通信、超级计算、航空航天、人工智能、第五代移动通信网络(5G)、移动支付、新能源汽车、高速铁路、金融科技等处于世界领先地位。中国的科技创新成果广泛应用,为其他国家人民生产生活带来更多便利,为世界经济增长注入了新动能。

China’s scientific and technological innovations have injected new momentum into world economic growth. In recent years, investment in the field of science and technology in China has been increasing, and major scientific and technological innovations have emerged. In 2018, China’s R&D spending accounted for 2.19 percent of GDP. According to the Global Innovation Index (GII) released by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and other organizations, China continued its rise in 2019, moving from 17th in 2018 to 14th (see Box 5); it is the only middle-income economy in the top 20.6 In the field of high technology, China is catching up and getting ahead. Quantum communications, supercomputing, aerospace, artificial intelligence, fifth-generation mobile network technology (5G), mobile payment, new energy vehicles, high-speed rail, and financial technology are sectors in which China leads the world. China’s innovations in science and technology have been widely applied, bringing more convenience to the work and daily life of people of other countries, and injecting new momentum into world economic growth.

未来中国经济的稳定器和动力源作用更加凸显。当前世界经济增长动力不足,稳健的中国经济对世界越来越重要。中国经济正由高速增长转向高质量发展,新型工业化、信息化、城镇化、农业现代化加快推进,经济结构深度调整,产业优化持续升级,新经济增长点不断涌现。2018年,中国常住人口城镇化率达到59.6%,未来人口城镇化水平将稳步提高,城镇常住人口继续增加,带来基础设施、地产、新零售、医疗卫生、教育、文化娱乐等多个领域的广泛需求,为经济发展提供重要引擎。新产业新业态快速崛起,2018年,高技术制造业、战略性新兴产业和装备制造业增加值分别比上年增长11.7%、8.9%和8.1%;新能源汽车、智能电视、锂离子电池和集成电路分别增长66.2%、17.7%、12.9%和11.2%;信息服务业同比增速高达30.7%,移动游戏、网络购物、约车平台、旅游平台、大数据云计算等子行业增速达30%-50%,每个子行业都诞生了一批独角兽企业。麦肯锡全球研究院的研究报告认为,到2040年,中国和世界其他经济体彼此融合有望创造22万亿至37万亿美元经济价值,相当于全球经济总量的15%-26%,世界其他经济体和中国加强合作,将会创造出巨大的经济价值。(注4)

In the future, China will become more prominent in its role as a stabilizing force and power source. Currently, the world economy lacks momentum for growth, and the solidity of the Chinese economy is becoming more and more important to the world. China’s economy is changing from high-speed growth to high-quality development, and new industrialization, information technology application, urbanization and agricultural modernization are gathering speed. The economic structure is undergoing a profound adjustment, industrial upgrading is continuing, and new economic growth areas are constantly emerging. The urbanization rate of permanent residents reached 59.6 percent in 2018 and will increase steadily. The number of permanent urban residents will continue to increase. This will bring a wide range of needs in various areas, such as infrastructure, real estate, new retail, medical treatment and public health, education, culture and entertainment, and provide an important engine for economic development. New industries and business forms are emerging. In 2018, the added value of high-tech manufacturing increased by 11.7 percent over the previous year. Corresponding figures for strategic emerging industries and equipment manufacturing were 8.9 percent and 8.1 percent. New energy vehicles, intelligent televisions, lithium-ion batteries and integrated circuits increased by 66.2, 17.7, 12.9 and 11.2 percent, respectively. The growth rate of the information service industry is as high as 30.7 percent, and the growth rate of mobile games, online shopping, ride-sharing platforms, travel platforms, big data cloud computing and other sub-industries is 30 to 50 percent. Each sub-industry has given birth to a number of “unicorn” enterprises. According to an MGI report, by 2040, the integration between China and the rest of the world is expected to drive economic value of US$22 trillion to US$37 trillion, equivalent to 15 to 26 percent of global GDP. Strengthened cooperation between China and other countries will create enormous economic value.9

中国经济与世界经济已经发生结构性变化,深度融合在一起。经济运行更稳定、增长质量更高、增长前景可期的中国,对世界经济发展是长期利好(专栏6)。把中国经济发展看作“威胁”和“挑战”,试图把中国挤出全球产业链、供应链、价值链,使中国与世界经济“脱钩”,既不可行,而且有害。

China’s economy and the world economy have undergone structural changes and are deeply integrated. China, which has a more stable economy, higher quality of growth, and promising growth prospects, contributes to the development of the world economy in the long run (see Box 6). It is both unrealistic and harmful to regard China’s economic development as a “threat” or “challenge” and try to squeeze China out of the global industrial chain, supply chain and value chain so as to “detach” China from the world economy.

(二)全方位对外开放为各国分享“中国红利”创造更多机会

2. All-round opening up creates more opportunities for all countries to share the benefits of China’s development

中国坚定不移奉行互利共赢的开放战略,实现更大力度、更高水平的对外开放。安全稳定的政治环境,数量庞大、需求升级的消费群体,素质全面、吃苦耐劳的劳动者,健全完善、周全周到的基础设施,公平竞争和法治化、国际化、便利化的营商环境,为各国提供更广阔市场、更充足资本、更丰富产品、更多合作契机。中国始终是全球共同开放的重要推动者、各国拓展商机的活力大市场。

China pursues a mutually beneficial strategy of opening up and strives to open up wider. A safe and stable political environment, large consumer groups with escalating needs, hard-working and well-qualified workers, sound and complete infrastructure, and an international and convenient business environment of fair competition under the rule of law, all provide countries with a broader market, more capital, richer products, and more opportunities for cooperation. China has always been an important promoter of global openness and a dynamic market for all countries to expand business opportunities.

中国有世界上最具潜力的消费市场。中国既是“世界工厂”,也是“全球市场”。中国有近14亿人口、4亿中等收入群体,市场规模全球最大。中国经济持续健康发展,带来多个领域的广泛需求,为经济发展提供重要引擎。中国消费空间和潜力巨大,消费升级态势明显,消费增速超过固定资产投资,消费梯度效应凸显,消费对经济贡献越来越大(专栏7)。麦肯锡全球研究院发布报告认为,在汽车、酒类、手机等许多品类中,中国都是全球第一大市场,消费额约占全球消费总额的30%。(注5)庞大的消费需求为世界各国提供了巨大市场。未来15年,中国进口商品和服务将分别超过30万亿美元和10万亿美元。

China has the most promising consumer market in the world. It is not only “the world’s factory”, but also a global market. With a population of nearly 1.4 billion and a middle-income group of 400 million, China has the largest market in the world. The sustained and healthy development of China’s economy has created extensive demand in many fields and provided an important engine for economic development. China has huge space and potential for consumption, which is clearly moving up market and making a growing contribution to the economy. The consumption growth rate has surpassed that of fixed asset investment, and its gradient effect is prominent (see Box 7). According to an MGI report, China is the world’s largest market in many categories, including automobiles, alcohol and mobile phones, accounting for about 30 percent of global consumption.11 Its huge consumer demand provides an enormous market for countries all over the world. In the coming 15 years, China’s imports of goods and services are expected to exceed US$30 trillion and US$10 trillion.

中国是最具吸引力的投资目的地。中国的劳动力资源近9亿人,就业人员7亿多,受过高等教育和职业教育的高素质人才1.7亿,每年大学毕业生有800多万,人才红利巨大。中国不断优化营商环境,给国外生产者、投资者提供更加广阔的空间、更加优质的营商环境(专栏8)。中国实行高水平的贸易和投资自由化便利化政策,制定《外商投资法》,全面实施准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理制度,持续放宽市场准入,着力打造对外开放新高地。中国加大知识产权保护力度,进一步完善体制机制、法律法规,健全与国际经贸规则接轨的创新保护体系,为广大投资者和权利人提供更加有力有效的保护。联合国贸发会议《2019年世界投资报告》显示,2018年全球外国直接投资延续了下滑趋势,规模较上年下降了13%,但中国实现了逆势增长,继续稳居全球第二大外资流入国地位。(注6)2019年上半年,中国实际使用外资4783.3亿元人民币,同比增长7.2%,特别是高技术制造和高技术服务业投资增幅较大,展现出对外资的强大吸引力。

China is the most attractive investment destination. It has a workforce of almost 900 million, and more than 700 million are employed. It has a talent bank of 170 million people who have received higher education or vocational education, and generates more than 8 million college graduates each year.

China continues to optimize its business environment, giving foreign manufacturers and investors a broader space and a better business environment (see Box 8). China has implemented a wide range of trade and investment liberalization and facilitation policies, formulated the Foreign Investment Law, and implemented the system of pre-establishment national treatment plus a negative list across the board. It continues to relax market access, and has made great efforts to establish pilots for opening wider to the world.

China has stepped up the protection of intellectual property rights. It has improved the relevant systems, mechanisms, laws and regulations, and enhanced the innovation protection system in line with international economic and trade rules, so as to provide more powerful and effective protection for the investors and IPR holders.

According to the “World Investment Report 2019” of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), global FDI continued its slide in 2018, down by 13 percent from the previous year, but China achieved counter-trend growth and continued as the world’s second largest recipient of FDI.12 In the first half of 2019, foreign investment in actual use in China was RMB478.33 billion, an increase of 7.2 percent over the same period last year; foreign investment in high-tech manufacturing and services grew especially fast.

更大规模“走出去”惠及更多国家。中国企业积极参与国际竞争与合作,更深更广地开展全球贸易投资活动,为促进东道国经济增长、扩大当地就业作贡献。伦敦大学亚非学院(SOAS)一项关于中国在非投资情况的调查报告表明,在埃塞俄比亚的中国企业建设工地和工厂,当地员工雇佣率在90%以上,中国企业为非洲创造了大量就业机会。(注7)预计未来5年,中国对外货物贸易将达到25万亿美元。随着中国对外开放的大门越开越大,将有越来越多的企业到国外投资,越来越多的中国人赴国外留学、工作、旅游。中国积极推动科学技术创新走向世界,使技术发展和创新不仅造福中国而且惠及世界,让更多人享受科技发展带来的便利和好处(专栏9)。

China’s further “going global” benefits more countries. Chinese enterprises actively participate in international competition and cooperation, carry out deeper and wider global trade and investment activities, and contribute to the economic growth of host countries and the expansion of local employment. A survey of Chinese investment in Africa by the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) of the University of London shows that more than 90 percent of employees at construction sites and factories run by Chinese enterprises in Ethiopia are local residents. Chinese companies have created a large number of jobs in Africa.14 It is estimated that China’s foreign trade in goods will reach US$25 trillion in the next five years. With the country opening ever wider to the world, more and more Chinese enterprises will invest abroad, and more Chinese will study, work and travel abroad. China has actively promoted the “going global” of scientific and technological innovation to the advantage of both China and the rest of the world, and more people can enjoy the convenience and benefits brought about by science and technology (see Box 9).

开放应该是双向的、互利的,而不应是单向的、一方受益的。互利双向才能长远持久。中国承诺持续扩大进口、放宽市场准入、改善营商环境、加强知识产权保护,其他国家也应该扩大开放,采取相应举措,努力改进自己的营商环境。只有各方相向而行,才能营造出开放、包容、普惠、平衡、共赢的发展环境,共同把发展的“蛋糕”越做越大,形成互利共赢的利益共同体。

Opening up should be mutually beneficial rather than a zero-sum game. Only mutual benefit can endure. China is committed to further expanding imports, relaxing market access, improving the business environment, and strengthening the protection of intellectual property rights. Other countries should also open wider to the world and take corresponding measures to improve their business environment. Only by moving towards each other can we create a development environment that is open, inclusive, balanced and beneficial to all, make the “cake” of development bigger, and form a mutually beneficial community of shared interests.

(三)中国为国际社会提供更多公共产品

3. China is providing more public goods to the international community

中华民族历来有立己达人、兼济天下的情怀。中国发展得益于国际社会,也始终不忘回馈国际大家庭,为国际社会提供更多更好公共产品。

The Chinese have always believed that “You yourself desire rank and standing; then help others to get rank and standing”. We care for the people of the world and strive for the greater good while pursuing our own development. China has benefited from the international community for its development, and it has never forgotten to provide it with more and better public goods in return.

推动高质量共建“一带一路”。共建“一带一路”倡议以共商共建共享为原则,以和平合作、开放包容、互学互鉴、互利共赢的丝绸之路精神为指引,以政策沟通、设施联通、贸易畅通、资金融通、民心相通为重点,已经从理念转化为行动,从愿景转化为现实,从倡议转化为全球广受欢迎的公共产品(专栏10)。2016年11月联合国通过决议,欢迎共建“一带一路”等经济合作倡议。2017年3月,联合国安理会决议中呼吁各国推进“一带一路”建设,构建人类命运共同体。“一带一路”倡议源于中国,机会和成果属于世界。据世界银行研究报告,“一带一路”倡议将使相关国家760万人摆脱极端贫困、3200万摆脱中度贫困,将使参与国贸易增长2.8%至9.7%、全球贸易增长1.7%至6.2%、全球收入增加0.7%至2.9%。(注8)“一带一路”倡议是名副其实的资源共享、共同繁荣、共同发展之路。

We will build a high-quality Belt and Road together with our partners. The Belt and Road Initiative is based on the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, and is guided by the Silk Road spirit characterized by peace, cooperation, openness, inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutual benefit. With a focus on policy coordination, connectivity of infrastructure, unimpeded trade, financial integration and closer people-to-people ties, it has transformed from ideas into action, from vision into reality, from a conceptual initiative into a globally popular public product (see Box 10). In November 2016, the United Nations adopted a resolution welcoming economic cooperation initiatives such as the Belt and Road Initiative. In March 2017, the United Nations Security Council called on all countries in its resolution to promote the initiative and the building of a global community of shared future. The Belt and Road Initiative originated in China, but the opportunities and achievements belong to the whole world. According to a World Bank research report, the initiative will help 7.6 million people out of extreme poverty and 32 million out of moderate poverty. It will increase trade in participating countries by 2.8 to 9.7 percent, global trade by 1.7 to 6.2 percent and global income by 0.7 to 2.9 percent.19 The initiative is a veritable road to resource sharing, shared prosperity and common development.

搭建多边对话和合作平台。中国坚定支持多边主义,主张国际上的事由各国商量着办,积极搭建政治、经济、安全、人文等领域多边对话和合作平台。创办“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛、中国国际进口博览会、虹桥国际经济论坛、中非合作论坛、中阿合作论坛、中拉论坛、博鳌亚洲论坛、中国-东盟博览会、中国-阿拉伯国家博览会、中国-非洲经贸博览会、亚洲文明对话大会、世界互联网大会等多个全球和区域性多边平台,推动多边合作日益深入。主办亚信上海峰会、亚太经合组织领导人北京非正式会议、二十国集团领导人杭州峰会、金砖国家领导人厦门会晤、上海合作组织青岛峰会等,取得一系列开创性、引领性、机制性成果。发起成立亚洲基础设施投资银行、新开发银行等国际金融合作机构,为全球包容性发展贡献越来越大的力量。发起成立上海合作组织,为维护地区和世界和平稳定发挥了重要作用。

China is building platforms for multilateral dialogue and cooperation. We firmly support multilateralism and advocate that international affairs should be discussed and handled by all countries. China has set up platforms for multilateral dialogue and cooperation in political, economic, security, cultural and other fields. To promote multilateral cooperation, we have established a number of global and regional multilateral platforms including:

Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation,

China International Import Expo,

Hongqiao International Economic Forum,

Forum on China-Africa Cooperation,

China-Arab States Cooperation Forum,

China-CELAC Forum,

Boao Forum for Asia,

China-ASEAN Expo,

China-Arab States Expo,

China-Africa Economic and Trade Expo,

Conference on Dialogue of Asian Civilizations, and

World Internet Conference.

China has hosted the CICA Summit in Shanghai, APEC Leaders’ Informal Meeting in Beijing, G20 Hangzhou Summit, BRICS Summit in Xiamen, and SCO Qingdao Summit, marking a series of pioneering, leading and institutional achievements. We have initiated the establishment of international financial cooperation institutions such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the New Development Bank, making a growing contribution to the inclusive development of the world. The China-initiated SCO has played an important role in safeguarding regional and world peace and stability.

积极参与国际和地区事务。中国作为联合国安理会常任理事国,努力为解决国际和地区热点问题贡献智慧和力量。积极推动朝鲜半岛、伊朗核、叙利亚、阿富汗等地区热点问题政治解决,致力于推动对话协商,寻求各方都能接受的解决方案。积极参与联合国及其他多边平台气候治理进程,坚定支持并推动《巴黎气候变化协定》落实。积极推动落实联合国《全球反恐战略》及安理会反恐决议,积极参与国际反恐合作。不断加强能源安全、粮食安全、网络安全、极地、外空、海洋等领域国际交流与合作。

China actively participates in international and regional affairs. As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, China strives to contribute wisdom and strength to the settlement of major international and regional flashpoints. China has worked to promote the political settlement of the Korean Peninsula, Iran nuclear, Syria, and Afghanistan issues, and is committed to promoting dialogue and consultation and seeking solutions acceptable to all parties concerned. We have actively participated in the climate governance process of the United Nations and other multilateral platforms, and firmly supported and promoted the implementation of the Paris Agreement. We have promoted and implemented the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy and the Security Council counter-terrorism resolutions, and actively participated in international counter-terrorism actions. We have strengthened international exchanges and cooperation in energy, food and network security, and in the polar regions, outer space and the oceans.

积极开展对外援助。中国自身是发展中国家,对其他发展中国家正在经受的贫困与苦难感同身受,力所能及地为他们提供援助。中国坚持正确义利观,秉持相互尊重、平等相待,重信守诺、互利共赢,量力而行、尽力而为的原则,不附加任何政治条件地为广大发展中国家提供资金、技术、人员、智力等方面援助,帮助受援国增强自主发展能力,为促进当地经济社会发展、改善民众生活、实现联合国2030年可持续发展议程作出更大贡献。

China has actively provided aid to countries in need. As a developing country itself, China identifies with other developing countries in terms of the poverty and suffering they are experiencing and provides them with assistance within its capacity. China upholds the greater good and pursues shared interests, adheres to the principles of mutual respect, equality, keeping promises, mutual benefit, and offering the utmost assistance within its capacity. It provides financial, technical, personnel and intellectual assistance to developing countries without any political strings attached, so as to help recipient countries strengthen their capacity for independent development, and to make a greater contribution to promoting their economic and social development and people’s wellbeing and achieving the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

(四)中国发展为其他发展中国家提供经验和借鉴

4. China’s development provides experience and reference for other developing countries

一个国家找到适合本国国情的发展道路并不容易。近代以来,许多发展中国家艰辛探索,希望实现国富民强,但真正找到适合自身的道路、实现良好发展的并不多。一些国家盲目照搬或被迫引入西方模式,不仅没有实现经济发展、政治稳定,反而陷入社会动乱、经济危机、治理瘫痪,甚至发生无休止的内战。

It is not easy for a country to find a development path suited to its own national conditions. In the recent past, many developing countries have worked hard in the hope of making themselves prosperous and strong, but few have really found the right path and achieved good development. Some countries blindly copied or were forced to adopt the Western model, but they did not achieve economic development or political stability. Instead they fell into social unrest, economic crisis, governance paralysis, and even endless civil war.

在几十年艰辛探索中,中国始终坚定不移走自己的路,在不断探索中形成了自己的发展道路。中国发展的成功,提振了发展中国家实现国富民强的信心,拓展了发展中国家走向现代化的途径,为世界上那些既希望加快发展又希望保持自身独立的国家和民族,走符合本国国情的道路提供了经验和借鉴。

Over decades of arduous exploration, China has always taken its own road and formed its own development path. China’s success has boosted the confidence of other developing countries in their ability to achieve prosperity, expanded their routes towards modernization, and provided experience and reference to countries that want to speed up their development and maintain their independence, enabling them to choose a path in line with their own national conditions.

照搬没有出路,模仿容易迷失。中国发展的最大启示,就是一个国家走什么样的发展道路,既要借鉴别国经验,更要立足本国实际,依据自己的历史传承、文化传统、经济社会发展水平,由这个国家的人民来决定。世界上没有放之四海而皆准的发展道路和发展模式,也没有一成不变的发展道路和发展模式。各国可以相互学习借鉴发展经验,但现代化不等于西方化,不能生搬硬套,更不能一家说了算。发展道路合不合适,关键要看这条道路能不能解决本国面临的历史性课题和现实性问题,能不能改善民生、增进福祉,能不能得到人民的赞成和拥护。

Copying or imitating other countries offers no way forward. The greatest inspiration from China’s development is: What kind of path a country takes should be based on the experience of other countries, but more importantly on its own reality, and should be decided by its own people in accordance with its own history, cultural traditions, and level of economic and social development. There is no such thing as one single path or model that is universally applicable. Countries can learn from each other. But modernization is not equal to Westernization, and cannot be mechanically carried out or achieved through the same model. Whether the path of a country is the right one depends on whether this path can solve the historic and practical problems facing the country, whether it can improve people’s wellbeing, and whether it can win the recognition and support of the people.

选择什么样的发展道路,是每个主权国家的权利。任何国家都不能将自己的模式强加于人,更无权强行颠覆他国政权和政治制度。中国尊重其他国家选择的不同发展道路,中国不“输入”外国模式,也不“输出”中国模式,不会要求别国“复制”中国的做法。中国将通过深化自身实践,不断探索现代化建设规律、国家治理规律、人类社会发展规律,与各国加强治国理政交流,共享发展经验,共同实现良政善治。

It is the right of every sovereign state to choose its own development path. No country can impose its own model on others, let alone forcibly subvert the governments and political systems of other countries. China respects the different paths chosen by other countries. It does not “import” foreign models, nor “export” the Chinese model, and will never require other countries to replicate its practices. By furthering its own experience, China will continue to explore the laws of modernization, governance and human society, strengthen exchanges with other countries in state governance, and share experience to jointly realize good governance.

(五)中国绝不走“国强必霸”的路子

5. China will never seek hegemony

历史上确有国家因强成霸,但国强必霸不是历史定律。用西方一些国家的发展经验评判中国,把西方一些国家的发展逻辑套用于中国,得出的结论必然荒谬失真。中国走和平发展道路,不是外交辞令,不是权宜之计,不是战略模糊,而是思想自信和实践自觉的有机统一,是坚定不移的战略选择和郑重承诺。无论国际形势如何变化,无论自身如何发展,中国永不称霸、永不扩张、永不谋求势力范围。

It is true that in the past, countries that grew strong have sought hegemony, but this is not a historical law. The conclusion is bound to be absurd and distorted if one judges China against the experience of some Western powers and applies their logic to China. China’s pursuit of peaceful development is not diplomatic rhetoric, or an act of expediency, or a strategic ambiguity. Rather, it showcases China’s confidence in thought and readiness for practice, and represents China’s unswerving strategic choice and solemn commitment. China will never pursue hegemony or expansion, nor will it seek to create spheres of influence, no matter how international situation changes, how China develops itself.

中国走和平发展道路,来源于中华文明的深厚底蕴。中华文明起源于内陆和农耕,是内敛、防御的文明。5000多年的中华文化,蕴含着天人合一的宇宙观、协和万邦的国际观、和而不同的社会观、人心和善的道德观。中国自古倡导“强不执弱,富不侮贫”“己所不欲,勿施于人”,深知“国虽大,好战必亡”。中华民族的血液里没有侵略他人、称霸世界的基因。近代以来,中国饱受列强欺凌,对战争和动荡带来的苦难刻骨铭心,绝不会将曾经遭受的苦难强加给其他民族。

China takes the road of peaceful development, which comes from the profound heritage of Chinese civilization. Chinese civilization originated from inland and farming; it is a moderate and defensive civilization. With a history dating back more than 5,000 years, Chinese culture contains the cosmological view of the unity of man and nature, the international view of harmony between all countries, the social view of harmony in diversity, and the moral view of kindness and benevolence. Since ancient times, China has advocated that “the strong should not oppress the weak, and the rich should not abuse the poor”, and “do not do to others what you do not want others to do to you”, knowing that “a warlike state, however big it may be, will eventually perish”. The Chinese nation does not have the gene to invade others and dominate the world. From the mid-19th century, China was abused by the Western powers and left with indelible memories of the suffering brought about by war and instability. It will never impose the suffering it has endured on other nations.

中国走和平发展道路,来源于对实现中国发展目标条件的认知。发展是中国的第一要务。70年来,中国的发展得益于和平稳定的外部环境,中国进一步发展同样需要和平稳定的外部环境。中国实现更好发展,关键还是集中精力办好自己的事情,以发展促和平、以和平促发展。对外搞扩张、搞霸权,不符合中国利益,违背人民意愿。积极争取和平的国际环境发展自己,又以自身的发展更好地维护世界和平、促进共同发展,始终是中国坚定不移的国家意志。

China’s peaceful development comes from its understanding of the conditions for achieving development goals. Development is China’s top priority. Over the past 70 years, China has benefited from a peaceful and stable external environment, and in the future, it also needs such an external environment. The key to China’s success lies in concentrating on running its own affairs well and realizing the mutual promotion of peace and development. Expansion and hegemony go against China’s interests and the will of the people. It has always been China’s unswerving national will to strive for a peaceful international environment favorable to its own development, and to better safeguard world peace and promote common development through its own.

中国走和平发展道路,来源于对世界发展大势的深刻把握。当今世界,各国越来越成为“你中有我,我中有你”的利益共同体、命运共同体,和平、发展、合作、共赢是时代潮流。任何一个国家,无论大小强弱,只有在平等、互利、共赢基础上参与国际合作,才能实现持续发展;反之,追逐霸权,穷兵黩武,只会消耗国力、走向衰亡。人类历史上由于强国争霸导致战乱频仍、生灵涂炭、人类文明遭受挫折甚至倒退,教训惨痛而深刻。要和平不要战争,要发展不要贫穷,要稳定不要混乱,是各国人民朴素而真实的共同愿望。中国走和平发展道路,符合历史潮流,顺应世界大势。

China’s peaceful development comes from a profound understanding of the general trend of world development. Today, countries are becoming a close-knit community of shared interests and future, and peace, development, cooperation, and mutual benefit are the trends of the times. Any country, big or small, strong or weak, can achieve sustainable development only if it participates in international cooperation on the basis of equality and mutual benefit. In contrast, pursuing hegemony and militarism will only consume national strength and lead to decline. In human history, the struggle for hegemony of the major powers has resulted in frequent wars, loss of life, setbacks for humanity, and even the retrogression of human civilization. The lessons have been painful and profound. Peace, development and stability, rather than war, poverty and chaos, are the true aspirations of the people of all countries. China’s path of peaceful development is in line with the trend of history and the general trend of the world.

中国有发展的权利,中国人民有追求美好生活的权利。作为历史上曾经遭受欺凌、蒙受屈辱的大国,中国发展的目的是赢得尊严和安全,让历经苦难的人民过上好日子。在追求这个目标的过程中,中国自然而然地发展了、强大了,但不是想要威胁谁、挑战谁、取代谁,更不是要在世界上称王称霸。中国的未来掌握在自己手中,中国的命运由中国人民说了算。没有任何人能够剥夺中国人民追求美好生活的权利,也没有任何人能够阻挡中国向前发展的步伐。

China has the right to development, and its people have the right to pursue a better life. As a country that suffered abuse and humiliation in the past, China aims to win dignity, security and a better life for its people through its own development. China naturally develops and becomes stronger, but does not want to threaten, challenge or replace any other country in the process, nor will it seek hegemony. China’s future is in its own hands. It is the Chinese people who decide their own destiny. No one can deprive the Chinese people of their right to pursue a better life. No one can stop China from moving forward.

中国坚定不移走和平发展道路,也希望世界各国共同走和平发展道路。只有各国都走和平发展道路,各国才能共同发展,国与国才能和平相处。中国决不会以牺牲别人利益为代价发展自己,也决不放弃自己的正当权益。任何国家不要指望中国会拿自己的核心利益做交易,任何人不要指望中国会吞下损害国家主权、安全、发展利益的苦果。

China is firmly committed to peaceful development and hopes that all countries in the world will do likewise. Only when countries take peaceful development paths can we develop and live peacefully together. China will never develop itself at the expense of others, nor will it give up its legitimate rights and interests. No foreign country should expect China to trade its core interests or to accept anything that is damaging to China’s own sovereignty, security and development interests.

三、建设繁荣美好世界是各国人民的共同梦想

III. A Prosperous and Beautiful World Is the Common Aspiration of All Peoples

当今世界,和平与发展仍然是时代主题,但面临许多新问题新挑战,特别是单边主义、保护主义、霸权主义、强权政治成为影响世界和平稳定的突出因素。建设持久和平、普遍安全、共同繁荣、开放包容、清洁美丽的世界,让人民过上安宁富足的生活,是各国人民孜孜以求的共同梦想。

Peace and development remain the underlying themes of our times. However, the world is facing many new problems and challenges. Unilateralism, protectionism, hegemonism, and power politics are some of the major factors affecting world peace and stability. It is a common aspiration of the peoples of all countries to build an open, inclusive, clean, and beautiful world that enjoys lasting peace, universal security, and common prosperity, and where everyone lives in peace and plenty.

(一)当今世界正处于百年未有之大变局

1. The world is undergoing the greatest changes in a century

最近100多年来,人类经历了血腥的热战、冰冷的冷战,也取得了惊人的发展、巨大的进步。21世纪以来,随着经济全球化深入发展,国际政治经济格局加速演变,全球发展深层次矛盾日益突出,国际力量对比日趋均衡,国际秩序和全球治理体系变革更加深入,世界进入大发展大变革大调整的新时期,处于百年未有之大变局。

Humanity has made remarkable progress over the past century despite many bloody wars and the Cold War. The 21st century has witnessed growing economic globalization and a rapidly changing international political and economic landscape. Deep-seated problems in global development have become increasingly prominent. The international structures of power have been moving towards balance. The international order and global governance system have experienced further changes. All this shows that the world is in an era of major development, transformation and adjustment, and is undergoing the greatest changes in a century.

大变局催生新的机遇。百年未有之大变局的最大变化,就是以中国为代表的新兴市场国家和发展中国家群体性崛起,从根本上改变了国际力量对比。工业革命以来,西方世界在国际政治经济格局中长期占据主导地位。近几十年来,新兴市场国家和发展中国家紧紧抓住经济全球化历史机遇,实现了快速发展。国际货币基金组织最新数据显示,按购买力平价计算,新兴市场国家和发展中国家经济总量2008年已经超过发达国家,到2018年占世界经济比重达到59%(图2)。当今世界,多极化加速发展,现代化发展模式更趋多元,国际治理体系向协同共治转变,任何国家或者国家集团都再也无法单独主宰世界事务,求稳定、盼和平、谋发展成为国际社会普遍诉求。科学技术是引领大变局的革命性力量。现在,新一轮科技革命和产业变革深入发展,新一代信息技术广泛应用,大量催生新技术新产业新业态新模式,人类社会处于生产力大发展大跃升的前夜。

Change brings opportunities. One of the most notable changes is that the rise of China and other emerging market and developing countries is fundamentally altering the international structures of power. International politics and the economic system have been dominated by Western powers since the First Industrial Revolution. In more recent decades, emerging market and developing countries have realized rapid growth by seizing the historic opportunities presented by economic globalization. According to the latest data released by the IMF, the share of emerging market and developing economies in global output, measured by purchasing power parity, first surpassed that of advanced economies in 2008, and rose to 59% in 2018 (see Figure 2).

The world is moving rapidly towards multipolarity, diverse modern development models, and collaboration in global governance. It is now impossible for one single country or bloc of countries to exercise dominance in world affairs. Stability, peace and development have become the common aspirations of the international community. Science and technology is a leading force driving major changes. Advances in the new technological revolution and industrial transformation, and the widespread use of new-generation information technology, have generated new tools, industries, and forms of business, moving our productivity to a higher level.

大变局充满风险和挑战。大变局深刻复杂、变乱交织,各种新旧因素、力量、矛盾相互叠加碰撞,大国关系、国际秩序、地区安全、社会思潮、全球治理深刻重塑,国际局势不稳定性不确定性日益突出,治理赤字、信任赤字、和平赤字、发展赤字越来越大,世界面临重新陷入分裂甚至对抗的风险。全球经济增长动能不足、增速放缓,资本过度逐利导致贫富分化持续加大,贸易保护主义愈演愈烈,全球公共和私人债务高企,部分新兴经济体出现较大金融动荡,全球经济下行压力增大(专栏11)。国际安全形势严峻复杂,国际战略竞争日趋激烈,地区安全局势持续紧张,大规模杀伤性武器扩散、恐怖主义、网络攻击、气候变化、生物安全、有组织犯罪、重大传染性疾病等传统和非传统安全问题相互联动,严重威胁全球和地区安全。围堵遏制、对抗威胁的冷战思维沉渣泛起,霸权主义、强权政治甚嚣尘上,丛林法则、零和博弈找到新的土壤,严重侵蚀动摇战后国际秩序基础。一些西方国家治理陷入困境,民粹主义泛滥,逆全球化加剧。国际军控和裁军遭遇挫折,军备竞赛趋势显现,战略平衡与稳定受到破坏,一些地区热点问题矛盾持续激化、对抗不断升级,战争幽灵若隐若现。信息化智能化迅猛发展,对人类生命的存在形式、活动方式、伦理道德等提出了不可忽视的挑战。

Change brings risks and challenges. The profoundly evolving international landscape involves complex and intertwined changes, and the interaction of old and new factors, forces, and problems. It also means greatly reshaping the relations between major countries, the international order, regional security, the trends of thought, and the global governance system. Factors of instability and uncertainty are increasing. Deficits in governance, trust, peace and development are growing. The world is facing the danger of a relapse into fragmentation and even confrontation.

The world economy is slowing down for lack of impetus, and the gap between the rich and poor is widening as a consequence of capital’s excessive pursuit of profit. Trade protectionism is on the rise. Global public and private debt is rising steeply. Some emerging economies have encountered major financial turbulence. The world economy is facing mounting downward pressure (see Box 11).

The world is facing grave and complex security challenges. As strategic competition becomes more acute, the regional security situation remains tense. Global and regional security faces the combined effect of traditional and nontraditional threats, such as the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, cyberattacks, climate change, biohazards, organized crime, and major communicable diseases. The Cold War mentality of encirclement, constraint, confrontation and threat is resurfacing. Hegemonism and power politics are surging. The law of the jungle and zero-sum games have found new soil in which to breed. These challenges are grievously undermining the post-World War II international order. Some Western countries are facing serious difficulties in governance, populism is widespread, and attacks on globalization are intensifying. With a looming arms race, international arms control and disarmament have suffered setbacks. Damage to global strategic balance and stability and the escalation of some regional issues and conflicts have increased the chances of war. The breathtaking development of information technology and artificial intelligence creates ethical problems and poses visible threats to human lifestyles and even existence.

 

 

面对百年未有之大变局,人类又一次站在了何去何从的十字路口。面对困难和挑战,希望和信心尤为重要。世界不确定性不稳定性日益增多,但求和平、谋发展的时代潮流不会改变;国际格局深刻演变,但世界多极化的趋势不会改变;自由贸易和多边主义遭遇逆流,但经济全球化大势不会改变;国际秩序之争激烈复杂,但国际体系变革的方向不会改变。紧紧抓住并用好大变局带来的历史机遇,团结起来应对好各种危机和挑战,人类社会就能实现新的发展和跃升,以崭新姿态进入下一个百年。

These profound changes have brought humanity to a crossroads. Hope and confidence are key to resolving difficulties and challenges. The global trend towards peace and development will remain unchanged despite growing uncertainties and instabilities. The global trend towards multipolarity will remain unchanged despite tremendous changes in the international landscape. The trend towards economic globalization will remain unchanged despite setbacks to free trade and multilateralism. Reform of the international system will not change its course despite the increasing intensity and complexity of the contest over the international order. Through making the best use of the historic opportunities presented by the transformation and working together to cope with crises and challenges, humanity can achieve further progress in the century to come.

(二)构建人类命运共同体

2. Building a global community of shared future

世界怎么了?人类怎么办?面对百年未有之大变局,面对当前治理难题和发展困境,人类社会迫切需要建立新的发展观,构建更加公正合理的国际体系和国际秩序,开辟人类社会更加美好的发展前景。中国提出构建人类命运共同体,着眼解决当今世界面临的现实问题、实现人类社会和平永续发展,以天下大同为目标,秉持合作共赢理念,摒弃丛林法则,不搞强权独霸,超越零和博弈,开辟出合作共赢、共建共享的发展新道路,为人类发展提供了新的选择。

What is happening to the world? What should humanity do? Confronted with unprecedented global change and governance and development challenges, humanity urgently needs to establish new approaches to development, build a fairer and more equitable international system and order, and open up brighter prospects for the future. China’s proposal to build a global community of shared future aims to solve the practical issues facing the world today and realize the peaceful and sustainable development of humanity. The proposal pursues the goal of universal harmony and the principles of cooperation and mutual benefit, while opposing the law of the jungle, power politics and hegemonism. It looks beyond zero-sum games to the idea of blazing a new path of development based on win-win cooperation, joint contribution and shared benefits, offering a new option to the international community.

构建人类命运共同体思想,内涵丰富,体系完整。政治上,倡导相互尊重、平等协商,坚决摒弃冷战思维和强权政治,走对话而不对抗、结伴而不结盟的国与国交往新路;安全上,倡导坚持以对话解决争端、以协商化解分歧,统筹应对传统和非传统安全威胁,反对一切形式的恐怖主义;经济上,倡导同舟共济,促进贸易和投资自由化便利化,推动经济全球化朝着更加开放、包容、普惠、平衡、共赢的方向发展;文化上,倡导尊重世界文明多样性,以文明交流超越文明隔阂、文明互鉴超越文明冲突、文明共存超越文明优越;生态上,倡导坚持环境友好,合作应对气候变化,保护好人类赖以生存的地球家园。

Building a global community of shared future is a well-rounded, systematic proposal. Politically, it advocates mutual respect and consultation on an equal footing, opposes the Cold War mentality and power politics, and embraces a new approach to state-to-state relations, one that features dialogue rather than confrontation and seeks partnerships rather than alliances.

In terms of security, the proposal calls for settling disputes through dialogue and resolving differences through consultation, coordinating responses to traditional and nontraditional threats, and opposing terrorism in all its forms. In the economic sphere, the proposal calls for a spirit of partnership in liberalizing and facilitating trade and investment, and making economic globalization more open, inclusive, balanced and beneficial to all.

The proposal respects cultural diversity and approaches cross-cultural communication by replacing estrangement with exchange, clashes with mutual learning, and a sense of superiority with coexistence. The proposal emphasizes eco-friendliness, cooperation in tackling climate change, and the protection of our planet, the home for all humanity.

构建人类命运共同体思想,汲取中华优秀传统文化精髓,继承人类社会发展优秀成果,揭示了世界各国相互依存和人类命运紧密相联的客观规律,反映了中外优秀文化和全人类共同价值追求,找到了人类共建美好世界的最大公约数。推动构建人类命运共同体,不是倡导每个国家必须遵循统一的价值标准,不是推进一种或少数文明的单方主张,也不是谋求在全球范围内建设统一的行为体,更不是一种制度替代另一种制度、一种文明替代另一种文明,而是主张不同社会制度、不同意识形态、不同历史文明、不同发展水平的国家,在国际活动中目标一致、利益共生、权利共享、责任共担,从而促进人类社会整体发展。

The idea of building a global community of shared future draws from the essence of traditional Chinese culture and the achievements of human society, and reflects the interdependence among all countries and the close interconnection of all humanity. The idea demonstrates the values shared by Chinese and other cultures and by all humanity, and the greatest common ground for building a better world. Building a community of shared future does not mean conformity to the same values by all countries or the implementation of unilateral proposals pushed by one country or a small minority of countries, nor does it mean the establishment of a single unitary actor around the globe, or the replacement of one system or culture by another. Rather, it calls for countries with different social systems, ideologies, histories, cultures, and levels of development to align their goals and interests, enjoy equal rights, and share all responsibilities in international activities for the progress of humanity as a whole.

构建人类命运共同体,是一项充满艰辛和曲折的事业,但是,用进步代替落后、用福祉消除灾祸、用文明化解野蛮是历史大趋势,是人类文明进步的道义所在。世界各国应团结起来,凝聚起不同民族、不同信仰、不同文化、不同地域人民的共识,共同推动构建人类命运共同体,把世界各国人民对美好生活的向往变成现实。

The path to a global community of shared future is arduous and tortuous. However, it is the trend of history and the goal of human civilization to replace backwardness with progress, misfortune with happiness, and barbarity with civility. All countries should reach consensus that transcends ethnicity, beliefs, culture, and location, and work together to build a community of shared future and actualize the aspiration of all peoples for a better life.

(三)构建新型国际关系

3. Building a new model of international relations

冲突对抗没有赢家,和平合作没有输家。国家和,则世界安;国家斗,则世界乱。历史上追逐霸权、结盟对抗、以大欺小的国际关系,为世界带来混乱甚至战争。当今世界不仅面临发展困境,还面临深刻的规则危机、信任危机、秩序危机。一些在长期国际实践中形成且被各国普遍认同和遵守的规则规范和道德观念被抛弃和践踏,一些事关战略稳定和全球福祉的国际条约和协定得不到履行甚至被撕毁和破坏。个别国家漠视国际公理,公然侵犯他国主权、干涉他国内政,动辄以大欺小、恃强凌弱。面对国际局势的动荡不安,各国应遵守规则、增进信任、维护秩序,构建新型国际关系,走对话不对抗、结伴不结盟的国与国交往新路,使地球村成为共谋发展的大舞台,而不是相互角力的竞技场。

Peace and cooperation benefit all while conflict and confrontation benefit none. Harmony among all countries brings universal peace while confrontation causes chaos. History shows that the pursuit of hegemony, alliance and confrontation and the abuse of power in international relations will induce chaos or even war.

In addition to development issues, the world is beset by serious crises of trust and threats to the international rules and order. Some long-standing international norms and ethics that have been widely recognized and observed are now abandoned and betrayed. Some international treaties and agreements with a bearing on global stability and wellbeing are ignored, torn up or damaged. In defiance of international truth certain countries overtly infringe the sovereignty and interfere in the domestic affairs of other countries, and abuse the small and weak.

Amid international volatility, all countries should observe the rules, enhance trust, and maintain order while building a new model of international relations. We should embrace a new approach to state-to-state relations, one that features dialogue rather than confrontation and seeks partnerships rather than alliances. Our global village should become a stage for common development rather than an arena for fights.

构建新型国际关系,应秉持相互尊重、公平正义、合作共赢原则。相互尊重,就是坚持国家不分大小、强弱、贫富一律平等,各国应尊重彼此的政治制度,尊重彼此自主选择发展道路的权利,尊重彼此利益关切,反对干涉别国内政,反对强权政治和霸凌主义。公平正义,就是各国应摒弃单纯的物质主义取向和竞争至上法则,确保资源禀赋和发展水平不同的国家能够获得平等的发展权利和机会,缩小彼此发展差距;国家间交往应遵循义利相兼、以义为先的义利观,实现自身获益与国际贡献的有机统一。合作共赢,就是各国应摒弃一味谋求自身更大相对利益的理念,纠正“赢者通吃”的过时做法,坚持以双赢、多赢、共赢为目标,在追求本国利益时兼顾各国合理关切,在谋求本国发展时促进各国共同发展,在维护本国安全时尊重各国安全,变压力为动力、化危机为机遇、化冲突为合作。

A new model of international relations should be built on the principles of mutual respect, equity and justice, and mutually beneficial cooperation. Mutual respect is based on equality among all countries, big or small, strong or weak, rich or poor. Each country should respect other countries’ political systems, their right to choose their own development paths, and their interests and concerns. All should oppose power politics, hegemony, and interference in other countries’ domestic affairs.

In upholding equity and justice, we need to discard extreme materialism and excessive competition, and ensure that countries with different reserves of resources and levels of development have equal right and equal access to opportunities so as to narrow the gap in development. State-to-state relations should uphold the greater good and pursue shared interests, with priority given to the former, properly balancing their national interests and their contribution to the international community.

Mutually beneficial cooperation pursues win-win results rather than the maximization of self-interest, and discards the outdated practice of “winner takes all”. Countries should address the legitimate concerns of other countries while pursuing their own interests, promote common development with their own development, and respect the security of other countries while safeguarding their own security. We should turn pressure into impetus, crises into opportunities, and conflict into cooperation.

大国是维护世界和平稳定的重要力量,是构建新型国际关系的关键因素。大国要有大国的样子,大国要有大国的担当。大国之大,不在于体量大、块头大、拳头大,而在于胸襟大、格局大、担当大。大国要以人类前途命运为要,对世界和平与发展担负更大责任,而不是依仗实力对地区和国际事务谋求垄断。在人类社会发展进程中,成功的大国战略必然是顺应时代潮流和世界发展大势,能够为其他国家和人民所认同。大国之间相互尊重、合作共赢,才能推动人类社会不断进步。大国要加强协调和合作,构建总体稳定、均衡发展的大国关系框架,当好世界和平与稳定的压舱石。大国之间要尊重彼此核心利益和重大关切,坚持换位思考和相互理解,通过沟通和协商以建设性方式处理矛盾和分歧。大国对小国要平等相待,不搞唯我独尊、强买强卖的霸道。任何国家都不能随意发动战争,不能破坏国际法治,不能打开潘多拉盒子,出现矛盾和问题,要通过平等协商处理,以最大诚意和耐心,坚持对话解决。

Major countries are an important force for safeguarding world peace and stability, and key actors in building a new model of international relations. Major countries should fulfill their responsibilities commensurate with their status. The international status of a country is measured by its openness of mind, breadth of vision, and sense of responsibility rather than its size, strength or power. Major countries should direct their primary efforts to the future of humanity and assume greater responsibilities for world peace and development, rather than wielding their power to seek hegemony in international and regional affairs. The course of human history shows that for the strategies of major countries to be successful they must follow the trends of the times and win wide recognition from other countries and peoples.

Only through cooperation based on mutual respect and mutual benefit can major countries sustain human progress. Coordination and cooperation should be strengthened to build a stable and balanced framework of relations among major countries, which underpins world peace and stability. Major countries should respect each other’s core interests and major concerns, build deeper mutual understanding, and settle differences and disputes through constructive communication and consultation.

Big countries should treat small ones as equals rather than acting as hegemons imposing their will on others. No country should create havoc by launching ill-considered and arbitrary wars or undermining the international rule of law. Disputes and problems should be settled through dialogue and consultation on an equal footing and with the maximum sincerity and patience.

(四)推动新型经济全球化

4. Promoting a new model of economic globalization

经济全球化是世界经济发展的必然趋势,契合各国人民要发展、要合作的时代潮流。历史上的经济全球化,促成了贸易大繁荣、投资大便利、人员大流动、技术大发展,各国人民从中受益,为世界经济发展作出了重要贡献,同时也积存了不少问题和弊端,经济全球化出现“回头浪”。目前经济全球化模式,难以反映广大发展中国家呼声、体现广大发展中国家利益;“弱肉强食”的丛林法则和“你输我赢”“赢者通吃”的零和博弈,造成富者愈富、贫者愈贫,发达国家与发展中国家以及发达国家内部的贫富差距越拉越大(专栏12);个别国家把内部治理问题归咎于经济全球化,归咎于其他国家,动辄采取单边主义、保护主义、霸凌主义,破坏全球价值链、供应链、消费链,导致现有国际贸易秩序紊乱甚至冲突,使全球经济落入“衰退陷阱”。

Economic globalization is an irreversible consequence of global economic development. It conforms to the trend of the times towards development and cooperation. Economic globalization has greatly facilitated trade, investment, flows of people, and technological advances, and benefitted the peoples of all countries, making an important contribution to world economic development. However, it has also caused a number of problems and encountered some setbacks. The current model of economic globalization cannot reflect the voices or represent the interests of developing countries. The law of the jungle and zero-sum games featuring the practice of “winner-takes-all” have exacerbated the divide between the rich and poor, as evidenced by the widening gap between developed and developing countries, and the gap between the rich and poor within developed countries (see Box 12).

经济全球化出现一些问题并不可怕,不能因噎废食,动辄“退群”“脱钩”“筑墙”,改革完善才有出路,必须在前进中解决问题。各国应携起手来,总结历史经验与教训,加强协调、完善治理,推动开放、包容、普惠、平衡、共赢的新型经济全球化。新型经济全球化,应由世界上各个国家共同参与、共同主导;应继续坚持和维护已经被实践充分证明是正确有效的贸易自由化、多边贸易体制等规则体制,并不断创新、完善和发展;应消除霸权主义与强权政治、丛林法则与零和博弈,秉持共商共建共享理念,真正实现民主、平等、公正、合理;应有利于建设开放型世界经济,有利于促进世界和平稳定,实现共同发展、共同繁荣、共同富裕。

Some countries have ascribed domestic governance problems to economic globalization or other countries, and resorted to unilateral, protectionist, and hegemonic actions. This approach has damaged the global value, supply and consumption chains, and caused turbulence and conflict in the current international trade order, driving the world economy towards the “recession trap”.

We should not be intimidated by the problems encountered by economic globalization. Withdrawing from international organizations and treaties, decoupling foreign trade relations, and building border walls lead us nowhere. Our problems can only be solved through a process of reform and self-improvement. All countries should join forces to draw lessons from history, strengthen coordination, enhance governance, and make economic globalization more open, inclusive, balanced and beneficial to all.

A new model of economic globalization should be developed and shaped by all countries. It should make innovations and improvements based on those rules and institutions that have proven effective in practice, such as trade liberalization and multilateral trade. It should eliminate hegemonism, power politics, the law of the jungle, and zero-sum games, uphold the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, and realize democracy, equality, fairness and equity. It should help to build an open world economy, promote world peace and stability, and bring common development and prosperity.

当前正在发生的第四次科技革命,将对新一轮经济全球化和人类社会发展产生难以估量的深刻影响,既带来前所未有的发展机遇,也带来新的严峻挑战。各国应立即行动起来,以全人类命运与共的视野和远见,共同构建新的全球治理架构。要探索建立相关规则和标准,既有利于科学技术的创新发展,又坚守人类安全底线。要平衡照顾各国特别是发展中国家利益,不能仅以发达国家、个别国家的安全、标准要求全世界。要尊重各国主权,不搞技术霸权、不干涉他国内政,不从事、不纵容、不保护危害他国安全的技术活动。要坚持多边主义,在相互尊重、相互信任的基础上,广泛开展对话合作,构建和平安全、民主透明、包容普惠的技术规则体系和国际合作新框架。要维护社会公平正义,确保技术创新在法治轨道和公认的国际准则基础上运行,由人类主导、为人类服务、符合人类价值观。

The ongoing fourth technological revolution will have immeasurable impact on a new wave of economic globalization and on the development of human society, bringing unprecedented opportunities for development as well as serious challenges. All countries should join together and take prompt action in building a new framework for global governance with the vision of a global community of shared future. We need to establish relevant rules and standards that facilitate technological innovation and development while ensuring the bottom line of human security. We should accommodate the interests of all countries and in particular those of the developing countries. It is unfair to apply the standards and security rules of developed countries or individual countries to all the other countries. It is essential to respect the sovereignty of every country. No country should seek technological hegemony, interfere in the domestic affairs of other countries, or engage in, connive in, or shield technological activities that undermine other countries’ security. Based on multilateralism, mutual respect and mutual trust, all countries should conduct extensive dialogue and cooperation, and build a system of technological rules and a framework for international cooperation that ensure peace, security, democracy, transparency, inclusiveness and benefits for all. It is necessary for all countries to uphold social equity and justice, place technological innovation under the rule of law and internationally recognized norms, and ensure that innovation is by the people, for the people, and consistent with human values.

(五)维护以联合国为核心的国际体系

5. Upholding the international system with the UN at its core

以《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则为核心的国际秩序,符合绝大多数国家利益,促进了世界和平与发展。为谋求一己之私,粗暴践踏国际法和国际关系基本准则,将会把世界推入混乱无序甚至对抗冲突的危险境地。权力如果横行霸道,正义就会消磨殆尽。国际社会应坚定地团结起来,坚决推进国际关系民主化,坚决维护人类赖以生存和发展的道德和法治规范,坚决维护国际公平和正义。

The international order underpinned by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter has accommodated the interests of the majority of countries and promoted world peace and development. Blatant violations of international law and the basic norms of international relations in pursuit of self-interest will plunge the world into a precarious situation characterized by chaos, confrontation and conflict. Hegemony will put justice in peril. The international community should work resolutely together to develop democratic international relations, safeguard the ethical and legal norms that are vital to human survival and development, and uphold international equity and justice.

联合国在当代全球治理体系中处于核心地位。《联合国宪章》是维护国际体系稳定、规范国家间行为的重要基石。当今世界发生的各种对抗和不公,不是因为《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则过时了,恰恰是由于这些宗旨和原则未能得到有效履行。维护联合国的权威与作用,就是维护国际社会共同利益和各国合法利益,就是维护全人类的美好未来。各国要坚定维护以联合国为核心的国际体系,坚定维护以《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则为基石的国际法和国际关系基本准则,坚定维护联合国在国际事务中的核心作用。

The UN is at the core of the global governance system. The UN Charter is the fundamental cornerstone for maintaining stability of the international system and regulating relations among countries. The world is experiencing confrontation and injustice in many different forms, not because the purposes and principles of the UN Charter are outdated, but because they have not been effectively fulfilled. Upholding the authority and role of the UN is key to protecting the common interests of the international community and the legitimate interests of individual countries, and to shaping a bright future for humanity. Therefore, all countries should uphold the international system centered on the UN, international law and the basic norms of international relations underpinned by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, and the central role of the UN in international affairs.

以世界贸易组织为核心的多边贸易体制是国际贸易的基石,为推动全球贸易发展、建设开放型世界经济、增进各国人民福祉发挥了中流砥柱作用。采取单边主义、保护主义的贸易政策,不符合市场规律,不符合国际规则,与世界贸易组织基本原则背道而驰,导致国际贸易萎缩,甚至可能引发全球性经济危机。各国应携起手来,坚定支持多边主义,旗帜鲜明地反对单边主义、保护主义,捍卫世界贸易组织核心地位和基本原则,维护自由、开放、非歧视的多边贸易体制,维护发展中成员合法权益和发展空间,建设开放型世界经济。

The multilateral trading system with the WTO at its core is the cornerstone of international trade. It has played a crucial role in promoting global trade, building an open world economy, and improving the wellbeing of the peoples of all countries. Unilateral and protectionist trade policies, which run counter to the laws of the market, international rules, and the basic principles of the WTO, will lead to shrinking global trade and may even trigger global economic crises. All countries should join together in support of multilateralism while firmly opposing unilateralism and protectionism. In building an open world economy, we should safeguard the WTO’s core role and basic principles and the multilateral trading system characterized by free trade, openness and non-discrimination, and protect the legitimate rights and development space of developing member states.

《巴黎气候变化协定》《核安全公约》《不扩散核武器条约》等国际公约,基于各方共识形成,符合世界各国利益,各缔约方都应严格履行,不能合则用、不合则弃。随意“退群”“退约”,既违反契约精神,也违背国际道义。遵守规则必须是公平的、双向的,不能采取“实用主义”“双重标准”,只要求别人,不要求自己。

The Paris Agreement on climate change, the Convention on Nuclear Safety, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and other international treaties and agreements are based on the consensus of all parties and in accord with the interests of all countries. All signatories have the obligation to fulfill their commitments fully rather than selectively. Willful withdrawal from international organizations and treaties goes against the spirit of contract and international ethics. The rules should be observed in fairness and be mutually binding, and must not be compromised by “pragmatism” and double standards.

(六)推动文明交流互鉴

6. Promoting exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations

文明是人类社会的基本标志,多样性是人类文明的基本特征,交流互鉴是人类文明发展的基本要求。几千年的人类社会发展史,就是人类文明发展史、交流史。世界是在人类各种文明的交流交融中走到今天的。人类社会越发展,越要加强文明交流互鉴,增进相互了解,促进民心相通。应对日益突出的全球性挑战,迈向人类更加美好的未来,既需要经济科技力量,也需要文化文明力量。

Civilization is an essential attribute of human society. Diversity is a primary characteristic of human civilization. Exchanges and mutual learning have been a basic driving force for progress in civilizations throughout the history of humanity for thousands of years. The world has become what it is today through communication and fusion among different civilizations. Further human development entails stronger exchanges and mutual learning among cultures and deeper mutual understanding among the peoples of different countries and closer people-to-people ties. Cultural progress is just as important as economic and technological development in addressing the increasingly pressing challenges we face and in moving humanity towards a better future.

秉持平等、多样、包容、开放的文明观。文明是多彩的,一个国家和民族的文明是一个国家和民族的集体记忆,不论是中华文明,还是世界上存在的其他文明,都是人类文明创造的成果。文明是平等的,世界上不存在十全十美的文明,也不存在一无是处的文明,文明没有高低优劣之分。文明是包容的,人类创造的文明都是劳动和智慧的结晶,一切文明成果都值得尊重,一切文明成果都要珍惜。认为自己的人种和文明高人一等,执意改造甚至取代其他文明,人为地制造文明冲突,在认识上是愚蠢的,在做法上是灾难性的,只能加剧文明间的隔阂,使世界陷入分裂与对抗。

Human civilization should be open and inclusive, and based on equality and diversity. Civilization thrives in diversity. Every civilization represents the collective memory of a nation or a people. All civilizations in the world, including the Chinese civilization, are the fruit of human development. All civilizations are equal. No civilization is perfect on the planet. Nor is it devoid of merit. No single civilization can be judged superior to another. Human civilization is inclusive. As the fruit of human labor and wisdom, every culture deserves respect and is worth cherishing. Attempts to judge the superiority of one race or civilization to another, to transform or replace other civilizations, and to sow discord between civilizations, are absurd and disastrous. These attempts will only increase misunderstanding between civilizations and push the world towards fragmentation and confrontation.

加强不同文明之间的交流互鉴。各国应相互尊重、平等相待,摒弃傲慢与偏见,加深对自身文明和其他文明差异性的认知,推动不同文明交流对话、和谐共生;应各美其美、美人之美、美美与共,既让本国文明生机盎然,也为他国文明发展创造条件,让世界文明百花园群芳竞艳;应开放包容、互学互鉴,努力打破文化交往的壁垒,积极汲取其他文明的养分,相互借鉴,取长补短,共同进步;应与时俱进、创新发展,不断吸纳时代精华,用创新为文明发展提供不竭动力。

Exchanges and mutual learning among civilizations should be strengthened. All countries should treat each other with respect and as equals. While discarding arrogance and prejudice, every country should enhance its awareness of the differences between its own civilization and other civilizations, increase dialogue between different cultures, and strive for harmonious coexistence. Every country should value its own civilization, appreciate that of others, and facilitate their development, and this will contribute to the flourishing of all civilizations. All civilizations should be open and inclusive, and promote common development by drawing from each other’s strengths through exchanges and mutual learning. All civilizations should progress with the times and sustain their development through innovation.

四、中国为建设更加美好的世界贡献力量

IV. China Contributes to a Better World

中国的发展离不开世界,世界的和平发展、繁荣稳定离不开中国。世界好,中国才能好;中国好,世界才更好。中国始终把自身发展置于人类发展的坐标系中,始终把自身命运与世界各国人民命运紧密相连,始终把中国人民利益同各国人民共同利益结合起来,始终做世界和平的建设者、全球发展的贡献者、国际秩序的维护者,为构建人类命运共同体、建设更加美好的世界贡献智慧和力量。

China cannot develop in isolation from the rest of the world, nor can the world as a whole maintain peace, development, prosperity and stability without China. China will do well only when the world does well, and vice versa. China continues to place its own development in the coordinate system of human development, seeing that its future is closely connected with that of the rest of the world and the interests of the Chinese people are integrated with the common interests of the peoples of other countries. China is always a builder of world peace, a contributor to global development, and a guardian of global order, contributing Chinese wisdom and strength to building a global community of shared future and developing a better world.

(一)以自身发展促进世界和平与发展

1. Promoting world peace and development through our own development

作为世界上最大的发展中国家,中国坚定不移走好自己的路,集中力量办好自己的事,让国家更富强、人民更幸福,为复杂多变的世界注入稳定性和确定性,这本身就是对世界和平与发展的最大贡献。

As the largest developing country in the world, we remain fully committed to following our own path and managing our own affairs well by pooling resources. This is how we can make our country more prosperous and our people happier, and infuse stability and certainty into the complex and volatile world. That in itself is our biggest contribution to world peace and development.

新时代的中国,将在习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想指引下,继续坚定不移走中国特色社会主义道路。始终坚持以人民为中心,始终坚持发展是第一要务,统筹推进经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设“五位一体”总体布局,协调推进全面建成小康社会、全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党“四个全面”战略布局,向着建设社会主义现代化强国、实现中华民族伟大复兴的目标坚定前行。

Guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, China will continue to forge ahead on its socialist path. We have committed to a people-centered approach and given top priority to development. We have implemented the five-sphere integrated plan to advance economic, political, cultural, social and ecological development, and the four-pronged comprehensive strategy to complete a moderately prosperous society in all respects, further reform, advance the rule of law and strengthen Party discipline. We should strive to build China into a strong, modern socialist country and march towards national rejuvenation.

中国始终把以经济建设为中心作为兴国之要,坚定不移走高质量发展之路,贯彻创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,加快建设现代化经济体系,更好满足人民日益增长的美好生活需要。全面深化经济体制改革,使市场在资源配置中起决定作用、更好发挥政府作用。进一步推进供给侧结构性改革,为经济持续健康发展提供源源不断的内生动力。继续实施创新驱动发展战略,把握数字化、网络化、智能化发展机遇,加强知识产权保护,增强自主创新能力和实力,增强发展新动力。坚持科技普惠,深化国际合作,同各国共享科技发展成果,让科技创新更好造福世界人民。

China places economic development at the center of its national rejuvenation, promotes high-quality development and pursues with firmness of purpose the new vision of innovative, coordinated, green, open and inclusive development. We will accelerate the modernization of our economy to better meet people’s ever-growing needs for a better life. Comprehensive reform of the economic system will be furthered to make sure that the market plays a decisive role in resource allocation and the government performs its functions better. We will push forward supply-side structural reform to provide endogenous impetus for sound and sustained economic development. We will continue to implement the innovation-driven development strategy, grasp the development opportunities presented by digitalized, networked and intelligent development, increase protection of intellectual property rights, expand our capability and strength in innovation, and create new drivers of growth. China will advance science and technology to benefit more people, expand international cooperation to allow other countries to share its scientific and technological achievements, and bring more benefits to people across the world through technological innovation.

让老百姓过上好日子,始终是中国发展的最大目标。中国将以更大力度保障和改善民生,让改革发展成果更多更公平惠及广大人民群众。加大精准扶贫精准脱贫力度,坚决打赢脱贫攻坚战,到2020年底基本消除绝对贫困,使经济发展成果更好为人民共享,为全球减贫事业作出新贡献。中国积极落实联合国2030年可持续发展议程,坚定不移走绿色发展之路,加快形成绿色发展方式和生活方式,引导应对气候变化国际合作,推动全球绿色、低碳、循环、可持续发展,保护好人类共同的地球家园。

Seeking a better life for the Chinese people has always been the primary goal for China. We will intensify efforts to secure and improve standards of living, allowing all people to benefit more fairly and thoroughly from the fruits of reform and development. We will reinforce targeted poverty alleviation and elimination to ensure that extreme poverty is basically eliminated by the end of 2020, thus enabling the people to better enjoy the fruits of economic growth and making a new contribution to global poverty reduction. China actively follows the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, remains firm in its commitment to promoting green development, and speeds up the application of eco-friendly growth models and ways of life. It takes a leading role in international cooperation in response to climate change, advances green, low-carbon, circular and sustainable development all over the world, and endeavors to protect the common homeland of humanity.

中国军队始终是世界和平的坚定捍卫者。新时代的中国国防,始终不渝奉行防御性国防政策,坚持走中国特色强军之路,努力建设同国际地位相称、同国家安全和发展利益相适应的巩固国防和强大军队。中国军队忠实践行人类命运共同体理念,积极履行大国军队国际责任,全面推进新时代国际军事合作,为促进世界和平与发展提供战略支撑,为建设持久和平、普遍安全的美好世界作贡献。

The Chinese military is a resolute defender of world peace. In the new era, China continues to pursue a defense policy that is defensive in nature, and stays committed to building a strong military with Chinese features, and solid national defense and armed forces that are commensurate with China’s international status and in compliance with national security and development interests. The Chinese army faithfully adheres to the concept of a global community of shared future, actively fulfills the international responsibilities of the armed forces of a major country, and comprehensively advances international military cooperation in the new era. Therefore, the Chinese military serves as a strategic safeguard for world peace and development, and contributes to building a better world of lasting peace and common security.

(二)坚持合作共赢、共同发展

2. Pursuing mutually beneficial cooperation and common development

合作共赢、共同发展,才能办大事、办好事、办长久之事。一些国家越来越富,另一些国家越来越穷,世界不可能长久太平、持久繁荣。中国人民不仅希望自己过上好日子,也希望其他国家人民过上好日子。中国将与各国加强互利合作,促进交流互鉴,弥合发展鸿沟,走出一条公平、开放、全面、创新的共同发展之路。

Only through mutually beneficial cooperation and common development can we make significant and sustainable achievements that are beneficial to all. Some countries are getting richer while others are becoming poorer, which makes it impossible to maintain lasting peace and prosperity around the world. Our Chinese people hope for a better life not only for ourselves, but also for the people of the rest of the world. China will strengthen mutually beneficial cooperation with other countries to promote exchanges and mutual learning, and narrow the development gap, embarking on a path leading to fair, open, comprehensive, innovative and shared progress.

坚持发展创新、增长联动、利益融合。中国将在推动自身创新发展的同时,加强与各国交流合作,开辟经济增长新源泉,壮大经济增长新动能。中国将进一步加强与各国宏观政策协调联动和发展战略规划对接,优势互补,相互借力,放大正面外溢效应,减少负面外部影响。中国将推动更具包容性的开放合作,兼顾当前利益和长远利益,兼顾自身利益和他国利益,既做大“蛋糕”又分好“蛋糕”,推动世界经济实现再平衡,让发展成果惠及更多民众。中国欢迎其他国家搭乘中国发展的“快车”“便车”,帮助更多新兴市场国家和发展中国家更好融入全球产业链、供应链、价值链,共享经济全球化红利。

Pursuing innovative development, interconnected growth and converging interests. China will seek to create new sources of economic growth and foster new drivers of growth through international exchanges and cooperation. We will further strengthen coordination on macro policies and connectivity in development plans with other countries to draw on each other’s strengths, increase positive spillover effects, and reduce negative external impacts. We will advance opening up and cooperation in a more inclusive way, pursue both current and long-term interests, and give consideration to the interests of other countries while pursuing our own, making the cake bigger and sharing it fairly to ensure equity and justice. China will help rebalance the world economy and ensure that the gains made benefit more people. We welcome the people of other countries aboard the express train of China’s development, and endeavor to help more emerging market and developing economies better integrate into the global industrial, supply and value chains, thus sharing the benefits of economic globalization.

推动共建“一带一路”高质量发展。“一带一路”倡议是构建人类命运共同体的实践平台,是促进世界和平与发展的“船”和“桥”。中国将同有关各方秉持共商共建共享原则,坚持开放、绿色、廉洁理念,努力实现高标准、惠民生、可持续目标,推动共建“一带一路”高质量发展,把“一带一路”共同建设成为和平之路、繁荣之路、开放之路、绿色之路、创新之路、文明之路,为世界各国创造发展机遇,让更多民众共享美好生活。共建“一带一路”是经济合作倡议,不是搞地缘政治联盟或军事同盟,不针对谁也不排除谁;是开放包容进程,不是关起门来搞小圈子或者“中国俱乐部”;是中国同世界共享机遇、共谋发展的阳光大道,不是这样那样的所谓“陷阱”,不以意识形态划界,不搞零和游戏。只要各国愿意参与,中国都欢迎。

Promoting high-quality development along the Belt and Road. The Belt and Road Initiative is a platform for building a global community of shared future, acting as a “boat” and “bridge” to promote world peace and development. China will join forces with all parties concerned to follow the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, and uphold open and green development and clean government. We will pursue high standards, sustainability, and a better life for the people. In promoting high-quality development along the Belt and Road, we will jointly make this initiative an open, green, and innovative path to peace, prosperity and cultural exchanges. We aim to create opportunities for all countries and enable more people to enjoy a better life. The Belt and Road is an initiative for economic cooperation, not one for geopolitical or military alliance. It is an open and inclusive process that neither targets nor excludes any party. Rather than forming exclusionary blocks, it aims to help China and the rest of the world jointly seize opportunities and pursue common development. It is intended to avoid ideological demarcation, zero-sum games, or any of the “traps”. We welcome any country which is willing to participate.

促进全球减贫与发展事业。消除贫困依然是当今世界面临的最大全球性挑战,实现联合国提出的2030年前彻底消除极端贫困的目标,需要各国同舟共济、共同努力。中国主张加快全球减贫进程,发达国家要加大对发展中国家的发展援助,发展中国家要增强内生发展动力。中国积极落实联合国2030年可持续发展议程,进一步加强国际减贫发展合作,支持联合国、世界银行等继续在国际减贫事业中发挥重要作用,推动建立以合作共赢为核心的新型国际减贫交流合作关系。中国始终关注和帮助生活在饥饿和贫困中的有关国家的人民,通过对外援助、减免债务、增加进口、扩大投资等措施,努力帮助发展中国家特别是最不发达国家增强自身发展能力,在扶贫减贫、疫病防控、难民救助等全球议题上继续贡献智慧和力量,让共同发展的阳光冲破贫困落后的阴霾、照亮共享繁荣的未来。

Advancing global poverty reduction. Eliminating poverty remains the biggest challenge facing the world today. To realize the UN goal of ending extreme poverty by 2030, it is critical for all countries to make concerted efforts. China advocates that developed countries increase assistance to developing countries and the latter enhance endogenous impetus for development, so as to accelerate the process of global poverty reduction. We actively implement the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, enhance international cooperation in poverty reduction, support the UN and the World Bank in continuing their important role in global poverty reduction, and promote a mutually beneficial model of international exchanges and cooperation in poverty reduction. China concerns itself with the problems of poverty-stricken countries and wants to help those people living in hunger and poverty. It strives to help developing countries – especially the least developed – to improve their capacity for self-development by providing foreign aid and debt relief and increasing imports and investment. We will continue to contribute wisdom and strength to global issues including poverty alleviation and reduction, disease prevention and control, and refugee relief, letting the sunlight of common development dispel the shadow of poverty and backwardness and illuminate a future of shared prosperity.

(三)坚定维护和推动经济全球化

3. Upholding and advancing economic globalization

中国是经济全球化的积极参与者,也是坚定支持者。中国愿与国际社会一道,主动作为,加强引导,让经济全球化进程更有活力、更加包容、更可持续。中国将实施更加积极主动的开放战略,创造更全面、更深入、更多元的对外开放格局,实现更广泛的互利共赢,以实际行动维护和推动经济全球化。

China is an active participant in and a firm supporter of economic globalization. We are ready to join the international community in taking proactive measures and strengthening guidance to make the process of economic globalization more dynamic, more inclusive and more sustainable. China will follow a more proactive opening-up strategy, work to create a more comprehensive, diverse and deeper opening-up structure, achieve mutually beneficial progress in a broader way, and uphold and promote economic globalization through concrete actions.

坚决反对单边主义、保护主义。中国坚定维护以世界贸易组织为核心的多边贸易体制,愿在平等和相互尊重基础上深化与各国合作,共同维护全球经济贸易稳定和发展。对于国际经贸往来中的问题,中国主张依照世贸组织规则,在相互尊重、平等互利、相向而行、诚信为本的基础上,通过对话协商解决问题。以贸易战相威胁,不断加征关税的做法无益于问题解决。中国是一个成熟的经济体,工业体系完备、产业链条完整、市场空间广阔、经济发展势头强劲,绝不会被贸易战打垮削弱。中国有信心有能力迎难而上、化危为机,开拓一片新天地。

Opposing unilateralism and protectionism. China is fully committed to a multilateral trading system with the WTO at its core. It is keen to extend cooperation with other countries on the basis of equality and mutual respect, and to jointly maintain the stability and development of the global economy and trade. China advocates compliance with the WTO rules to address issues in international trade through dialogue and consultation based on mutual respect, equality, mutual benefit, cooperation and good faith. Threats of a trade war and continuous tariff hikes will never help to resolve economic and trade issues. China is a mature economy with a complete industrial system and industrial chain, vast markets, and vibrant momentum for development. We can never be defeated or weakened by a trade war. China is confident of meeting challenges head on, turning risks into opportunities, and opening new chapters.

对外开放的大门将越开越大。中国是在开放条件下发展起来的,未来中国实现更好发展,必须在更加开放的条件下进行。中国已经推出并将继续实施一系列重大开放举措,“引进来”“走出去”并重,形成陆海内外联动、东西双向互济的开放格局。中国将以更低的关税水平、更短的负面清单、更便利的市场准入、更透明的市场规则、更有吸引力的营商环境,打造更高层次的开放型经济,为全球创造更多增长机遇、转型机遇、创新机遇。中国欢迎更多外国人士来华学习、工作、旅游。中国将加大“走出去”力度,鼓励更多企业、机构到海外投资兴业,加强经贸、人文等各领域交流合作,搭建互利共赢合作新平台。中国将继续办好“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛,全力打造世界一流的中国国际进口博览会,为中国对外开放和世界经济增长创造新需求、注入新动力。

Opening wider to the outside world. Opening up has been key to China’s economic growth over the past years. In the same vein, further growth in the future can only be achieved with greater openness. We have launched and will continue to implement a host of major opening-up measures, giving equal emphasis to “bringing in” and “going global”, and making new ground in opening China further through links running eastward and westward, across land and over sea. With lower overall tariffs, a shorter negative list, easier market access, more transparent market rules, and a more attractive business environment, China will build an open economy of higher quality, bringing more opportunities for growth, transformation and innovation to the world. We welcome more foreign friends to study, work and travel in China. China will devote more energy to “going global”, encourage more Chinese enterprises and institutions to invest and develop outside China, strengthen economic and cultural exchanges and cooperation, and build new platforms for mutually beneficial cooperation. China will continue to ensure the success of the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, and make every effort to develop a world-class China International Import Expo, fostering new demand and drivers for its opening up and global economic growth.

加快推进区域经济一体化。中国将加快实施自由贸易区战略,构建立足周边、辐射“一带一路”、面向全球的高标准自由贸易区网络,积极推动早日达成《区域全面经济伙伴关系协定》,加快推进中日韩自贸区、中欧投资协定等谈判进程。推动亚太自贸区和东亚经济共同体建设,支持非洲大陆自贸区建设,推进区域经济一体化,促进贸易和投资自由化便利化,让经济全球化的动力更加强劲。

Moving faster to promote regional economic integration. China will speed up the implementation of its free trade zone strategy, and build a high-standard network of free trade zones that focuses on neighboring countries and regions, radiates out through the Belt and Road, and opens to the world. We will continue to help secure agreement on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, and speed up negotiations on the China-Japan-ROK Free Trade Agreement and the China-EU investment treaty. China will work on the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific and an East Asia economic community, support the development of the African Continental Free Trade Area, advance regional economic integration, and promote liberalization and facilitation of trade and investment, reinforcing the momentum for economic globalization.

继续推动人民币国际化。人民币国际化丰富了全球贸易的货币结算方式,促进了全球货币体系多元化。人民币国际化,目的不是改变现有全球货币体系,而是对国际货币体系的补充和完善。人民币国际化,坚持尊重市场需求、服务实体经济的原则,是一个市场驱动的过程。在进一步推进人民币汇率市场化改革、稳妥有序推动资本和金融账户开放的同时,中国将继续推动人民币国际化,提升金融标准和国际化水平,更好实现中国和其他国家的利益融合,使世界金融市场更加稳定。

Continuing internationalization of the Renminbi. The internationalization of the Renminbi has broadened monetary settlement options for global trade and promoted diversity in the international monetary system. It aims to supplement and improve rather than change the current system. It is a market-driven process based on the principle of respecting market demand and serving the real economy. While advancing the market-based reform of the Renminbi exchange rate and the opening of domestic capital and financial accounts in a prudent and orderly way, China will continue the internationalization of the Renminbi, raise financial standards, and further internationalize its financial sector, thus enhancing converging interests with other countries and contributing to international financial stability.

(四)积极发展全球伙伴关系

4. Developing global partnerships

拓展伙伴关系是中国坚持的重要方向。志同道合是伙伴,求同存异也是伙伴。中国继续弘扬伙伴精神,沿着对话而不对抗、结伴而不结盟的国与国交往新路坚定前行,努力推动构建总体稳定、均衡发展的大国关系框架,深化同周边国家关系,加强同发展中国家团结合作。中国秉持正确义利观,不断扩大同各国的利益汇合点,不断提升伙伴关系的含金量,不断拓展全球朋友圈。

China gives priority to expanding partnerships. Those who cherish the same ideals and follow the same path can be partners, and so can those who seek common ground while reserving differences. China will carry forward this spirit, remain committed to a new approach to state-to-state relations, one that features dialogue rather than confrontation, and seeks partnerships rather than alliances. We will work to build a framework for major-country relations featuring overall stability and balanced development, establish deeper relations with our neighbors, and strengthen solidarity and cooperation with other developing countries. Guided by the principle of upholding the greater good and pursuing shared interests, China will expand the convergence of interests with other countries, add more value to partnerships, and enlarge its circle of friends worldwide.

中美关系是世界上最重要的双边关系之一。中国是最大的发展中国家,美国是最大的发达国家,合作是两国唯一正确选择,共赢才能通向更好未来。美国应以理性思维、发展眼光看待两国关系,中国无意挑战美国,也不想取代美国;美国无法左右中国,更不可能阻止中国的发展。遏制打压别国、对外转嫁国内矛盾并不能使美国保持强大。美国应抛弃冷战思维,正确认识自己,正确认识中国,正确认识世界。适应别国发展强大,与外部世界和谐相处,才是大国常存之道。世界上本无“修昔底德陷阱”,但大国之间发生严重战略误判,就可能使冲突和对抗成为“自我实现的预言”。中国愿同美国一道努力,切实肩负起大国担当,在互惠互利基础上拓展合作,在相互尊重基础上管控分歧,推进以协调、合作、稳定为基调的中美关系,不断增进两国和世界人民福祉。

The China-US relationship is one of the most important bilateral relationships in the world. China is the world’s largest developing country and the United States is the largest developed country. Cooperation is the only correct choice for the two countries, and a mutually beneficial relationship is the only path to a better future. The US should treat our bilateral relations from a broad and rational perspective. China has no intention of challenging the United States, nor of replacing the US; the US is unable to force China’s hand, and even less likely to halt China’s development. The US cannot maintain its strength by attempting to contain and suppress other countries, or by transferring its own domestic stresses outward. The US should abandon the Cold War mentality, and develop a proper understanding of itself, China, and the world. It should adapt to the development and prosperity of other countries, and live in harmony with the rest of the world, which is the principle major countries should always follow. The Thucydides trap is not an unbreakable law. However, any serious strategic miscalculation between major countries risks turning conflict and confrontation into a self-fulfilling prophecy. For the wellbeing of the two nations and the rest of the world, China is ready to work with the US to shoulder their shared responsibilities as major countries, expand cooperation on the basis of mutual benefit, manage differences based on mutual respect, and jointly advance China-US relations focusing on coordination, cooperation and stability.

中俄互为最大邻国,两国携手走过70年,历经国际风云考验,树立了新型国际关系典范。中俄全面战略协作伙伴关系成熟、稳定、牢固,互信程度最高、协作水平最高、战略价值最高。新时代中俄全面战略协作伙伴关系的新定位,为两国关系标注了新的未来。中俄关系始终是中国对外交往的优先方向。中国将进一步深化中俄友好,坚定支持对方维护核心利益,在重大问题上紧密协作,在发展战略上加强对接,推动两国关系向着更高水平、更宽领域、更深层次不断迈进,在复杂多变的国际形势中担当压舱石和稳定器。中俄紧紧站在一起,世界就多一分和平、多一分安全、多一分稳定。

China and Russia have walked hand in hand through the past seven decades, each as the other’s largest neighbor. They have withstood the test of changes in the world and set a good example in fostering a new model of international relations. Our comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination is mature, stable and solid, enjoying the highest level of mutual trust and coordination and the highest strategic value. The upgrade of the China-Russia relationship to a comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for a new era marks a brighter future for our bilateral relations. China has always prioritized its relations with Russia in its diplomatic agenda. China will work with Russia to build a deeper friendship between our two countries, support each other on issues concerning our core interests, closely coordinate with each other on major issues of mutual concern, enhance the connectivity of our development strategies, and push our bilateral relations to greater heights, wider fields and deeper levels. Our relationship will serve as both a ballast and a propeller in a complex and volatile international situation. A close partnership between China and Russia contributes to world peace, security and stability.

欧洲是当今世界重要一极,是中国的全面战略伙伴。中国致力于推进中欧和平、增长、改革、文明四大伙伴关系建设,将中欧两大力量、两大市场、两大文明结合起来,提升中欧全面战略伙伴关系的全球影响力。中国坚定支持欧洲一体化进程,坚定支持欧盟团结和壮大,支持欧洲在国际事务中发挥更重要作用。中欧将进一步深化合作,携手维护多边主义,为世界注入更多稳定因素。

Europe is an important pillar in the world today, and also a comprehensive strategic partner to China. We endeavor to promote a partnership for peace, growth, reform and civilization, connecting our strengths, markets and civilizations, and increasing the global influence of the China-EU comprehensive strategic partnership. China will continue to support European integration, and a more important role in international affairs for a more united and stronger EU. The two sides will extend cooperation, make joint efforts to uphold multilateralism, and promote stability throughout the world.

中国视周边为安身立命之所、发展繁荣之基,始终将周边置于对外交往的首要位置,以促进周边和平、稳定、发展为己任。中国践行亲诚惠容理念和与邻为善、以邻为伴的周边外交方针,继续与周边国家增进互信互助,推进互联互通,深化互利合作,维护和平安宁,让中国发展成果更多惠及周边,为构建周边命运共同体汇聚力量,始终做周边区域合作引领者、地区和平发展守望者。

China sees its neighboring countries as the foundation of its development and prosperity. It gives top priority to neighborhood diplomacy in foreign relations, and takes promoting regional peace, stability and development as its bounden duty. In accordance with the policy of forging friendships and partnerships with our neighbors based on the principles of amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness, we will continue to increase mutual trust and assistance, promote connectivity, further mutually beneficial cooperation, and ensure peace and tranquility, so that our development will bring even greater gains to our neighbors and gather strength for turning China and its neighbors into a community of shared future. China will continue to lead regional cooperation and safeguard regional peace and development.

广大发展中国家是中国和平发展的同路人。中国秉持真实亲诚理念和正确义利观,加强与发展中国家团结合作。构建更加紧密的中非命运共同体,不断深化平等互利、共同发展的中拉全面合作伙伴关系,不断深化全面合作、共同发展、面向未来的中阿战略伙伴关系,为南南合作注入新动力,让大家都能过上好日子。

China and other developing countries share the same aspiration for peace and development. Guided by the principle of upholding the greater good and pursuing shared interests, China strengthens solidarity and cooperation with other developing countries in a spirit of sincerity, affinity, and good faith. We will contribute to a closer community of shared future between China and Africa, further a comprehensive cooperative partnership between China and Latin American countries characterized by equality, mutual benefit and common development, reinforce a future-oriented strategic partnership of comprehensive cooperation and common development between China and the Arab states, and foster new drivers for South-South cooperation, helping the peoples of all developing countries achieve a better life.

(五)坚定支持多边主义,维护国际公平正义

5. Supporting multilateralism and upholding international equity and justice

公平正义是人类社会的永恒追求,是构建人类命运共同体的崇高目标。当今世界,公平正义还远远没有实现。世界的命运必须由各国人民共同掌握,世界上的事情必须由各国共同商量着办。中国将继续坚定支持多边主义、维护国际公平正义,与各国一道共同推动国际关系民主化、法治化、合理化。

Equity and justice are the eternal goals of human society and the ultimate purpose of building a global community of shared future. In today’s world, equity and justice remain distant dreams. The future of the world should be decided by the peoples of all countries and international affairs should be managed by all countries through consultation. China will remain committed to multilateralism, uphold international equity and justice, and work with other countries to promote democracy, the rule of law and a proper balance in international relations.

坚持多边主义是国际社会的普遍诉求。在各国利益深度融合、命运休戚与共的今天,世界多极化和国际关系民主化是大势所趋,“谁强谁说了算”的日子一去不复返了。作为联合国创始会员国、安理会常任理事国和最大发展中国家,中国将一如既往地坚定维护以联合国为核心的国际体系,坚定维护以《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则为核心的国际秩序,同各国一道,坚守多边主义,反对单边主义。对国家间的矛盾和分歧,中国始终倡导有事好商量,依托多边框架和平台,加强沟通协调,求同存异,聚同化异,扩大共识,以和平方式解决问题,反对动辄诉诸武力或以武力相威胁。中国坚定维护以世界贸易组织为核心的多边贸易体制,坚决反对“筑墙”“拆台”“退群”等单边行为。中国积极支持世界卫生组织、世界知识产权组织、国际电信联盟、国际劳工组织等机构在全球治理中更好发挥作用。

Supporting multilateralism is the common aspiration of the international community. In today’s world, all countries have converging interests and share weal and woe, making the global trend towards multipolarity and democratic international relations irresistible. Gone are the days when the strong had the final say. As a founding member of the UN, a permanent member of the UN Security Council, and the largest developing country, China will continue to uphold the international system with the UN at its core and the international order underpinned by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, and join forces with other countries in supporting multilateralism and opposing unilateralism. China advocates that whenever differences and disputes crop up between countries they should turn to consultation through multilateral frameworks or platforms, seek common ground while reserving differences, increase common interests while dissolving differences, and by doing so, broaden consensus and promote the peaceful settlement of differences and disputes. We oppose the calculated threat or use of force. China will remain committed to the multilateral trading system with the WTO at its core, and oppose unilateral conduct such as erecting walls between nations, undermining others, or withdrawing into isolation. We give active support to the WHO, WIPO, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the International Labor Organization (ILO) in playing a better role in global governance.

维护公平正义是中国处理国际问题的基本准则。中国尊重各国人民自主选择的发展道路和社会制度,尊重各国主权和领土完整,反对外部势力干涉他国内政。中国绝不把自己的意志强加于人,也绝不允许任何人把他们的意志强加于中国人民。中国不会干涉任何国家内政,也绝不允许任何国家、任何势力干涉和插手中国内部事务。中国始终坚持国家不分大小、强弱、贫富一律平等,反对弱肉强食的丛林法则,反对唯我独尊的霸权思维和强权政治,推动提升发展中国家在国际事务中的代表性和发言权。中国将承担更多国际责任,与各国共同维护人类良知和国际公理,在世界和地区事务中主持公道、伸张正义。在国际和地区热点问题上,中国继续倡导并践行“坚持不干涉别国内政,反对强加于人;坚持客观公道,反对谋取私利;坚持政治解决,反对使用武力”的原则,根据事情本身的是非曲直作出公正判断,劝和促谈,维稳防乱,不拉偏架,不谋私利,为维护国际和地区和平安宁发挥建设性作用。

Upholding equity and justice is China’s basic principle in dealing with international issues. We respect the right of the peoples of all countries to choose their own development paths and social systems, respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all countries, and oppose interference in others’ domestic affairs. China will never impose its will on other countries, nor will it allow others to impose theirs on the Chinese people. We will never interfere in the domestic affairs of others, nor will we allow any country or force to interfere in ours. China stands for the equality of all countries, big or small, strong or weak, rich or poor, and opposes the law of the jungle that leaves the weak at the mercy of the strong. We resolutely reject hegemonic thinking and power politics, and strive to increase the representation and voice of developing countries in international affairs. China will undertake more international responsibilities, work with other countries to safeguard human conscience and international truth, and uphold equity and justice in regional and international affairs. We will continue to advocate and implement our principles concerning major international and regional issues:

No country should interfere in other countries’ internal affairs or impose its will on others;

Countries concerned should act in an impartial and objective manner and refrain from seeking selfish interests;

Political solutions, not the use of force, should be sought in addressing differences and disputes.

China believes that a fair judgment should be made on each issue on its own merits. We will promote peace talks, maintain stability, prevent disorder, exhibit no partiality, seek no selfish gains, and play a constructive role in ensuring regional and international peace and tranquility.

(六)积极参与引领全球治理体系改革和建设

6. Taking a lead in reforming and developing the global governance system

推动全球治理体系朝着更加公正合理方向发展,实现共商共建共享,是世界各国的普遍期待。中国作为负责任大国,始终坚持权利和义务相平衡,不仅看到中国发展对世界的要求,也看到国际社会对中国的期待,积极参与全球治理体系改革和建设。作为现行国际体系的参与者、建设者、贡献者,中国参与和推动全球治理体系变革,目的不是推倒重来、另起炉灶,而是与时俱进、创新完善。

It is the common aspiration of countries around the world to make global governance fairer and more equitable, and fulfill the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits. As a major and responsible country, China will continue to enjoy its rights in balance with fulfilling its obligations, taking account of both its requirements of the world and the international community’s expectations for China. We will take an active part in reforming and developing the global governance system. As a participant in, builder of, and contributor to that system, China hopes to help the system move with the times through innovation and improvement, rather than reinvent the wheel.

推动全球治理体系变革是国际社会大家的事,应坚持共商共建共享原则,使全球治理体系变革的主张转化为各方共识,形成一致行动。中国主张,什么样的国际秩序和全球治理体系对世界好、对世界各国人民好,要由各国人民商量,不能由一家说了算,不能由少数人说了算。中国将积极发挥自身作用,加强与各方协调,推动全球治理体系变革更好地体现和平、发展、公平、正义、民主、自由的人类共同价值,更好地反映国际格局的变化,更加平衡地反映整个国际社会的意愿。

This is a common cause of all countries and regions, so we must pursue the transformation of the global governance system by following the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits. We must endeavor to turn sound proposals into consensus and concerted actions. What kind of international order and governance system best suits the world, and best suits the peoples of all countries? China advocates that it should be decided by all countries through consultation, and not by a single country or a small minority of countries. We will play an active role, strengthen coordination with all parties concerned, and promote peace, development, equity, justice, democracy, freedom and other common human values, making the global governance system better reflect changes to the international architecture and the will of the international community in a more balanced way.

中国积极支持联合国进行改革,推动联合国在思想理念、机构设置、运行模式等方面更好适应全球治理的新要求,更好履行《联合国宪章》赋予的职责,在维护世界和平、促进共同发展中发挥更大作用。中国积极支持世界贸易组织在公平公正基础上进行必要改革,主张世界贸易组织改革要维护世贸组织核心价值和基本原则,特别是维护发展中国家的发展利益和政策空间,推动全球贸易自由化和便利化,完善贸易争端解决机制,使全球贸易更加规范、便利、开放,为建设包容和开放的世界经济发挥更大作用。中国将与国际社会一道,携手应对气候变化、恐怖主义、网络安全、能源资源安全、重大自然灾害等全球性问题,共同呵护人类赖以生存的地球家园。

China gives active support to reforming the UN, helping it better meet the new requirements of global governance in its underlying guidelines, organization and operations, better fulfill the responsibilities prescribed in the UN Charter, and better play an expanding role in safeguarding world peace and promoting common development. We support necessary reform of the WTO on the basis of equity and justice. China advocates that reform of the WTO should safeguard its core values and basic principles, especially the interests and policy space of developing countries. The WTO should promote trade liberalization and facilitation to make global trade more regulated, accessible and open, improve settlement mechanisms for trade disputes, and play a bigger role in developing an open and inclusive world economy. China will work with the international community to address global issues including climate change, terrorism, cyber security, energy security and severe natural disasters, and jointly protect our home planet.

中国积极推动国际货币基金组织和世界银行份额与治理改革,切实反映国际格局的变化;积极推动二十国集团国际经济合作主要论坛作用,从危机应对向长效治理机制转型,为促进世界经济增长、完善全球经济治理作出更大贡献;积极推动亚太经合组织合作取得新进展,使亚太大家庭精神和命运共同体意识深入人心,做开放型世界经济的引领者和推动者;积极推动金砖国家合作机制行稳致远,在国际平台中发挥更大作用。

China makes active efforts to advance the quota and governance reform of the IMF and the World Bank, better reflecting changes to the international architecture. We will promote the role of the G20 as the premier forum for international economic cooperation, and help it transform from a crisis-management body to a long-term and effective governance mechanism, making a bigger contribution to world economic growth and global economic governance. In leading and promoting an open world economy, China will push for new breakthroughs in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and ensure that more people embrace the spirit of an Asia-Pacific family and the idea of a community of shared future. We will ensure sustained and steady progress of the BRICS cooperation mechanism, so that it can play a greater role among international platforms.

中国积极推动全球治理理念创新发展,及时总结国家治理的成功实践和经验,积极发掘中华文化中积极的处世之道、治理理念同当今时代的共鸣点,努力为完善全球治理贡献中国智慧、中国方案、中国力量。

We will actively promote innovative ideas in global governance, sum up the successful practice and experience of national governance, and explore values in our cultural tradition that remain relevant today as positive guides for good relations, trying to contribute Chinese wisdom, solutions and strength to global governance.

结束语

Conclusion

回首波澜壮阔的70年,中国人民为取得的成就感到自豪,但不会骄傲自满、止步不前。新时代的中国,走中国特色社会主义道路的决心不会改变,与其他国家互学互鉴、合作共赢的决心不会改变,与世界携手同行的决心不会改变。未来之中国,将以更加开放包容的姿态拥抱世界,同世界形成更加良性的互动,带来更加进步和繁荣的中国和世界。

Looking back at the successes of the past seven decades, we Chinese people are proud of all our achievements. But we will not fall into complacency or stagnation. In this new era, China will not waver in its commitment to forging ahead on the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, pursuing mutual learning and mutually beneficial cooperation, and working together with the rest of the world. In the future, China will embrace the world in a more open and inclusive manner, engage in more interactions with other countries, and bring more progress and prosperity to itself and the rest of the world.

当今世界,既充满机遇和希望,也存在变数和挑战,世界各国的前途命运从来没有像现在这样紧密相连。每个国家都和世界的前途命运休戚相关,只要目标一致、团结起来,共享机遇、共迎挑战,就能构建人类命运共同体,建设更加美好的世界,走向更加光明的未来。

In today’s world, we face an array of opportunities and hopes, of variables and challenges. The future of all countries has never been more closely connected. We each have a high stake in the future of all others. As long as we maintain the same goals and unite as one to share opportunities and meet challenges, we can build a global community of shared future and create a better and brighter world for all.

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