CATTI成绩查询入口 CATTI考试公告栏 CATTI考试报名入口
公众号:高斋翻译学堂 公众号:高斋外刊双语精读
外刊精读:“群体免疫”无疑是一场豪赌!| 双语
文章来源:高斋外刊双语精读 发布时间:2020-03-24 20:54 作者:高斋外刊双语精读 点击:

更多精彩英语翻译内容,请关注公众号:高斋外刊双语精读

外刊.jpg

昨天我看了几篇其他国家疫情的外媒报道,今天公众号”高斋外刊双语精读“给大家分享下英国“群体免疫”防疫战略的相关知识。

01

约翰逊在唐宁街发表讲话时说到:

“It is going to spread further and I must level with you, I must level with the British public: many more families are going to lose loved ones before their time.”

“疫情会继续蔓延,我必须跟你说实话,必须跟英国民众说实话:更多家庭将提早失去亲人。”

1. it指the virus。

2. is going to spread further也可以说continues to spread.

3. level with sb表示对某人说实话,如:

I'll level with you. I'm no great detective. I've no training or anything.

实话告诉你吧,我根本不是什么大侦探。我没有受过任何训练。

level with sb和to tell you the truth还是有区别的,To tell you the truth更多是在表明说话人的态度、观点和看法,通常翻译为“实说实说,坦白说”,如:

To tell you the truth, I was afraid to see him 

坦白说,我害怕见他。

4. many more families are going to lose loved ones before their time中的before their time是固定表达,表示提早,其中their指的是loved ones,而不是families。

“他英年早逝”可以翻译为He died young,也可以翻译为He died before his time.

02

群体免疫”是什么?

听到约翰逊的这些话,我想英国民众内心是很失望的,政府不积极采取措施,反而在13日的新闻发布会上英国首相约翰逊抛出了“群体免疫”(herd immunity)策略。

卫报上是这么说“群体免疫”的:

Herd immunity is a phrase normally used when large numbers of children have been vaccinated against a disease like measles, reducing the chances that others will get it.

高斋参考译文:

“群体免疫”的概念通常被用于防控麻疹等传染性疾病上,如通过大面积(尤指儿童)接种麻疹等疫苗,降低其他人的患病风险。

1. 句子结构分析:这句话的句子主干是Herd immunity is a phrase;normally used when …是后置定语修饰phase,省略了which is;其中reducing …是现在分词作结果状语,指的是“large numbers of children have been vaccinated against a disease like measles”的结果。

2. 同义词替换:normally used when表示“通常被用于”,也可以说typically used when,usually used when。

2. 固定表达:be vaccinated against …是一个固定表达,表示“接种……疫苗”。比如世卫组织官网上的这句话:

A vaccination team marks a family's door, indicating that the house was visited and the children have been vaccinated against polio.

一个计划免疫小分队住户标记表示走访过住户儿童接种疫苗

原文的have been vaccinated against a disease like measles翻译为“接种麻疹等疫苗”。

3. 同义词替换:reducing the chances that当作固定表达来记,意思是“降低……的可能性/几率”。其中chances表示“可能性;几率”。

reduce也可以替换为lower。一般用法是跟从句,或reduce the chances of sth/doing sth/sb doing sth,。如金融时报例句:

This lowers the chances of them contracting disease, thus heading off its contagious consequence.

这会降低他们感染疾病的几率,从而防止其感染。

如果the chances of后面跟的是好的可能性和几率,“降低”也可以说hurt或damage。如《华尔街日报》例句:

A poorly-written email along with a job application can damage your chances oflanding the job.

找工作时,一封写的很糟糕的邮件会降低你得到工作的几率。

Land a job是固定表达,表示得到工作、找到工作。

4. get it中的it指代前面的disease,reducing the chances that others will get it即“降低其他人的患病风险”。

5. 同义词替换:others will get it中的get表示感染某种病,也可以说contract/catch the virus/illness,也可以说become infected.

其实直白点,也就是说:

Because the vast majority of people get a mild illness, to build up some kind of herd immunity so more people are immune to this disease and we reduce the transmission.

03

什么是群体免疫”策略

率先抛出“群体免疫”理论的是英国首席科学顾问帕特里克·瓦兰斯。13日在接受英国天空电视台采访时,帕特里克表示,约60%的英国人将感染新冠病毒,以使社会对未来的疫情具有“群体免疫”:

Sir Patrick Vallance said around 60 percent of the population will need to catch the virus to build up a national tolerance strong enough to stop the virus circulating.

这句中,build up a national tolerance是获得群体免疫,也可以说build herd immunity,build up a collective immunity,build up a long-term, society-wide resistance to the disease,develop herd immunity,become immune,举几个例子:

At the heart of that outcry: a policy to push for "herd immunity" to the virus, which would involve allowing at least 40 million Britons to become infected in the hopes of building up a long-term, society-wide resistance to the disease. 

Sir Patrick Vallance said around 60 percent of the population will need to catch the virus to build up a national tolerance strong enough to stop the virus circulating.

这句话中build up a national tolerance也是“实现群体免疫”的另一种表达。tolerance这个词可以表示“耐受性;耐药性”。如:

As with any drug taken in excess, your body can build up a tolerance to it.

和过量服用任何其他药物一样,身体会对它产生耐药性。

据BBC报道,有不少评论认为政府的延缓战略建立在“群体免疫”原则上,即让数量众多的人接触病毒从而获得群体免疫,将有限的医疗资源用于重症患者的救治。

卫报原文:

To reach herd immunity, about 60% of the population would need to get ill and become immune, according to Sir Patrick Vallance, the government’s chief scientific adviser.

高斋参考译文:

英国首席科学顾问帕特里克·瓦斯爵士(Sir Patrick Vallance)指出,要实现群体免疫,需要约60%英国人感染新冠病毒并产生抗体。

1. 同义表达:reach herd immunity表示“实现群体免疫”,也可以说create herd immunity,for herd immunity to kick in。

A. 比如每日邮报上说:

Matt Hancock has alongside Downing Street has hit back against critics of its virus strategy who claim that No 10's aim is to create 'herd immunity' - insisting that its priority is to protect people.

这句话是英国卫生大臣马特·汉考克(Matt Hancock)为政府“群体免疫”战略所作的辩护,他坚持这一战略是保护民众的优先之选。

B. 还比如fortune上所说:

For herd immunity to kick in, the U.K. government said that about 60% of the population would need to contract the virus.

这句和卫报上“To reach herd immunity, about 60% of the population would need to get ill and become immune”实际上表达同一含义。

kick in表示“开始生效;起作用”,相当于“work”之意

2. 同义表达:about 60% of the population would need to get ill意思是“需要约60%的人口感染病毒”,

3. Sir:表示“爵士”。这是个贵族头衔,用于爵士或准男爵的名字或姓名前面。不要理解为“先生”。

04

群体免疫”战略的评价

卫报原文:

But allowing the population to build up immunity in this way could increase the risk to the most vulnerable: older people with underlying health problems.

高斋参考译文:

英国群体免疫策略可能会增加最脆弱人群(即有潜在健康问题的老年人)的感染风险。

1. 句子结构分析:这句话很长,我们首先要找到句子主干。句子主干是But  allowing the population to build up immunity in this way could increase the risk to the most vulnerable;破折号中间的部分是次要成分,表示转折;最后冒号的作用是引出解释说明,即“older people with underlying health problems”是对the most vulnerable的解释。

2. 固定表达:the most vulnerable是固定表达,表示“最脆弱人群”。the+adj表示一类人。

比如世卫组织官网上的这句:

We are still not doing enough to improve life for the most vulnerable and the poorest of the poor.

在改进最脆弱群体和穷人中的最贫困者的生活方面,我们的所作所为仍然不够。

“最脆弱人群”也可以说the most vulnerable groups。如:

Conducting health assessments and monitoring threats to health with a special focus on the most vulnerable groups and areas.

进行卫生评估和卫生风险监测,重点是最脆弱人群和地区。

3. increase the risk to the most vulnerable:对某人的风险介词使用to,所以这里the risk to. 还比如:the exact risk to younger people in good health is not known.

4. 固定表达:underlying health problems当作固定表达来记,意思是“潜在健康问题”。它的同义词是potential health problems。

“现存/基础健康问题”可以说pre-existing health conditions,如经济学人中这句:

Elderly people with pre-existing health conditions are at greater risk of the virus.

“群体免疫”的概念被广泛用于传染病防控中,运用“群体免疫”成功克制流行病也有诸多成功案例。但牛津大学强调,只有在大多数人都接种过疫苗的情况下,“群体免疫”才有效。

来看一下相关评价:

And Professor Francois Balloux, of University College London, has warned Sir Patrick Vallance, the Government's chief scientific adviser, the approach the UK is currently adopting is a big gamble which has the potential to backfire disastrously.

高斋参考译文:

伦敦大学学院教授弗朗索瓦·巴卢(Francois Balloux)告诫帕特里克,英国目前采取的“群体免疫”方案无疑是一场豪赌,极有可能适得其反,造成灾难性后果。

1. “一场豪赌”除了说a big gamble,a huge gamble,还可以说a big bet。

2. 同义表达:has the potential to do sth是固定搭配,意思是“有可能”,potential在这里和前面的chances表示同一含义,所以“有可能”也可以说chances are that …如经济学人例句:

Chances are that, eventually, something similar will happen this time around as well.

这次可能最终会发生类似事件

3. 固定表达:backfire disastrously当作一个固定表达来记,表示“适得其反/事与愿违,造成灾难性后果”,其中backfire的含义是“产生事与愿违的不良或危险后果”。

如《华尔街日报》例句:

But on Tuesday, many in his party balked, fearing that the move could backfire disastrously.

周二领导政党许多成员反对做法担心此举可能适得其反带来灾难后果

世卫组织发言人说到:

So little is known about coronavirus, and while "theories" can be talked about, the current situation requires "action".

所以,英国目前需要的是行动,而不是谈“群体免疫”这个理论。

想加入最新经济学人学习打卡群的可以看看这个:

免费!一起读经济学人,一起练翻译(第一期)

1532445338-2.jpg

01电话 | 19909236459

微信:zhulili9966
QQ:1936295050