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MTI翻硕文学翻译:《师说》英文双语
文章来源:网络 发布时间:2019-09-10 20:56 作者:admin 点击:

师者,所以传道受业解惑也。韩愈的《师说》,是文言文中的经典,今天是教师节,就来一起欣赏下英文版《师说》。

《师说》

韩愈

古之学者必有师。师者,所以传道、受业、解惑也。人非生而知之者,孰能无惑?

惑而不从师,其为惑也,终不解矣。

生乎吾前,其闻道也,固先乎吾,吾从而师之;生乎吾后,其闻道也,亦先乎吾,吾从而师之。吾师道也,夫庸知其年之先后生于吾乎?是故无贵无贱,无长无少,道之所存,师之所存也。

嗟乎!师道之不传也久矣,欲人之无惑也难矣。古之圣人,其出人也远矣,犹且从师而问焉;今之众人,其下圣人也亦远矣,而耻学于师。是故圣益圣,愚益愚。圣人之所以为圣,愚人之所以为愚,其皆出于此乎?

爱其子,择师而教之;于其身也,则耻师焉,惑矣!彼童子之师,授之书而习其句读者,非吾所谓传其道、解其惑者也。句读之不知,惑之不解,或师焉,或不焉,小学而大遗,吾未见其明也。

巫医乐师百工之人,不耻相师。士大夫之族,曰师、曰弟子云者,则群聚而笑之。问之,则曰:“彼与彼,年相若也,道相似也。位卑则足羞,官盛则近谀。”呜呼!师道之不复,可知矣!巫医乐师百工之人,君子不齿,今其智乃反不能及,其可怪也欤!

圣人无常师。孔子师郯子、苌弘、师襄、老聃。郯子之徒,其贤不及孔子。孔子曰:“三人行,则必有我师。”是故弟子不必不如师,师不必贤于弟子,闻道有先后,术业有专攻,如是而已。

李氏子蟠,年十七,好古文,六艺经传,皆通习之,不拘于时,学于余。余嘉其能行古道,作《师说》以贻之。

On Teachers

Han Yu

杨宪益、戴乃迭 译

Since ancient times, to learn all men must have teachers, who pass on the truth and dispel ignorance. As men are not born wise, who can be free from ignorance? But ignorant men do not find teachers, they remain ignorant forever. Some teachers may be born before me and have learned the truth before me; I should therefore learn from them. Some may have been born after me, but learned the truth before me; I should also learn from them. As I seek the truth, I need not worry whether my teacher is my senior or junior. Whether he is noble or common, older or younger, whoever knows the truth can be a teacher.

Alas, since men have long ceased learning from teachers it is hard not to be ignorant. The old sages were far superior to common men, yet they sought the truth from teachers. Most men of today are far below those sages, yet they think it shameful to learn. That is why sages become more sage, while fools more foolish. No doubt this is what makes some sages and others fools.

A man who loves his son chooses a teacher for him but is ashamed to find one for himself. This is entirely wrong. All a child's teacher can do is give him a book and tell him how to read it sentence by sentence. This is not the teacher I have in mind who can pass on the truth and dispel ignorance. If we want to learn to read but not to dispel ignorance, we are learning the lesser and giving up the greater, which is hardly intelligent.

Physicians, musicians and artisans are not ashamed to learn from each other. But if one of the literati calls another man his teacher and himself pupil, people will flock to laugh at him. If you ask why, they will reply that the men are roughly equal in age and understanding. If one has a low social status, it is humiliating; if one is a high official, it looks like flattery. Clearly, to learn from a teacher is old-fashioned. Physicians, musicians and artisans are despised by gentlemen, yet they seem to be more intelligent. Is this not strange?

A sage has more than one teacher. Thus Confucius learned from Tan Zi, Chang Hong, Shi Xiang and Lao Dan. Men like Tan Zi were inferior to Confucius, yet Confucius said, "Out of three men, there must be one who can teach me." So pupils are not necessarily inferior to their teachers, nor teachers better than their pupils. Some learn the truth earlier than others, and some have special skills — that is all.

Li Pan, seventeen, is fond of ancient literature, and has studied the six arts, the classics and the commentaries, not confining himself to what is in vogue today. He has studied with me, and as I admire his respect for the old traditions I am writing this essay on teachers for him.

 

On Teachers

Hah Yu

谢百魁 译

Ancient scholars certainly had teachers. A teacher is one who passes on the truth, imparts knowledge and solves puzzles. Man is not born with knowledge. Who can deny that he has puzzles? These would remain unsolved, should one refuse to be instructed by teachers.

The men born before me surely know the truth before me, so I respect them as teachers, whereas those born after me may also know the truth before me, I likewise respect them as teachers. It is the truth that I endeavour to learn. Must I know beforehand whether my teacher was born earlier or later than I? Therefore, no distinction should be made between the noble and the humble or between the young and the old. Where lies the truth, there is a teacher.

Alas, it is a long time since the admirable tone of respecting teachers ceased to pass  on! How hard it would be to expect a man to be free of puzzle! Sages in olden times outstripped by far the ordinary people. Nevertheless, they had teachers and asked them questions. Nowadays the multitude, though much inferior to sages, are ashamed of being instructed by teachers. As a consequence, sages become more sage, and ignoramuses more ignorant. The wisdom of the former and the stupidity of the latter  — are they not all caused by this?

Loving parents may select teachers to instruct their children. But when it comes to themselves, they feel it a disgrace to be taught by them. How wrong they must be! The teachers of their children only show them how to read a book sentence by sentence, not to be mentioned in the same breath as those whom I refer to as passing on the truth and solving puzzles. For lack of reading skills, one seeks the help of teachers, while for unsolved puzzles, one acts contrariwise. It is indeed learning the lesser but giving up the greater. I do not see its wisdom.

Physicians, musicians and multifarious artisans are not ashamed of learning from each other. But among the gentlefolk the talk about the teachers and pupils would invite laughter from a gathered company. When asked about the reason, they would say, "The one is equal to the other in age and knowledge." To be instructed by a man of low social standing is regarded as a disgrace, and by a man of high official rank as a flattery. Alas, it is only conceivable that the noble tone of respecting teachers is lost and hardly retrievable! Physicians, musicians and artisans are refused to be treated as equals by gentlefolks, yet these turn out to be less intelligent than those. Is it not strange?

Sages have had no constant teachers. Confucius once learned from Tan Zi as well as from Chang Hong, Shi Xiang and Laozi, though Tan Zi and his like are not on a parity with him in wisdom. Confucius says: "Out of my two fellow-travellers one must be qualified to be my teacher." Hence pupils are not necessarily inferior to teachers, and teachers need not always be superior to pupils. Some may know the truth earlier or later than others and each has his own professional specialty — that is all!

Li Pan, aged seventeen, is fond of ancient classical writings and have studied all the six arts and their commentaries. Not restrained by the current practice, he has learned from me. As I commend him for his being able to follow the old ways, I am writing this essay "On Teachers" for him.

 

On the Teacher

Han Yu

刘师舜 译

In ancient times scholars always had teachers. It takes a teacher to transmit the Way, impart knowledge and resolve doubts. Since man is not born with knowledge, who can be without doubt? But doubt will never be resolved without a teacher. He who was born before me learned the Way before me, and I take him as my teacher. But if he who was born after me learned the Way before me, I also take him as my teacher. I take the Way as my teacher. Why should I care whether a man was born before or after me? Irrespective therefore of the distinction between the high-born and the lowly, and between age and youth, where the Way is, there is my teacher.

Alas, it has been a long time since the Way of the teacher was transmitted! And so it is difficult to expect people to be without doubt. Though ancient sages far surpassed the common folk, they nevertheless asked questions of their teachers. On the other hand, the masses of today, who are far inferior to the sages, are ashamed to learn from their teachers. Consequently, the sage became more sage, and the ignorant more ignorant. Indeed, is this not the reason why the sages were sage and the ignorant folk ignorant?

He who loves his son selects a teacher for the child‘s education, but he is ashamed to learn from a teacher himself. He is indeed deluded. The teacher of a child is one who gives instruction on books and on the punctuation of sentences. This is not what I meant when I talked about one who transmits the Way and resolves doubts. To take a teacher for instruction in correct punctuation and not to take a teacher to help resolve doubts is to learn the unimportant and leave out the important. I do not see the wisdom of it. Shamans, doctors, musicians and craftsmen are not ashamed to take one another as teachers. But, when the scholar-officials speak of teachers and pupils, there are those who get together and laugh at them. When questioned, their reply is that so and so is of the same age as so and so and that their understanding of the Way is similar. If one takes another who holds a low position as his teacher, it is something to be ashamed of. If it is some high official who is taken as a teacher, it is a form of flattery. Alas, the Way of the teacher is no longer understood! Shamans, doctors, musicians and craftsmen are not respected by a gentleman, but their wisdom is beyond that of the gentleman. Is this not strange?

Our sages had no constant teachers. Confucius took T’an-tzu, Ch’ang-hung, Shih-hsiang and Lao-tan as his teachers, all of whom were not so wise as himself. Said Confucius, “Among three men who walk with me, there must be a teacher of mine”. The pupil is therefore not necessarily inferior to the teacher, and the teacher is not necessarily wiser than the pupil. What makes the difference is that one has heard the Way before the other and that one is more specialized in his craft and trade than the other—that is all.

Li P’an, who is seventeen, is fond of ancient literature and is deeply versed in the six arts, the classics and chronicles. Not subject to the trend of the day, he has studied under me. Pleased that he can practice the ancient Way, I have written this essay on the teacher to present to him.

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